Spain: January 1527, 1-15

Pages 1-14

Calendar of State Papers, Spain, Volume 3 Part 2, 1527-1529. Originally published by Her Majesty's Stationery Office, London, 1877.

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January 1527, 1-15

7 Jan. 1. Martin de Salinas to Archduke Ferdinand, King of Bohemia.
M. Re. Ac. D. Hist.
c. 71, fol. 162.
Has answered the letters brought by Richarte and Presinga (Presintgher). The present is in reply to that of the 28th of October of last year, which was duly delivered by Julian, the courier. No sooner did the Emperor hear of the disaster in Hungary (la destruycion de Ungria) than he decided to quit Granada, and come to Valladolid, where he summoned all the prelates, nobles, councillors,&c. of his kingdoms, to appear on the 25th inst., and deliberate on the best means of procuring assistance in so critical a conflict. His Imperial Majesty left Granada on the 10th of December, preceded by the Grand Chancellor (Mercurino di Gattinara), by secretary Jean Lallemand, and by Mons. de Prat (Praet), all of whom took their departure six clays before [on the 4th]. He (Salinas) accompanied them.
The Emperor is much pleased with the election of Bohemia, and has issued orders to his secretary (Lallemand) for the Archduke to be in future addressed as King. Don Antonio de Mendoza, who left for Germany the other day, will explain verbally what the Emperor intends doing in the present emergency. He is the bearer of bills of exchange to the amount of 100,000 ducats.
The timely assistance sent to Italy, and the negotiations with the Duke of Ferrara (Alfonso d'Este), have met with much praise among the courtiers. The Emperor himself is much pleased with the news. He hopes that the Germans will be properly provided for with the 50,000 ducats sent on a previous occasion, and that the Duke [of Ferrara] has already commenced doing service after his appointment.
With respect to the Marquis of Mantua (Frederigo Gonzaga) His Imperial Majesty thinks that the King of Bohemia has acted very wisely, for that Prince's words and deeds seem to be enveloped in dissimulation.
One of the Pope's chamberlains, Paolo di Rezzo by name, came to Toledo about the peace. The Emperor referred him to a committee composed of the High Chancellor (Gattinara), Don Juan Manuel, the Confessor (Fr. Garcia de Loaysa), Mons. de Prat (Praet), and Secretary Lallemand. Cannot tell what the Chamberlain's proposals may be, but fears that the conferences will end in smoke. The King of France is also sending one of his secretaries with full powers to treat. Such, however, is Francis' want of faith that no good can come of these negotiations, as people here will no longer trust him.
His Imperial Majesty fully approves of the diet which is to be held at Escelinga (Esslingen), as well of the overtures made to the Switzers. He wishes to know who is the proper person to send to the Cantons to detach them from the French and Italian alliance, or at least to induce them to remain neutral, for certainly they have always preferred to earn one florin from Germany to one ducat from France; besides which, the Emperor might help them to recover what the French King owes them of old, having, as he has, so good a security in his hands as two of his sons.
With regard to Duke Ulric [of Wurtemberg] and his journey to Venice, as announced in his Highness' last letter, the fact was already known here at Court. Some say that he has gone thither for the purpose of turning Turk, and has renounced in favour of his brother the county of Monblier (Montbelliard), as well as his other estates in Burgundy. It would be advisable to open negotiations with his brother, and get from the latter the said county [of Montbelliard], as well as the property he holds in Burgundy and in Ferrette, in exchange for an equivalent estate in the Austrian dominions, conveniently far from his native country, perhaps in Hungary itself.
Of the occurrences at Rome, and Don Ugo's doings there, the Emperor had been fully informed previous to the arrival of the courier who came [from Germany]. The King, however, had better go on writing the news [of Italy], that the care and solicitude he takes for his brother's affairs may he duly appreciated.
By the last courier, through France, His Imperial Majesty heard from his ambassador in that country that Martin de Guzman (fn. n1) had been set at liberty and allowed to proceed to the King's court. Nothing that could be done was omitted to procure his father's (Don Ramiro) liberation also, but owing to certain scruples of the Emperor, of which His Highness the Archduke must have been lately informed through Presinga (Presintgher), this could not be obtained for the present.
Has according to his instructions applied for a knighthood of the Order of Calatrava for Count Hortenburg. (fn. n2)
His Imperial Majesty has been much pleased to hear of the Viceroy's safe arrival on the coast of Sienna, notwithstanding the attempt made by the French fleet to stop him on his passage. The enemy, in consequence, has been compelled to sue for mercy, and make proposals of peace, which the Emperor is rather inclined to grant, not so much on their account, or because they really deserve it, but in order to be more at liberty to attend to the Turkish war. This, indeed, is at present the chief business of this Council of State, and no sooner did Don Juan Manuel hear of the disaster in Hungary, than, leaving his retirement, he came to Toledo, and took part in the deliberations of that body. Nothing will be left undone by him and the rest of the Imperial Councillors to procure His Highness the required assistance in his present difficulties, though it must be said that the Emperor is so well disposed that he needs no pressing solicitations on that score.
His Imperial Majesty has issued orders for Queen Eleanor to come to Valladolid, and likewise for the sons of France to be removed elsewhere, (fn. n3) although the place of their confinement has not yet been fixed.—Laguna, 7th Jan. 1527.
Addressed: "Para el Rey, mi Señor." Spanish. Original, pp. 4½.
K. u. K. Haus-
Hof-u. Staats Arch.
Wien. Rep. P. C.
Fasc. 227, No. 31.
2. Memorandum of the English Ambassador (Dr. Lee) concerning the Emperor's Debts.
May it please His Imperial Majesty to recall to his memory the petition which the English ambassador (Dr. Edward Lee) addressed to His Imperial Majesty on behalf of His most Serene Highness the King, his master, about paying in ready money the debts which His Imperial Majesty owes to His said Highness (the King of England), of which fall particulars are given below.
First, for the debt of the most Serene King of famous memory, his father, (fn. n4) as is shown by a bond (scriptum obligatorium) in writing,—forty thousand angels.
Next, for the debt of the said most Serene King, as is shown by another bond in writing,—thirty-five thousand florins.
Besides, for a debt of His own Imperial Majesty, as appears by a bond in writing, dated the 20th day of the month of June 1522, which debt His Imperial Majesty ought to have paid within one year of the date thereof, as appears in the said bond, His Imperial Majesty having acknowledged and promised on his royal word of honour to pay the sum borrowed—one hundred and fifty thousand crowns of gold, the value of each crown to be computed at four "solidi" and four "denarii" of English money, and the fixed term of payment for which has already passed nearly three years. (fn. n5)
Finally, for the bond of indemnity by which His Imperial Majesty engages himself to pay annually to His most Serene Highness the King, one hundred and thirty-three thousand three hundred and five crowns, which sum has not been paid, although more than three years have elapsed since that time.
For all and singular which sums [the English ambassador] again petitions immediate payment in ready money, as His Highness the King, his master, now demands through him, being moved to this course because at this time His Im- perial Majesty overflows with money from the Portuguese marriage, and also because His Imperial Majesty, on the ground (sub prœtextu) of paying his debts to His Highness, has had, and will have, a larger sum of money granted by his own subjects and by the King of Portugal than he would otherwise have had. And for these reasons His most Serene Highness the King has a good ground in justice and equity to demand, and ought, and does in truth and right, demand payment, having been so long kept out of his money, lent with so cheerful and kindly a will, and His Imperial Majesty being unable to put forward any just excuse for not returning the same immediately, which payment the ambassador hopes that His Imperial Majesty will make with the same good-will and friendly disposition as His most Serene Highness lent his money, since, otherwise, the delay might be attributed either to the ambassador's negligence or to His Imperial Majesty's ingratitude. (fn. n6)
(fn. n7)
Should His Imperial Majesty be able to adduce any just cause why any of the aforesaid sums should not be paid, at all events let His Imperial Majesty pay at once those, for the non-payment of which no just excuse can be pleaded, and with regard to the other sum or sums (if there be more than one), may it please His Imperial Majesty to inform the English ambassador that he may write home on the subject. (fn. n8) Or should His Imperial Majesty wish to write to the King respecting those sums, the non-payment of which he wishes to justify, through this ambassador he has .now decided to send to England, then in that case let the English ambassador be informed of the time when the said ambassador is to leave for England, and of the instructions he takes, that he (Dr. Lee) may be able to return a more categorical answer, and satisfy on this point the King, his master, who has already learnt for some time of the Emperor's intention to send him the said ambassador. (fn. n9)
Indorsement: "The English ambassador's third application respecting the Emperor's debts to the King."
Contemporary copy. Latin, pp. 9.
10 Jan. 3. Secretary Perez to the Emperor.
M. D. Pasc. d. G.
Pa. r. a. 1. Hist.
Wrote on the eve of the Nativity, and therefore will only relate what has occurred since.
The Viceroy having sent word to the general [of the Franciscans] that he wished to see him at Gaeta, to consult as to the best means of bringing His Holiness to an agreement (concierto), the general asked for the Pope's leave, which was willingly granted, on condition of his first attending a meeting (congregation) of cardinals and foreign ambassadors previously summoned. The meeting took place on the third day of January, before mass, when His Holiness propounded to them his great desire for universal peace, and announced that the general [of the Franciscans], Fray Francisco de los Angeles, had brought powers and instructions from His Im perial Majesty to treat of and conclude the said peace. The sole difficulty (he added) consisted in the securities demanded by the Emperor. Some of the cardinals and ambassadors present were of opinion that the securities should be given. Others thought that, if His Holiness was confident of his own strength, he had better revise, and place himself on the defensive. The general then made an eloquent speech, saying that the Pope, being God's vicar on earth, ought to make some sacrifice (fn. n10) to secure the peace of Christendom. Upon which all the ambassadors present began to make great offers in the name of their respective Princes, according as these were inclined to peace or war. That of France, in particular, offered his master's most efficient help for the protection of the Church, promising to come [to Italy] in person. The Portuguese, among other offers, made that of the King's fleet, which he said was then in the East Indies, but might be ordered back to Europe, if necessary.
Has written to the Viceroy (Lannoy), informing him of the disposition evinced by the Portuguese ambassador, and advising him to place the Imperial fleet in safety.
The conference at an end, the general kissed the Pope's feet, and again asked for leave to retire to Gaeta, which was granted. He stayed that day and the next at Rome, bat at the last moment he decided not to move, and sent a nephew of his (Peñalosa) to the Viceroy, informing him of what had passed, and begging for instructions as to the terms he was to demand. He would propose them to His Holiness, and take the answer himself. The general's nephew has net yet returned, nor has the Viceroy (Lannoy) answered the letter, at which the general is greatly disappointed and concerned.
We know nothing here of the Viceroy's intentions, nor what he purposes doing in case the negotiations are broken off. The Colonnese are in the same ignorance about his plans and preparations; the only fact that has come to their notice is that some artillery and ammunition of war has left Naples [for Gaeta]. They (the Colonnese) have attacked some villages [of the Church] in order to procure money for the pay of their troops. That system of warfare appears to them more advantageous, as the country people, rather than see their villages sacked and burnt, easily compound for money.
Pending the negotiations His Holiness is not inactive, and is daily increasing his forces. Only the other day he sent for Orazio Ballon (Baglione), who for the two last years has been kept prisoner in the castle [of St. Angelo], and upon the security of bankers and other people (seguridad grande de buncos) that he will remain faithful to his engagements, set him at liberty, gave him the command of certain forces, and a commission to raise three or four thousand infantry, promising him one ducat per man. In this manner will His Holiness soon have an army of 20,000 or more men, with which, in case of no agreement being made, he will place himself on the defensive, and perhaps, too, take the offensive, for the late arrival [in Rome] of Renzo da Ceri, who has a son of Cardinal Ursino in his company, and is bringing 40 or 50,000 ducats from France, seems to have inspired him with new courage. The King of England, as it is rumoured, has also sent the Pope 25,000 ducats; in short, nothing is omitted by these people to put their friends under contribution.
The other day the captains in command of the Papal forces came to Rome to ask for instructions and orders in case of the Viceroy's army invading the lands of the Church, as there was neither a strong place to go to, nor artillery to defend the city's walls. As Renzo was shortly expected, no resolution was taken on this point, save that of recommending the captains to bring their men closer to Rome and under its walls. They would thus have all the provision and ammunition required, whilst the Imperialists would soon be deprived of both, and obliged to raise their camp. Since Renzo's arrival this plan may have been modified; cannot say how.
On new year's day a monitory was read after mass at St. Peter's against the Colonnese and the Viceroy (Charles de Lannoy). It stated that His Holiness having been informed by letters from Spain, as well as by verbal declarations of Fray Francisco [de los Angeles], that the Emperor was trying all he could do to bring about a peace, it was quite evident that the sole obstacle to the Emperor's laudable purpose was the Viceroy (Lannoy), owing to the assistance and encouragement he was giving the Colonnese. A term of six days was allowed him to lay down his arms, at the expiration of which, he was to be excommunicated,&c. No sooner did he (Perez) hear of this than he dispatched two estafettes, one after the other, to the Viceroy, to inform him of the whole affair. Knows that this step has been highly disapproved by certain parties, who would not have the Viceroy apprised of what so directly concerns him. Does not regret having sent him the message, as he considers that matters of this importance had better be communicated by him (Perez) than through a third person. The general [of the Franciscans], among others, disapproved of and regretted the measure. He is now staying at Ara Cæli, a monastery of his order. When the Pope heard of his grief (sentimiento) he sent for him, showed him the monitory, and assured him that the case was not so grave as he had been told; after which he promised that, out of personal affection for him, he would not have it printed, and that no further publicity should be given to the affair. He (Perez) having asked the general if he had read the monitory, his answer was that he had, and that although its substance was as reported above, the terms used were not strong. The general has also written to the Viceroy. How the latter will take it, is more than he (Perez) can say. Certain it is that all the Emperor's subjects and servants at Rome are highly shocked at the Pope issuing such a monitory, at a time when he is negotiating for peace, and when it can be of no possible use to him, because if the Viceroy is determined upon war, the Pope's monitory will certainly not hinder him from it, (fn. n11) May God guide the matters of the Imperial service as best befits the occasion, and not give ill-intentioned people the power of thwarting his plans ! Should the Pope's troops outside Rome enter the city (con furia), all Spaniards fear that they will be ill-treated alike by friends and foes.
Nine cardinals have been chosen by the Pope to prepare an answer to the Imperial letter [of the 4th of October]. It is reported that they all agree on most points, save on that relating to the general council, as they can find no excuse for the Pope to refuse it; they accordingly intend to accept, and to appoint the place and time for its celebration,&c. This is what keeps the cardinals in suspense, and delays their answer.
It is feared that if this monitory against the Colonnese is carried into execution, and the war continues, the Pope will go so far as to deprive His Imperial Majesty of the empire and of the kingdom of Naples. Has been told that the bulls for this purpose are already drawn, but the appeal which Cardinal Colonna has caused to be instituted here against his own deprivation will be perhaps more than sufficient for His Imperial Majesty's security.
The other day one of the vessels of the Imperial fleet, with some cavalry and about 400 foot on board, arrived at Piombino. The infantry landed, and went to Sienna, where they were very well received.
Has heard that another vessel with 200 men on board entered the port of Monaco. On the road to Genoa she had been stopped by the galleys of the League; her crew and most of the men had been made prisoners and put to the oars.
On the third day after the Nativity the Pope gave the sword and ducal cap (estoque y bonete ducal que disen) to the Portuguese ambassador (D. Martin de Portugal), who, as above stated, offered him in his master's name all his kingdoms and possessions, and all his forces, contra quoscumque hostes though the general terms (generalidad) in which the offer was made have not been to the taste of many people here, who would have wished them to be less vague.
A report is current here that Mons. de Bourbon has effected his junction with the lansquenets (lansqueneques), and is marching on Vicenza. The Marquis of Saluzzo and Guido Rangone were in pursuit, cutting off provisions,&c. As this news originates with people who can never speak the truth against themselves, not much reliance is placed on the report, though it must be said that the march of Mons. de Bourbon on Vicenza, when we expected him at Bologna, as announced, has caused considerable surprise.
The same may be said respecting another piece of intelligence, which has greatly alarmed all the Emperor's servants residing in this city. It was reported the other day that letters from Genoa of the 16th of December had come stating that there had been a revolution in the place, and that the Doge (Adorno) had been obliged to take refuge in the citadel. When the truth came to be investigated, it was found that the news had no foundation whatever, except that wheat was very scarce in the town, notwithstanding that the Genoese had lately captured two vessels laden with it..
A Hungarian bishop (fn. n12) sent by the Vayvod of Transylvania (Zapolsky), whom he calls King of Hungary, has arrived at Rome. He pretends that his master, the Vayvod, was duly elected King of Hungary by all the towns and lords of that kingdom, with the single exception of three or four of the latter, whom [the last] king, Louis, had deprived of their estates for disaffection and other causes, and who had consequently fled to the court of the King of Bohemia. Count Frangipane, the ambassador says, has also espoused his master's cause. The bishop entered this city without ceremony or reception of any kind, and went to alight at an inn (meson). The Pope, however, has sent some one to visit him in his name, and to say that his not having been received at court as other ambassadors of the Kings of Hungary was entirely owing to his not having been apprised in time of his coming. The bishop has not yet gone to the Palace, nor is it known yet what place is intended for him when he does go.
The Datary has, it appears, made over his office (cipher) to Felice, the Bishop of Civittá di Chiete. (fn. n13) He no longer attends to business, but is chiefly devoted to politics, together with Alberto di Carpi. Needs not say that as long as those two worthies have a voice in the Pope's council no good is to be expected for the Emperor and his affairs.
(Cipher:) Hears from a reliable source that the bull for levying the tithes (decimas) on the clergy has been expedited to France.
These people are trying to win over the Duke of Ferrara (Alfonso d'Este), and are making his ambassador all manner of offers in the Pope's name. The ambassador feigns to listen to their proposals in order to gain time, as otherwise suspicion might be aroused. Is inclined to think that the Duke will not accede to their wishes, as it is far more advantageous for him to remain the Emperor's friend than to take up the cause of his enemies.
Begs to remind the Emperor that his gratification (ayuda de Costa) still remains unpaid. He is very poor, and out of the 500 ducats pension on the priory of Osma he only receives 300, on account of his being absent, and is obliged to make up the rest. Has no powerful friend at court to look to his interests since Don Juan Manuel retired to his estates.
Prothonotary Bentivolla (Bentivoglio) is still in confinement. Every day he is examined [by his judges], and wit- nesses are interrogated here [at Rome] concerning his former habits, opinions, and mode of living.
Has purposedly delayed sending this letter until he could say something respecting the present negotiations for peace. The general's nephew (Peñalosa) returned [from Gaeta] on Friday evening the 14th inst., and brought with him the Viceroy's ultimatum. The Pope was to have given an answer on the Saturday following (the 7th), or on Sunday at the latest, but hitherto no answer has come, although it is hourly expected. Has not seen the articles of peace, but the general [of the Franciscans] tells him that they are just and reasonable, and that he has good hope of His Holiness granting the Viceroy's demands. The only difficulty in his opinion lies in the money, no objection being made by the Pope to the delivery of Ostia, Parma, and Piacenza as securities. The affair is in the hands of Cardinals Frenesis (Farnese), Monte, and Carapeggio, to the exclusion of the Datary, and perhaps also of Alberto di Carpi. Will not close this letter until he hears upon what they have resolved.
Though he has said above that Renzo da Ceri had actually come to Rome, it is not so, for he is now at Cheri (Ceri), suffering from cholic (dolor de hijada). They sent him a litter (letica), but he could not come. The Datary himself went twice out of Rome to receive him. The hopes conceived at his coming have moreover considerably abated, for they now find that he comes without money, troops, or health. It is even rumoured that he and his suite complain bitterly of King Francis and of the treatment they experienced when in his dominions.
Encloses copy of a letter just received at Rome concerning the Archduke's election as King of Hungary. The news has not been very palatable to all parties, and although the ambassador of the Vayvod has not yet appeared in public, nor is it known what place and rank they will give him when he does, there can be no doubt that he has already had a secret audience from His Holiness. His official reception, however, will very much depend on the turn that the affairs now pending between the Pope and His Imperial Majesty will take.
The Imperialists in Rome have much rejoiced at the news of Mons. de Bourbon having left Milan with the whole of his forces, and being six miles from Pavia. Guido Rangone, the Pope's captain, writes from Parma that the forces under Bourbon amount to 9,000 infantry, and that he has already effected his junction with the lansquenets. A message has come from him to the Pope, through the Marquis of Mantua (Frederigo Gonzaga), intimating that he (Bourbon) had been long waiting for a peace to be concluded between the Emperor and the Pope through the intermediate agency of the Viceroy (Charles de Lannoy), but that perceiving that the latter is still at Naples, and that nothing has been done, he has now made up his mind to join the lansquenets, and march on Bologna, Florence, and even Rome, if need be. That he wants the Pope to deliver to him the cities of Modena, Lodi, and Cremona, and if the two last cannot be delivered at present, to give up instead Parma and Piacenza, as a security that the other two [Lodi and Cremona] shall be restored to the Emperor.
This message of Mons. de Bourbon has so irritated the Pope that he has not ceased since to complain of him, and utter all manner of angry expressions (diabluras) about him and the rest of the Imperial servants. Only the other day, when he heard that a servant of Mons. de Bourbon, by name "El Limosnier," (fn. n14) had arrived from Naples, he sent immediately for him, and complained bitterly of his master's conduct.
The Imperial forces and those of the Colonnese are encamped with sufficient artillery at Ponte Corvo, Chiprano (Ciprano), and other villages close upon the frontiers of the Roman estates. It is added that Alarcon is soon to land at Terrachina (Terracina) with 6,000 Spanish infantry and 200 light horse, and that the artillery is coming by sea. On the other hand continual reinforcements are sent from Rome to the threatened frontiers, so that unless His Holiness make a satisfactory answer to our overtures, great events are likely to happen. The Viceroy is to leave Gaeta shortly, and join the Colonnese, who are in high glee owing to a promise he has made them, not to sign any agreement whatever with the Pope unless they are also included in it, have their honours and dignities restored, and proper compensation given for the losses they have sustained. All the princes and barons of Naples are coming down at the head of men-at-arms, infantry, and light horse, raised among their respective vassals, and those who can only bring a small retinue consider themselves ill-favoured by fortune.
Hears from the Viceroy that the negotiations with the Duke of Ferrara (Alfonso d'Este) have had a satisfactory issue, a piece of intelligence which has not been to the taste of the Pope's partisans.
Has kept the present letter open until he should hear the Pope's definitive answer to the Viceroy's proposals. Saw the general [of the Franciscans] yesterday evening, who said he was about to leave Rome for Gaeta with the Pope's answer to the Viceroy, which seemed to him good and just, since he consents to grant all or the greater part of the Viceroy's demands. The only difficulty was the money asked of him. The general left this morning for [Gaeta]. As soon as the Viceroy's reply is known, he (Perez) will not fail to apprise the Emperor. As he knows not what the articles proposed are, nor what the Pope's answer has been, except the general rumours at Home and what the general himself has chosen to tell him, he cannot guess at the result; but this he can say, that most of the Emperor's servants here, who wish sincerely for his aggrandisement, are of opinion that no peace, however advantageous, can be of use under the present circumstances, when the opportunity is at hand for him to become supreme lord of the world, and impose the law on all.
The Viceroy left Gaeta on the 7th. It appears that he is rather angry at the monitory published by the Pope, and most determined to act with energy if occasion should so require. He thinks that God is so disposing matters here that there will be even more ample justification for such action than has hitherto existed, and that has not been inconsiderable. (fn. n15)
Renzo da Ceri has entered Rome this day in better health than he was, though without any of the materials of war formerly specified. It is not yet known what they intend doing with him. He is very discontented with France, as are also Alberto di Carpi and the Datary. All three complain bitterly of King Francis (dizen diabluras dd Rey). Hears from a reliable source that the Pope has lately received 25,000 cr. from England. The inhabitants of Rome are fast making preparations for defence against all armed forces, whether from the Pope or the Emperor, that may attempt to enter their city. A list is now being made of all the men, arms,&c., and of the wheat in the houses of all foreigners (en cada casa de todas naciones), as they intend doing here as was done at Milan, namely, taking away the arms from the citizens, and removing the doors from the houses of suspected persons (desconfidentes), that they may be entered and searched in case of need, besides barricading some of the streets. The inquiry about the wheat has been made for the purpose of issuing to each citizen the quantity he may re quire for his family, at the rate of five and a half ducats per "ruso," which is a smaller measure than our load (carga) of Castile. The wheat belongs to the Pope, who purchased it some time ago at the price of one ducat and a half, and is retailing it to his subjects. Notwithstanding the above precautions, it is asserted that if the Viceroy appears before Rome the Pope will take to flight, most likely to Venice.
Bulls for the Archbishopric of Granada,&c.
The Pope yesterday sent a courier to Mons. de Bourbon, inquiring what amount of money was wanted for the pay of the lansquenets and for their return to Germany. The general of [the Franciscans] wrote to the Emperor by the same conveyance. In his (Perez') opinion this affair of the lansquenets must be carefully looked into, because, if paid and dismissed, there is the danger of their enlisting under our enemies. If it be true, as asserted, that the Venetians offered them some time ago, and whilst serving under the Emperor, no less than five months' pay if they would desert their banners, it cannot be expected that, once free from their engagements, they will refuse the brilliant offers made to them. In short, nobody can understand how this peace can be beneficial to His Imperial Majesty, for if by the articles of it the Emperor is obliged to disarm—now that he has a chance of becoming all-powerful in Italy—it is quite evident that the Italian powers will seize the opportunity to do all possible mischief. —Rome, 10th Jan. 1527.
Signed: "Perez."
P.S.—The general [of the Franciscans] did not leave Rome on the 9th inst., as announced in a paragraph of this letter. At this moment Perez has a message from him, saying that he had thought better of it, and decided to write to the Viceroy, which he has done, begging that the letter should be forwarded to Gaeta by express (estafeta). Should not be surprised to hear that the Archbishop of Capua (Schomberg), who is now at Gaeta with the Viceroy, has written about the humour in. which the latter comes, and that the general, hearing of it, has postponed his journey in consequence.
Addressed: "Sacratissimæ Cesareæ Catholicæ Mti."
Indorsed: "Perez. Rome. Duplicate of the 10th of January."
Spanish. Holograph partly in cipher. Contemporary deciphering on separate sheet, pp. 19.
15 Jan. 4. The Emperor to the King of England.
K. u. K. Haus-
Hof-u. Staats Arch.
Wien. Rep. P. C.
Fasc. 224, No. 2.
Has by Dr. Lee, his ambassador, received the King's letters of the 21st Oct. last, and heard his message, whereby he, has clearly understood the great love and affection he bears him. Thanks him for his good-will, and assures him that he will always find him true to his word, and ready to show, now more than ever, his desire for universal and lasting peace in the Christian world, so that both may employ their arms against the Turk, who not only has invaded and ravaged some of his own patrimonial estates, but is threatening the whole of Christendom. As to himself, he can only assure the King, his brother and uncle, that he intends to put his kingdoms and his own person at stake rather than tolerate such an evil, and that, even should peace not be made between the Christian Princes, he will devote himself to so holy an enterprise and discharge his duty towards God.
Has written on the subject to his ambassadors [in England], Don Iñigo de Mendoça, and to the Provost of Cassel (George Theimseke), who have received his instructions thereupon conjointly with Don Antonio de Mendoça, bearer of this present, and are to assure the King of his unalterable friendship. Begs that full credence be given to his said ambassadors. —[Somosierra], 15th Jan. 1527. (fn. n16)
French. Original corrected draft, .. 1.
15 Jan. 5. The Emperor to the Cardinal of York.
K. u. K. Haus-
of-u. Staats Arch.
Wien. Rep. P. C.
Fasc. 224, No. 2.
Monsieur le Cardinal, my good friend,&c. Has received his letter by Dr. Lee, and is glad to hear of his good health, as also of the good counsel and advice offered respecting his affairs, which he (the Cardinal) has so much at heart. Thanks him for his good wishes and intentions, and begs him to persevere therein. Is prepared to do the same in everything personally concerning the Cardinal, so that he may henceforward have reason to be satisfied.
Dr. Lee will tell him what decision the Emperor has just come to, consequent on his (the Cardinal's) advice, and what answer he has given respecting his own private affairs. On this point, indeed, nothing shall be omitted to give the Cardinal complete satisfaction; he will always find him a true friend. The rest he will hear verbally from Don Antonio de Mendoza, bearer of this present.—[Somosierra], 15th Jan. 1527.
French. Original corrected draft, .. 1.


  • n1. Don Martin de Guzman, son of Ramiro Nuñez de Guzman, who in 1514 was Ferdinand's ambassador at Genoa.
  • n2. Or Ortenburg. A count of this name, who was one of the Archduke's chamberlains, resided about this time in London, having been sent with a message to Cardinal Wolsey. See Brewer, Letters and Papers, vol. iv., part ii., p. 1234.
  • n3. The Dauphin and the Duke of Orleans, sons of Francis I., were then at Villalpando, a castle belonging to the Constable of Castile, D. Iñigo Fernandez de Velasco, under whose custody they had been placed. See a letter of Andrea Navagero to the Signory, dat. Valladolid, 2nd April 1527, abstracted by Rawdon Brown, Venet. State Papers, vol. iv., p. 50. The name of the place, however, is wrongly given by the Venetian ambassador, who writes Villa Lapando instead of Villalpando, a corruption of Villar Pando, which was its original name.
  • n4. Philip, the Archduke? The words are: Primum pro debito Serenissimi Regis inclytœ memoriae patris sui; and yet Maximilian, not Philip, is evidently intended.
  • n5. "Cuius solutionis terminus præfizns iani prope per triennium elapsus est," which would make the date of this memorandum to be one of the first months of 1526.
  • n6. "Et fortassis sua Serenissima Maiestas dilationem reputabit vel meam negligentiam, vel suæ Sacratissimæ Majestatis ingratitudinem."
  • n7. The bond is given at full in Bergenroth (vol. iii., p. 441), from the original preserved in Paris. Its date, Windsor Castle, 19 June 1527. It is signed by the Emperor himself, and countersigned by his secretary Jean Lallemand. This is perhaps the place to correct an involuntary mistake committed in the Introduction to the first part of this Calendar (p. xiii), wherein it is said that Charles arrived in England in 1523, whereas it was one year before, in 1522, which is the date of the bond here alluded to.
  • n8. "Dignetur Sua Maiestas respondere mihi quid sim scripturus ad Serenissimum Regem dominum meum."
  • n9. Certain passages of this memorandum, which have been purposely underlined, would lead to the belief that it was drawn up probably in 1526, before Don Iñigo's departure for England, and certainly previous to the arrival of the Bishop of Worcester (Ghinucci) on the 15th of January 1527, at the court of Charles ; for otherwise Dr. Edward Lee, the King's almoner, and ambassador in Spain, would hardly have considered himself justified in addressing, singly and individually, the Council of State on this occasion. But as that ambassador is known at various times during his residence in Spain to have claimed in Henry's name the payment of sums borrowed in England by Maximilian and by Charles, as well as of the indemnity which the latter agreed to pay by the treaty of Windsor; as just at this time, in January 1527, the question of the Emperor's debts was again being discussed in London, and Don Iñigo himself was instructed to offer certain terms of payment, it may be safely concluded that Doctor Lee reproduced in this instance his former application, without altering in the least the passages which are underlined, and which no doubt refer to the time (September 1526) when there was a question of sending Don Iñigo de Mendoza to England. At any rate, the memorandum, though bearing no date whatever, is placed in the bundle or packet of that ambassador's original correspondence between his letter of the 19th and that of the 30th of January, which circumstance, as well as the indorsement itself, has induced the present editor to place it before Don Iñigo's letters.
  • n10. "Que debia por el bien universal de la Christiandad no solo dar la capa si ge la pidiesen, mas la capa y el sayo."
  • n11. "Que andando en tratos de paz publicar tal monitorio sin traer fructo ninguno, por que si el Visorrey está determinado á la guerra no gelo impedirá el monitorio."
  • n12. Giovanni Statilio, bishop of Alba Regalis, alias Sturk Weissenburg.
  • n13. An Austin friar of this name, said to be a Spanish renegade Jew, and a confidential servant of the Cardinal of Ancona (Pietro degli Accolti), was sent by Clement on a mission to the cardinals assembled there and at Parma in October 1527, five months after the sack of Home by the Imperialists. See Rawdon Brown, Venet. State Papers, vol. iv., p. 96.
  • n14. L'aumosnier? If so, a chaplain and almoner to the Duke.
  • n15. "Y parecele quo Dios quiere que aqui se hagan las cosas por do haya mas color para hacer lo que hiziere, aunque en lo hecho ay harta."
  • n16. As on this day the Emperor was at Somosierra, on the north side of the Guadarrama chain of mountains, on his way to Valladolid, it is natural to suppose that the draft of this letter was dated from that place, where he stayed until the 18th. See Itinerary in Bradford's Correspondence of the Emperor Charles V., p. 492.