BHO

Spain: January 1522

Pages 386-400

Calendar of State Papers, Spain, Volume 2, 1509-1525. Originally published by Her Majesty's Stationery Office, London, 1866.

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Citation:

January 1522

1522. 6 Jan.
M. Re. Ac. d. Hist. Salazar A. 22. ff. 23-27.
372. Juan Manuel, Imperial Ambassador in Rome, to the Emperor.
The death of the Pope having interrupted all transaction of business with the Holy See, it was impossible for him to execute what he ordered him in his despatches of the 14th and 18th of December. His despatch of the 21st of November has not arrived. As he has been told that a courier has fallen from his horse, and the horse has run away with the mail bag, he supposes that the despatch of the 21st of November was in that bag. The loss of the despatch is a misfortune under the present circumstances.
Whatever Pope may be elected, and however inclined he may be to follow the line of policy of Pope Leo X., he (the Emperor) must well consider that the new Pope will be in greater want of money than his predecessor. Besides, it may happen that the new Pope will be a partisan of France, or a man of no weight at all. Furthermore, it is said that the King of France intends to invade Italy, and that Bayard has already gone to Genoa. All these circumstances make him think that a good peace with the King of France would be preferable to the continuation of the war. Will see what kind of man the new Pope proves, and will act accordingly.
The General of the Friars of St. Augustin has made overtures to him concerning the alliance of Venice (with the Emperor and the King of England). Told the General that the difficulty of such an alliance consisted in the circumstance that the Venetians are not prepared to restore the places which they have stolen to their rightful proprietors.
The Duke of Ferrara. The Duke of Urbino. Siena, Lombardy, &c., &c. Morone.
The cardinals in the conclave quarrel very much with one another, judging by the news he receives every day from them. Cardinal de Medicis has fifteen votes in his favour. All the other cardinals, however, are against him, and want to elect a Venetian cardinal, or a cardinal who is a partisan of France. Cardinal Colonna is the worst of them, and Cardinal Vich has made common cause with him. Is told that four cardinals are coming from France. Does not know whether it is true. Does all he can to procure a good election. It seems that Cardinal Farnese has the best chance of being made Pope. Thinks he would be a good Pope. Has sent his son to Naples.
No money has been sent from Naples.
Has learnt that the Cardinal of Lorraine left Lyons on the 1st instant, on his way to Rome, riding on post horses. Other cardinals are said to be following him.
Francesco Maria (de Rovere, Duke of Urbino,) has entered Perosa.—Rome, the 6th of January 1522.
Addressed : "To the Cœsar and King of Spain, &c., our sovereign Lord."
Spanish. Autograph in cipher. Contemporary deciphering. pp. 5.
7 Jan.
M. D. Pasc. d. G. Pap. r. a. 1. Hist. d. Es.
373. Hieronymo Severino to the Emperor.
Cardinal Farnese has the greatest chance of being elected Pope. It is of the utmost importance to him (the Emperor) that the new Pope should be a friend of his.
Tuscany is in a miserable state. Francesco Maria is the absolute master of Urbino.
Pope Leo has left the Apostolic See greatly indebted. The debts already known amount to more than 850,000 ducats. Well-informed persons say that the other debts are about 300,000 ducats. The new Pope will be in great financial difficulties.—Rome, the 7th of January 1522.
Italian. Autograph. pp. 4.
8 Jan.
M. Re. Ac. d. Hist. Salazar. A. 22. f. 34.
374. Juan Manuel, Imperial Ambassador in Rome, to the Emperor.
He has ordered him to procure money, but the means which he proposes for obtaining it are impracticable.
The moment has not yet arrived in which to propose to the rebels that they should buy their pardon with money.
From Naples nothing can be expected, the Neapolitan administration being utterly corrupt.
To ask the Pope to lend him money is impossible, as the new Pope is not yet elected. Moreover, it is clear that the new Pope will be very poor. In this respect Cardinal de Medicis would be the best Pope, but his election is impossible.
The war in Lombardy, Naples, &c.
The alliance (of the Emperor and the King of England) with Venice seems to him to be impossible until the French are driven out of Italy.
The cardinals in the conclave lose their time in quarreling with one another, whilst the interests of the Church suffer so much that its utter ruin is to be feared.
Naples, &c.—Rome, the 8th of January 1522.
Addressed : "... sar, King of Spain, &c."
Spanish. Autograph in cipher. Contemporary deciphering. pp. 4.
9 Jan.
S. E. L. 2003. f. 123.
375. Election Of Pope Adrian VI.
The cardinals present in Rome on the 1st of December were the following :—
Cardinal Bishops.
Bernardus Carvajal, Bishop of Ostia and Cardinal of Sta. Croce, Spaniard ;
Nicolaus Fliscus, (fn. 1) Cardinal of Sabina, Genoese ;
Alessandro Farnese, Cardinal Bishop of Tusculi, Roman ;
Antonio de Monte, Cardinal Bishop of Albano, from Arezzo ;
Cardinal Presbyters.
Petrus de Accoltis, Cardinal of St. Eusebio, from Ancona.
Achilles de Grassis, Cardinal of Sta. Maria Transteverina, Bolognese ;
Laurentius Puccio, Cardinal of Santi Quatuor, Great Penitentiary, Florentine ;
Julius de Medicis, Cardinal of St. Lorenzo, Vice Chancellor, Florentine ;
Giovanni Piccolomini, Cardinal of Sta. Balbina, Sienese ;
Giovanni Dominico de Cuppis, Cardinal of St. John ante Portam Latinam, Roman ;
Rafael Petruccio, Cardinal of Sta. Susanna, Sienese ;
Andrea de Valle, Cardinal of Sta. Prisca, Roman ;
Giovanni Baptista Pallavicini, Cardinal of St. Apollinarius, Genoese;
Scarramuccia Trivulzio, Cardinal of St. Cirialus, from Como ;
Pompeo Colonna, Cardinal XII. Apostolorum, Roman ;
Dominico Jacobacius, Cardinal of St. Bartholomaeus in Insula, Roman ;
Laurentius Campegio, Cardinal of Sta, Anastasia ;
Ferdinand Ponzetta, Cardinal of St. Pancratius, Neapolitan ;
Julius Passerini, Cardinal of St. Laurentius in Lucena, from Cortona ;
Francesco Armellino, Cardinal of St. Calisto, Cammerarius, from Perugia ;
Raimundus Vit, (fn. 2) Cardinal of St. Marcello, Spaniard ;
Thomas de Vio, commonly called Cajetano or Cardinal Minerva ;
Egidio, Cardinal of San Matheo, from Viterbo ;
Cristoforo Numali, Cardinal of Sta. Maria in Araceli ;
Cardinal Deacons.
Marco Cornelio, Cardinal of Sta. Maria in Via Lata, Venetian ;
Innocentius Cibo, Cardinal of Sta. Maria in Dominica, from Genoa ;
Franciotto Ursini, Cardinal of Sta. Maria in Cosmedin ;
Paolo Cesi, Cardinal of St. Eustachius, Roman ;
Alessandro Cesarini, Cardinal of St. Sergius, Roman ;
Johannes Salviati, Cardinal of St. Cosmus and St. Damian, Florentine ;
Nic. Ridolphi, Cardinal of St. Vitus, Florentine ;
Hercules Rangone, Cardinal of Sta. Agatha, Modenese ;
Angelo Trivulzio, Cardinal of St. Adrian ;
Francesco Pisani, Cardinal of Sta. Maria in Porticu, Venetian.
The following cardinals were absent :—
Dominico Grimani, Cardinal Bishop of Porto ;
Francesco Soderini, Cardinal Bishop of Volterra, Florentine ;
Franciscus Gulielmus, (fn. 3) Cardinal of Sta. Praxede, Bishop of Auch, Frenchman ;
Mathaeus, of Sion, Cardinal of Sta. Pudentiana ;
Sigismundus Gonzaga, Cardinal Bishop of Sta. Maria Nova, from Mantua ;
Thomas, Cardinal of Santa Cecilia, Englishman ;
Bonifacius, Bishop of Ivrea ; (fn. 4)
Albertus of Mayence, (fn. 5)
Adrianus Florentius, Cardinal of St. John and St. Paul. Bishop of Tortosa ;
Ludovicus Borchonius, Frenchman ; (fn. 6)
2nd December.—The deputies were elected to whom the custody of the city was entrusted.
On the 10th the Cardinals Grimani, Soderini, Sion, and Gonzaga arrived, also the Cardinal of Ivrea, who had been detained at Pavia.
28th December.—Nine and thirty cardinals entered the conclave.
Tuesday, 30th December.—First and Second Scrutiny.
Cardinal of Ostia had 9 votes.
Cardinal Grimani 10 votes.
Cardinal of Volterra 5 votes.
Cardinal Fiesco 10 votes.
Cardinal Monte 5 votes.
Cardinal of Ancona 5 votes.
Cardinal de Grassis 6 votes.
Cardinal Jacobacius 7 votes.
Cardinal de Medicis 3 votes.
The other cardinals had less than three votes.
Wednesday, 1st January.—Third Scrutiny.
One ticket nominated fourteen persons. Some of the cardinals were indignant at such a joke, and desired to open the ticket, which, however, was not done.
Cardinal of Ostia had 10 votes.
Cardinal Fiesco 7 votes.
Cardinal Piccolomini 7 votes.
Cardinal of Como (Trivulzio) 7 votes.
Cardinal Jacobacius 7 votes.
Cardinal Ursino 7 votes.
Cardinal Monte 6 votes.
Cardinal Ponzetta 6 votes.
Cardinal of Ancona 5 votes.
Cardinal de Medicis 5 votes.
Cardinal of Trani 5 votes.
Cardinal Araceli 5 votes.
Cardinal Cornelio 5 votes.
The other candidates had less than five votes.
Thursday, 2nd January.—Fourth Scrutiny.
Cardinal Sanctorum Quatuor had 14 votes.
Cardinal of Ostia 8 votes.
Cardinal of Ancona 8 votes.
Cardinal Fiesco 7 votes.
Cardinal Jacobacius 7 votes.
Cardinal St. Sisto 7 votes.
Cardinal of Sion 6 votes.
Cardinal of Valencia 6 votes.
Cardinal Araceli 6 votes.
Cardinal of Mantua 6 votes.
Cardinal Monte 5 votes.
Cardinal Ursino 5 votes.
Cardinal of Volterra 4 votes.
Cardinal of Bologna 4 votes.
Cardinal de Medicis 4 votes.
Cardinal Campegio 4 votes.
Cardinal Egidio 4 votes.
The other candidates had less than four votes.
Friday, 3rd January.—Fifth Scrutiny.
Cardinal of Volterra had 12 votes.
Cardinal Fiesco 9 votes.
Cardinal of Tortosa, absent 8 votes.
Cardinal Monte 7 votes.
Cardinal of Ancona 7 votes.
Cardinal of York, absent 7 votes.
Cardinal Jacobacius 7 votes.
Cardinal of Ostia 6 votes.
Cardinal de Medicis 6 votes.
Cardinal Valle 6 votes.
Cardinal Egidio 6 votes.
The other candidates had less than six votes.
Saturday, 4th January.—Sixth Scrutiny.
Cardinal of Ostia had 9 votes.
Cardinal Fiesco 9 votes.
Cardinal of Sion 8 votes.
Cardinal Sanctorum Quatuor 8 votes.
Cardinal Jacobacius 8 votes.
Cardinal Araceli 8 votes.
Cardinal of Ancona 7 votes.
Cardinal Valle 7 votes.
Cardinal Campegio 7 votes.
Cardinal Ursino 7 votes.
The other candidates had less than seven votes.
Sunday, 5th January.—Seventh Scrutiny.
Cardinal Fiesco 9 votes.
Cardinal of Sion 8 votes.
Cardinal Sanctorum Quatuor 7 votes.
Cardinal Vitus (fn. 7) 7 votes.
Cardinal of Ostia 6 votes.
Cardinal of Ancona 6 votes.
Cardinal of Bologna 6 votes.
Cardinal de Medicis 6 votes.
Cardinal Jacobacius 6 votes.
Monday, 6th January.—English Scrutiny.
Cardinal Farnese had 12 votes.
The Cardinal St. Quatuor exclaimed, "Papam habemus," and went to the Cardinal Farnese. The Cardinals de Medicis, Petrucci, Valle, Campegio, Cortona, Armellino, and Rangone followed him. The Cardinal Cesarini, however, who had given his vote to the Cardinal Farnese, forsook him, and went over to the Cardinal Egidio. The question was disputed whether a cardinal who had voted by ticket in favour of one candidate could by word of mouth retract his vote and give it to another candidate. The question remained undecided "et Papam non habemus."
The Cardinal Grimani retired from the conclave as well on account of ill health as because he felt his conscience much troubled by what had passed in the conclave. His behaviour was commented upon by the other cardinals.
The Cardinal Egidio, who had been confessor of the Cardinal Farnese during many years, went from one cardinal to the other telling very bad stories about Farnese.
Tuesday, 7th January.—Ninth Scrutiny.
Cardinal Grimani had 10 votes.
Cardinal Fiesco 10 votes.
Cardinal of Ostia 9 votes.
Cardinal of Sion 8 votes.
Cardinal Jacobacius 8 votes.
Wednesday, 8th January.—Tenth Scrutiny. (fn. 8)
Cardinal Jacobacius had 11 votes.
Cardinal of Ostia 10 votes.
Cardinal Fiesco 10 votes.
Cardinal of Sion 10 votes.
Cardinal Grimani 7 votes.
Thursday, 9th January.—Eleventh Scrutiny.
Cardinal of Ostia had 15 votes.
Cardinal of Tortosa had 15 votes.
The Cardinal of St. Sisto, commonly called Minerva, praised the virtues and learning of the Cardinal of Tortosa, went over to him, and begged the other cardinals to do the same. The Cardinals Colonna, Cavaliense, (fn. 9) Monte, Trivulzio, Piccolomini, Ancona, Araceli, Armellino, Jacobacius, Trani, and Como did so. The Cardinal Santi Quatuor went to the Cardinal Monte, and begged him to give his vote to the Cardinal of Tortosa. The Cardinal of Bologna declared that he could not support the Cardinal of Tortosa, who had never been in the Roman court, and whom he did not know. At last, however, all the cardinals came to an understanding that Adrian Florentius, a Fleming by birth, born in the town of Utrecht, Presbyter Cardinal of St. John and St. Paul, was the elected Pope.
The Cardinal Cornelio publicly proclaimed the election on the 9th of January, at 17 o'clock.
The election of the legates who were to wait upon the Pope elect, &c., follows.
Latin. The copy is made in Rome, from the Papal archives, by Johannes Berzosa, at the command of King Philip II. of Spain, pp. 8.
11 Jan.
M. Re. Ac. d. Hist. Salazar. A. 22. f. 39.
376. Juan Manuel, Imperial Ambassador in Rome, to the Emperor.
As good a Pope has been elected as he (the Emperor) could wish ; but, having obtained a Pope of his own choice, his duties towards the Church are increased thereby.
The French and Venetians do much harm to the Papal States. It is necessary to preserve the goodwill of the Cardinal de Medicis, and to succour Florence against the French.
The Cardinal de Medicis has behaved very well in the election of the new Pope. He gave him the votes of all his followers, whilst others who are reputed faithful servants, and who are even his (the Emperor's) subjects, favoured the French party. Begs him to write courteous letters of thanks to the Cardinal de Medicis, Cardinal Valle, and Cardinal Campegio. They have rendered him signal services. If the opposite party had carried their candidates, his affairs in Italy would have suffered greatly.
The Cardinal de Medicis is going to Florence. The Cardinal has not spoken to him about the bishopric and the pension of 10,000 ducats, but he (Juan Manuel) has told the Cardinal that he (the Emperor) will not forget him. Begs him to grant the Cardinal the pension of 10,000 ducats, but no bishopric.
Siena.
The legates who are to go and receive the new Pope are selected. They are the Cardinals Colonna and Cesarini. They intend to go by land, through France.
He ought to send some person or persons of authority to the new Pope, and the sooner the better. These persons, after having complimented the Pontiff, are to instruct him what he is to do. That, however, must be done in a very secret manner.
The new Pope ought to come to Rome by sea, not by land through France. If he came by way of France, the French would have a good opportunity of getting an influence over his mind. The servants who are to accompany him must be staunch Imperialists. There is no lack of them in Spain. Should the French propose to make peace with him (the Emperor), he thinks he should, in appearance, accept their overtures.
Thinks it would be well if he (the Emperor) could see the new Pope. It is to be feared that the Pope is accessible to French flattery, and might be persuaded to conclude peace with the King of France.
It would be a great advantage if the Pope could be persuaded to come by way of Belgium to Rome ; but, on the other hand, it is also very desirable that he should be in Rome soon. If he embarks at Barcelona, he can be at Rome in fifteen days.
The French openly say that it is necessary to proceed to a new election, and to make another Pope. It is not to be wondered at that they should say so.
If his servants would serve him as well, and if his friends would assist him as much, as God is helping him, he (the Emperor) would already be master of France. (fn. 10) —Rome, the 11th of January 1522.
Indorsed : "To the King. Rome. From Don Juan Manuel, the 8th and llth of January."
Spanish. Autograph in cipher. Incorrect contemporary deciphering, corrected from the original despatch in cipher by Don Manuel de Goicoechea, Keeper of the Archives of the Royal Academy of History in Madrid, pp. 3.
15 Jan.
S. E. Port. L. 367.
377. The Emperor to Charles Poupet De Lachaux.
He is to go by way of England and Spain to Portugal.
He is to congratulate the King of Portugal on his accession to the crown, and to tell him that he (the Emperor) wishes not only to renew his old treaties of friendship with the late King of Portugal, but also to conclude new alliances with the present King. Proposes, therefore, a defensive league to the King of Portugal against all their enemies, without exception, who may attack their kingdoms or dominions, and an offensive alliance against the aggressors and enemies of the Christian religion, of which the Emperor, the King of Portugal, the King of England, the King of Hungary, the King of Denmark, and the King of Poland are to be the principal contracting parties.
He is to beg the King of Portugal not to conclude any alliance or marriage before he (the Emperor) has seen him and explained the reasons which induce him to make war with France. Can so little trust the King of France that he is forced to go to Spain by way of England, and to beg the King of England to take the Low Countries under his protection during his absence.
He is to see the Queen Dowager of Portugal, and to tell her how sorry he is that the late King of Portugal, her husband, is dead.
He is to see the King and the legate in England, to communicate to them the subject of his mission, and to ask them to send an English ambassador to Portugal. He is to ask them their opinion about the marriage of the new King of Portugal.
He is to speak to the Imperial ambassadors in England, and thoroughly to inform himself of the state of their negotiations, especially with respect to the succour which the King of England will give against the King of France, and with regard to the proposed truce. If he thinks it necessary, he is authorized to remonstrate with the King of England. At all events, he must write before leaving that country. (fn. 11)
He is to see the Princess of England, and to send him a description of her, giving an account of her stature, corpulence, and other qualities.
He is to see the viceroys in Castile, to inform them of the present state of affairs, and to ask them to keep a fleet of 20 vessels, manned with 4,000 foot, in readiness to fetch him (the Emperor) from England.
Indorsed : "Instructions for Charles Poupet, the 15th of January 1522."
French. Draft or copy. pp. 3.
A copy or abstract of this document is preserved in the Archives Générales du Royaume in Brussels.
15 Jan.
S. E. Port. L. 367.
378. Secret Instruction of the Emperor for Poupet De Lachaux.
The subject of this instruction must not be communicated to the King or the Cardinal of England.
If the King of Portugal asks him the reason why the Emperor begs him not to contract any marriage before he has seen him, he is to tell him that he (the Emperor) wishes to marry him to one of his relations.
If the King of Portugal asks him about the marriages of the Emperor, (fn. 12) of Madame Katharine, of the Infante, and of the Queen Dowager, he is to say that he (the Emperor) has reserved it to himself to speak to the King of Portugal about these subjects.
French. Draft or copy. p. 1.
Jan (?)
M. D. Pasc. d. G. Pa. r. a. l. Hist. d. Esp.
379. Memoir (of the Privy Council Of Castile) on the Opportunity of a Marriage between the Emperor and a Princess Of Portugal. (fn. 13)
Don Manuel, King of Portugal, died whilst the war with France was raging, and Spain was disturbed by rebellion.
It is notorious that Doña Juana who now lives in Portugal, and is there called the "Excellent," whilst she is known in Spain by the name of "La Beltraneja," was sworn by King Henry IV. of Castile, as his successor to the throne of Castile, as though she had been his legitimate daughter. She is the daughter of Queen Juana, late wife of King Henry IV. of Castile, sister of King Alonso of Portugal.
As soon as King Henry IV. of Castile died, King Alonso intended to marry Doña Juana, his niece, and to take possession of the kingdom of Castile. He invaded Castile, and a great number of noblemen and other persons in Castile espoused his cause, so that King Ferdinand the Catholic and Queen Isabella the Catholic were placed in a very difficult position. The right of succession belonged to King Ferdinand and Queen Isabella, since Queen Isabella was the daughter and heiress of King Juan II. of Castile, father of King Henry IV. of Castile, and Doña Juana was generally believed not to be the daughter of King Henry IV., but of Beltran de la Cueva, Duke of Albuquerque, on which account she was publicly called La Beltraneja.
Even if she had been the daughter of King Henry IV. of Castile, she would not have been his legitimate child, on account of the following reasons. King Henry IV. married, in the year 1437, Dona Blanca, a Princess of Aragon, and sister of King Ferdinand the Catholic. He had no issue by her, and some people pretended that it was the fault of the Queen, whilst others thought that the King was impotent. After having been married some years, King Henry IV. wished to take another wife, and the Pope gave him a bull of dispensation, permitting him to contract another marriage, on condition that he should return to his first wife if, within a fixed time, he should not have issue by his second Queen. King Henry IV. accordingly married Doña Juana, the sister of King Alonso of Portugal, his first wife, Doña Blanca, being still alive.
It is generally believed that King Henry IV. had no children by his second wife during the period of time fixed in the bull of dispensation, and, in fact, not even afterwards. Supposing therefore, that Doña Juana the Excellent, who now lives in Portugal, is the daughter of King Henry IV. of Castile, she would not be his legitimate child, since she was the offspring of a mother whose marriage had become, after the time fixed in the bull of dispensation, null and void.
Besides, it is notorious and generally believed that Doña Juana the Excellent is the daughter of Don Beltran de la Cueva. The reasons for this belief are, in the first place, that the Queen Doña Juana, her mother, had not led an honest life ; secondly, when the Beltraneja was born, certain taps were administered to her on the nose, in order to give it the form of the nose of King Henry IV., and so make her resemble him ; thirdly, on the same day that the Beltraneja was born, another lady was delivered in the same town of a son. Attempts were made to exchange the Beltraneja for the son of that lady, who, however, refused to part with her child. There are persons still alive who can bear witness that they have heard credible persons say that the circumstances mentioned in the second and third reasons are true.
Queen Isabella the Catholic, with the help of her followers and the greater portion of her people, gained a victory over King Alonso of Portugal, and drove him out of Castile. Moreover, the Pope who was then on the throne published a bull against all such princes, noblemen, and commons as should regard or call Doña Juana the Excellent Queen or Princess of Castile.
Queen Isabella the Catholic, who was a very prudent princess, thought it, nevertheless, necessary to have the King of Portugal always attached to her interests, and therefore married her eldest daughter to the heir apparent to the crown of Portugal. The heir apparent died soon after the marriage, and Queen Isabella married his widow, her eldest daughter, to the new heir apparent, the lately deceased King Manuel of Portugal. When her eldest daughter died she gave to the same Don Manuel another of her daughters in marriage. All this Queen Isabella the Catholic did in order to secure to her and to her successors the undisputed possession of the throne of Castile ; for Doña Juana the Excellent was all that time in the power of the King of Portugal.
Doña Juana the Excellent is still alive, and in the power of the King of Portugal. The war with the King of France is not over. Castile is not quiet or contented. Thus, the King of France has it in his power to conclude an alliance with the King of Portugal, and to make use of the pretended rights of Doña Juana, who is called the Excellent, in order to raise up serious difficulties for the Emperor in Spain. In order to obviate these difficulties, they advise him—
1. To send an embassy to the King of Portugal, and to conclude a marriage (with one of his family). A league and confederacy would be the natural consequence (of such a marriage).
2. To make Don George of Portugal head of the embassy.
3. To give a general amnesty, and to do all he can to gain the love of his subjects.
4. Not to believe that his honour and authority will suffer if he makes concessions.
5. To send artillery to Spain.
6. To cause the Council of the Military Order to assemble in Santiago, near the confines of Portugal.
Other measures may perhaps become necessary, according to the course of events.
Indorsed : "1522."
Spanish. Most probably the original ; at all events, an undoubtedly contemporary copy. pp. 6.
17 Jan.
M. Re. Ac. d. Hist. Salazar. A. 22. ff. 51-53.
380. Alonso Sanchez, Imperial Ambassador in Venice, to the Emperor.
A secretary of the King of England has passed through Trent and Mantua, on his way to Rome.
Has written to Don Juan that, if his presence in Rome is not very necessary, he ought to come to Venice and tell the Venetians what he (the Emperor) has written to him respecting the alliance he has concluded with the King of England. The Venetians know nothing about this alliance, except what their ambassador in England has written to them. They consider the treaty to be still very uncertain.
Has heard of the league he has concluded with the King of England through other sure channels of communication, but his (the Emperor's) letters have not yet arrived. Expects them daily.
As soon as all doubt about his alliance with the King of England is removed the Venetians will be much more tractable. They are already less obstinate than formerly. Their principal fear is that if he (the Emperor) makes peace with France, they will be sacrificed.
Negotiations respecting the passage of Imperial troops through Venetian territory, &c.—Venice, the 17th of January 1522.
Addressed : "To his Sacred, Imperial, and Catholic Majesty the Emperor and King, our Lord."
Indorsed : "To the King, from Alonso Sanchez, the 17th of January 1522."
Spanish. Autograph in cipher. Contemporary deciphering. pp. 4.
20 Jan.
M. Re. Ac. d. Hist. Salazar. A. 22. f. 63.
381. Juan Manuel, Imperial Ambassador in Rome, to Alonso Sanchez, Imperial Ambassador in Venice.
The election of the Pope was a good one. It is not to be denied that the new Pope is the most pious person of all the cardinals in and out of Rome. Besides, he is a great scholar. The cardinals who are to receive him are already designated. They have, however, not yet decided whether they will go by land or by sea.
Has had news from the English secretary. He has left the Imperial court, and is on his way to Rome. Will ask the secretary to see him (Don Alonso) on his road. Is told that the English secretary is to go to Switzerland, in order to persuade the Swiss to make war upon France in common with the King of England.
Thinks he (Alonso Sanchez) ought to do all he is instructed to do in order to persuade the Venetians to conclude the alliance (with the Emperor and the King of England), but that he should not menace them in an offensive manner. What he says about the Turks is quite true. No one believes that they will attack any Christian state in the present conjuncture, and the Venetians, not fearing the Turks, underrate the friendship of those who would be their best allies against the Infidels.—Rome, the 20th of January 1522.
Indorsed : "Transcript of the letter from Don Juan Manuel, the 20th of January."
Spanish. Copy sent to the Emperor. p. 1.
29 Jan.
M. Re. Ac. d. Hist. Salazar. A. 22. ff. 83-87.
382. Alonso Sanchez, Imperial Ambassador in Rome, to the Emperor.
Local news from Venice.
The Venetians have received letters from England, and no longer doubt that the King of England has concluded an alliance with him (the Emperor), although they believe that the election of the new Pope may change the mind of the King of England. The Venetians admit that the King of England has entire confidence in him (the Emperor).
Continued negotiations with Venice.—Venice, the 29th of January 1522.
Addressed : "To his Sacred, Imperial, and Catholic Majesty the Emperor and King, our Lord."
Indorsed : "To the King. From Venice. Alonso Sanchez. The 19th of January."
Spanish. Autograph in cipher. Contemporary deciphering. pp. 6.
29 Jan.
M. Re. Ac. d. Hist. Salazar. A. 22. ff. 91-94.
383. Juan Manuel, Imperial Ambassador in Rome, to the Emperor.
The last courier has not been intercepted.
Does not answer that portion of his despatches which supposes that the Pope is in Rome.
The French have lost Alessandria in the duchy of Milan.
The new English ambassador has visited him. He seems to be a frank-spoken man, and greatly devoted to the Imperial cause. He said that it would be a good thing if he (the Emperor) would induce the Pope to go to England, and to have an interview there with him (the Emperor) and the King of England. He (the Emperor) might either accompany the Pope afterwards on his journey from England to Rome, or go direct from England to Spain. Answered that the advantage of such an interview would be great, and that if he (the Emperor) does not propose it, he has most probably weighty reasons which prevent him from doing so. Has seen letters of the English ambassador, and it seems that he is better informed of the disorders in Naples than is desirable. The English ambassador says that he (the Emperor) would soon be the master of the world if he went in person to Italy and thence to Spain.
The Abbot of Najera has come to Rome to ask for money for the army.
Dresses of the religious orders, &c.
The Cardinal of Sta. Croce has sent Astudillo, one of his servants, by land, to the Pope ; the French, however, have intercepted him, and taken from him the letters of the Cardinal.
The King of France knew of the election of the new Pope six days after it had taken place. He said that the insufficient number of cardinals had been the cause that "the schoolmaster of the Emperor" had been elected Pope. The cardinals in whom he confided have been imposed upon by the others. The French partisans lose no opportunity of making it understood that the cardinals have committed an error in electing the new Pope. The Cardinal of Ancona shows a very bad disposition. It is necessary that the new Pope should not much longer delay his journey to Rome.
The late King of Portugal had asked him to employ his credit with him (the Emperor) in favour of an advantageous peace with France ; but the new English ambassador seems very little inclined to peace. If the interview between him (the Emperor), the Pope, and the King of England is to take effect, he thinks that the best place for it would be Calais. At all events, however, the interview ought to be held without loss of time, and without waiting till the Cardinal of England has come to a decision on the punctillio and ceremonies. —Rome, the 29th of January 1522.
Addressed : "To the Cœsar and King of Spain, &c., our sovereign Lord."
Indorsed : "To the King. Rome. From Don Juan Manuel, the 29th of January 1522."
Spanish. Autograph in cipher. Contemporary deciphering. pp. 3½.

Footnotes

  • 1. Fiesco.
  • 2. Cardinal Vich, brother of the former ambassador in Rome, a Spaniard from Catalonia.
  • 3. François Guillaume de Castelnau Clermont Lodève.
  • 4. Bonifazio Ferrero, Cardinal and Bishop of Ivrea.
  • 5. Albert, Marquis of Brandenburg.
  • 6. Louis de Bourbon, Bishop of Laon and Archbishop of Sens.
  • 7. Vich.
  • 8. This scrutiny is wanting in Burman as well as in Papebrock.
  • 9. Cavalicens in Burman.—Carvajal, Cardinal of St. Croce seems to be meant.
  • 10. "Si V. Md. fuesse tan bien servida de los suyosy tan ayudada de susamigos como le ayuda Dios ya seria señor de francia." By the words sus amigos, or friends of the Emperor, King Henry and Cardinal Wolsey are evidently designated.
  • 11. Abstracts from the letters of Poupet de Lachaux during his stay in England are in the Archives at Brussels. The originals are at Vienna,
  • 12. Betrothed to the Princess Mary.
  • 13. England is not mentioned even once in this document. I nevertheless think that it will be highly interesting to the student of English history, since it contains the reasons which induced the Council of Castile to beg the Emperor to marry a Portuguese Princess, or, in other words, to break off his engagement with the Princess Mary of England. The reasons are curious enough. As for the date of this document, it is clear, from its contents, that it was written either towards the end of the year 1521, or quite at the beginning of the year 1522. Not being able to assign a more exact date, I give it in connexion with the few papers deposited in Simancas relating to the mission of Poupet de Lachaux to Portugal.