Spain: April 1527, 26-30

Pages 157-172

Calendar of State Papers, Spain, Volume 3 Part 2, 1527-1529. Originally published by Her Majesty's Stationery Office, London, 1877.

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April 1527, 26-30

26 April. 56. Secretary Perez to the Emperor.
M. Re. Ac. d. Hist.
Salazar, A. 40,
f. 358.
B. M. Add. 28,576,
f. 160.
Encloses duplicate of his last, dated the 7th inst. (fn. n1) The Viceroy reached Florence, and wrote thence to the Pope, saying that if money was speedily procured he would undertake to make the Imperial army stop in their march, and go back. He afterwards went to Bologna to consult about the affair with Mons. de Bourbon, and wrote again, saying that 200,000 ducats were wanting to pay the troops, &c.; without them nothing could be done. The report is that the Pope consents to give that sum, part to be furnished by the Florentines, and the rest by way of a loan to the Viceroy, under proper securities that the money shall be refunded. This he hears from Secretary Seron and from others who are in correspondence with the Viceroy; he himself knows nothing about it, except what they tell him; he cannot go to the Palace and hear the news, as he is confined to his house by illness.
Has been told that His Holiness fears that, if once the Imperial army gets hold of the 200,000 ducats, they will not go back, but, on the contrary, will come to Rome and demand more money. He is, therefore, considering what securities he can ask. Has no doubt that the Viceroy will give all that are necessary. Up to the moment of his writing, nothing has been decided.
The brother of the Duke of Lorraine (Vaudemont) came to Rome the other day, and was very well received by the Pope. He has now gone to Civittà Vecchia to embark; some say for France, others for Sicily. Has written to Don Ugo, informing him of this, that the Viceroy of that island may be on his guard.
The bands formerly belonging to Giovannino de' Medici, called "le bande nere," have also left Rome. Some say that they have been dismissed, and show great discontent at the measure; others assert that they are being sent by the Pope to Florence, and that money has been provided; but before they quitted Rome they did much harm, and sacked some citizens' houses, without any one daring to oppose them.
The Datary has not yet left for France and England. The general of the Franciscans, who is to accompany him as far as Marseilles, and then go to the Emperor in Spain, says that he will not leave Rome until he hears what measures the Viceroy will take with the German lansquenets and Spanish infantry now quartered between Rimini and Faenza.
(Cipher:) Has heard that the Pope is secretly treating with the Venetians to make an inroad on Puglia, promising, if they do, to help them with money. We shall soon see whether the report be true or not, as well as the Datary's plan, which is said to be to go to France and invite the King to come to Italy, making him various offers, &c. Has been told that if unsuccessful in his mission, the Datary does not intend to return to Rome, but has given orders for his house at Verona to be prepared for his reception in 20 days' time.
(Common writing:) There have been slight disturbances at Sienna owing to one of the citizens being in correspondence with the emigrants (fuorusciti). Aguilera writes to say that the governors of the place do not seem inclined either to lend money, to restore their confiscated property to the emigrants, or to give up the artillery. Had written thus far when a friend came to tell him as a positive fact that the general of the Franciscans, the Datary, and the Bishop of Carpentras, Sadoletto, the Pope's secretary, have left Rome; the last-named bishop for his own see, the three former for Civittà Vecchia and for the galleys of Vaudemont. Others assert that they are not gone, but have only retired to a monastery, there to perform their devotions during this holy week (estos dias sanctos). Cannot say which of the two reports is the true one, as he (Perez) is still confined to his house. All he can say is that the general has not informed him of his departure, though he (Perez) never fails to inquire after him, &c. The Marquis and Bishop of Astorga have not yet arrived. It appears they left Genoa on the 6th inst.
All here are rejoicing in consequence of news having been received that the Imperial army is actually retreating, owing to 80,000 ducats having been distributed among the soldiers, besides 70,000 more promised, the moment they should evacuate the territory of the Church. On the 15th the Viceroy was at a castle called Castro, not far from Forli, where he was to hold an interview with Mons. de Bourbon, the Duke of Ferrara, and the Marquis del Guasto. The conference at an end, the Viceroy was to come back; he is soon expected in Rome.
Since writing the above, has ascertained that the general of the Franciscans is still at Rome, in a monastery of his order, where he has been spending Eastertide. This letter goes by him, as that is perhaps the quickest and the surest way. Is afraid, however, that when he (the general) hears that neither the lansquenets nor the Spaniards chose to obey orders, but insisted upon marching [on Florence] he will probably change his mind and not go [to Spain] at all. Yet, it must be avowed, the report that the Imperialists were retreating, and which, as aforesaid, filled these courtiers with joy, has proved false. The men are actually advancing by forced marches upon Rome, and on the 18th were 30 miles from Florence, which, however, these people are confident will resist the attack. It is added that the Imperialists are cutting straight through the Siennese territory, on account of provisions being more abundant there than in the countries they have hitherto traversed, harassed, as they say they are, by the French and Venetians. The alarm caused here at Rome by this intelligence cannot be described. The Pope, however, hopes that the Viceroy will come back soon, and that he will prevent as much as possible the ravages of the Imperial soldiers on their march; which ravages are indeed great, since neither Bourbon nor their captains have any command over them. The report here is that wherever the troops pass they destroy and burn everything before them.
Knight Commander Aguilera has returned from Sienna. His mission was unsuccessful. The citizens refuse to give money without a direct order from the Emperor, and intend sending an ambassador to Spain.
(Cipher:) Some are of opinion that if the Imperial army comes to Rome the Pope will not stop here, but will take refuge either in France or in Venice. The ambassadors of these two powers are very solicitous just now that the Pope should not come to terms with the Emperor, but return to the [Italian] League. They promise wonders, and the King of France in particular offers to come to Italy with a powerful army, and send, besides, money and troops for the conquest of Naples.
(Common writing:) The Datary is still here, and nobody knows when he intends leaving Rome. It is generally believed that he is waiting for the issue of this present affair. When he goes, he will take with him the Bishop of Carpentras (Sadoleto), who is to remain as Nuncio in France, whilst he himself is to go to the Emperor in Spain.
Cesaro Ferramosca came back on the 24th inst. from Florence, where he had been some days waiting for the Viceroy. As the latter did not make his appearance in that city, Ferramosca would not wait any longer for him. He told the Pope how much he and the Viceroy had toiled to induce the Imperial army to retreat, and how in his journey to Bologna he (Lannoy) had been attacked by peasants (villanos), who had wounded his (the Pope's) chamberlain. The Viceroy had been so furiously attacked at first that he owed his safety entirely to the swiftness of his steed, though when the peasants knew who he was., they had treated him with due respect.
There is no news of Count Guido Rangone, the governor of Arezzo, whom the Pope had sent with a mission to Mons. de Bourbon, an evident sign that the roads are intercepted and all communications suspended. It is reported that the Florentines are determined not to open their gates to Bourbon. Rather than give him the 150,000 ducats, at which they were rated by the last agreement, they prefer resistance, as that money, they say, will keep them for three months, especially if they have, as is generally reported, again joined the League. This, however, is not so credible as appears at first sight, for neither France nor Venice will have them as allies unless the Pope joins also. On the other hand, some assert that the latter has actually signed a new agreement with France and the League, and certainly there is just now so much beating of military drums in the streets of this capital that some faith must be attached to the report. The Pope, moreover has been advised, in order to replenish his coffers, to create a number of cardinals, and it is generally believed that he will do this. France and Venice make most brilliant offers, &c.
The Imperialists are supposed to be close to Sienna, What route they will take is not known. Florence is defended by Federico Bozolo with 6,000 men, Italians and Swiss; the Marquis of Saluzzo has with him 4,000 men, not including the Italians; Count Guido [Rangone] about the same. In short they make the whole forces of the League amount to 30,000 infantry, besides the cavalry and the men-at-arms. Though the enemy proclaims that they are not afraid of us, and that they intend attacking the Imperialists wherever they can meet them, there must be some other plan in view, probably an invasion of Naples, as they fear that the Colonnese, hearing of the advance of the Imperialists, might invade the estates of the Church, as they did on the last occasion. That is the reason why they are now doubling the guards at the gates of Rome, preventing egress to all estafettes, and seizing all letters that come in. However this may be, as this fact is well known, nobody here uses that mode of conveyance for his official correspondence.
Cesaro Ferramosca has told him (Perez) that the Pope complained bitterly to him of the Emperor's generals and ministers for not fulfilling the conditions of the armistice. Of Lannoy himself he had no complaint, but against Mons. de Bourbon he had a grave accusation to make. The Florentines had offered him all the money he might want for the payment of. his troops, and yet, instead of retreating, he had ordered his men to advance, and refused the money sent by the Florentines (. no quiso tomar el dinero que ya gelo hauian embiado.)
(Cipher:) The Bishop of Pistoya has just been sent to Civittà Vecchia; some say to get the galleys ready in case the Pope wants to go away, others to bring certain wheat to Rome.
(Common writing:) There is no longer question of the Datary going to France, but it is rumoured that the Pope still wishes the general of the Franciscans to go to Spain on a mission to the Emperor.
A messenger has been sent to the brother of Lorraine [Vaudemont], who went the other day to Civittà Vecchia to embark for France, bidding him remain where he was. When the messenger arrived Vaudemont had already sailed for France, as it is believed.
The Prince of Salerno and the Dukes of Malfo (Amalfi) and Trayetto are still in Rome. There are not wanting people who say that, when ready to go, they may possibly be prevented. Has written to Don Ugo de Moncada to send for them, as most likely they dare not depart without his orders. The Marquis and Bishop of Astorga were to have been here for the holy week; but owing to a Florentine delegate (comisario) having arrested a courier who accompanied them, on suspicion that he was the bearer of certain letters of the Siennese ambassador at the camp of Bourbon for his Signory —which when investigated proved to be true—the two brothers went to Florence, where they are still, for the purpose of showing that they were in no way implicated in that matter.
A courier has just arrived, who brings letters from the Viceroy for his secretary [Seron]. The latter is to tell the Pope that unless 300,000 cr. are sent to the Imperial army he (the Viceroy) does not think that the men will go back one step. The Viceroy himself promises to pay part of that sum. For the greater security of the courier who is to go back with the answer, Cesaro Ferramosca has decided that Bernaldino de Albornoz shall accompany him as far as Sienna with an escort. It is not likely that His Holiness will agree to such conditions. If he does, Perez will not fail to advise. All he can say for the present is that the Pope's captains are enlisting recruits as fast as they can, and that the guards at the city gates are being doubled for fear of the Colonnese and Neapolitans.
Bishoprics of Oviedo and Zamora, &c.
Has no news of the general of the Franciscans, except that he is still residing at a monastery. Ferramosca wants very much to have an interview with him, but as he has been unable to ascertain his whereabouts, will most probably quit Rome to-morrow without speaking to him.
The Pope, it is said, will certainly create some cardinals, and thus procure money.—Rome, 26th April 1527.
Signed: "Perez."
P.S.—The Prior of Capua is dead. Cardinal Frenesis (Farnese) wishes to have the priorate again, but as he is by no means friendly to us, orders had better come to prevent his appointment, unless by His Majesty's express commands.
It is rumoured that Andrea del Burgo is coming here as ambassador from the King of Hungary and Bohemia. Has just heard that the Florentines have sent a man of their own to inquire of the Pope what they were to do in the present circumstances. The Pope's answer was that he wished to know first how his Romans meant to behave. If they promised to assist him and defend his cause he would remain at Rome; if not, he would embark on his own galley, and go to Pisa, though both the King of France and the Signory of Venice have offered him an asylum. Should he be compelled to go to that port he would let them know. In the meantime they were to get ready, as he had a sufficient fleet with him to receive them on board.
To-day Cardinals Frenesis, Ursino, and Cesarino have met (han estado en congregation) at Campo Dolio (Campidoglio) with the Romans, and proposed to them to lend the Pope 60,000 ducats. If they do, and promise besides to assist and defend him, the Pope will remain [at Rome]; otherwise he will go away. Nobody knows what their answer will be.
The Prince of Salerno and the Dukes of Trayetto and Amalfi will leave for Naples to-morrow, having already taken congé of the Pope.
News has been received that the Turk [Solyman] is dead.
Signed: "Perez."
Addressed: "To His most Sacred, Imperial, and Catholic Majesty."
Spanish. Holograph partly in cipher. Contemporary deciphering on separate sheet. pp. 7.
28 April. 57. Capitulatio Florentinorum.
M. Re. Ac. d. Hist.
Salazar, A. 40,
f. 339.
B. M. Add. 23,576
f. 168.
On Sunday, the 28th of April of the year 1527, at Florence, in the Palace of the Medici, and in the presence of Galeazzo Hieron. Eufredutio (sic), a native of Fano, and familiar to Sylvio [Passerino], Cardinal of Cortonna, and of Bartholomeo, "olim domini Marcii de Ferrariis Papiensis diocesis," the following agreement was concluded between the most illustrious Michaelo Antonio, Marques of Saluzzo, lieutenant-general of His most Christian Majesty in Italy, and commander-in-chief of his armies, Andrea Gritti, Doge of Venice, Francesco Sforza, Duke of Milan, on one side, and the Republic of the Florentines on the other.
1st. The said Republic of Florence to be considered as freely and voluntarily forming part of the [Italian] League and Confederation, previously existing or that may be made hereafter. (fn. n2)
2nd. The Republic engages not to negotiate with, the Emperor unless the consent and approval of the contracting parties be previously obtained.
3rd. That this present agreement in nowise affects whatever may have been done, settled, and concluded by His most Serene Highness the King of England and the most Reverend Cardinal of York, Legate of England, respecting the said League; but is, on the contrary, intended to confirm and ratify whatever conditions and obligations have hitherto been, or may hereafter be, stipulated, "quicquid ad commodum et utilitatem utriusque eorum conventum fuerit."
4th. The said Marques of Saluzzo, in the name of the most Christian King of France; the most illustrious Alvise Pisani, procurator of St. Marc, and proveditor-general of the Venetian forces (provisor in castris), and Signor Marco Ferrariis, resident ambassador of Venice, as representatives of the most illustrious Prince and Doge, Andrea Gritti; and lastly, the Magnifico Scipione Altellano, ambassador of Duke Francesco Sforza near the person of Francesco Maria della Rovere, Duke of Urbino and commander-in-chief of the Venetian forces—all and every one of whom have exhibited proper mandate and powers (patentes litteras plumbeas) in date of the 23rd inst. —promising to have this agreement confirmed and ratified by their respective masters within the period of one month from the date of the present instrument, (fn. n3) &c. The said parties "exuna, et clarissimi viri Domino Antonio Præside (?) Ecclesiæ Reipublicæ Florentinorum sufficiente numero congregati, viz., Hyeronimus de Caponibus, Antonino de Putiis, Paulus de Medicis, Matheus de Statiis, Bartholomeus de Valoribus et Nicholaus de Denia agentes virtute iis attributa, vire et nomine Reipublicæ ex altera," having signed the present at Florence on the 28th of April 1527.
Latin. Contemporary copy. pp. 2.
28 April. 58. Prothonotary Caracciolo to the Emperor.
m. Re. Ac. d. Hist.
Salazar, A. 40,
f. 354.
B. M. Add. 28,576,
f. 170
Since his letter of the 4th the Duke of Bourbon has advanced as far as Castel San Giovanni in the Bolognese. During his march Cesaro Ferramosca went to Rome, and concluded with the Pope, on the 16th ulto., an armistice of eight months. Cesaro was sent to the Imperial camp to notify the same to Bourbon, that he might observe the truce, &c. The Duke's answer was, that he himself was ready to fulfil the agreement entered into with His Holiness, but that the army under his orders would not hear of it. (fn. n4) The Viceroy then went to Rome, and thence to Florence, to prevent if possible a further advance of the Imperial troops. According to a letter of his (fn. n5) to Lope de Soria, which he (Caracciolo) has seen, a sum of 200,000 ducats was offered to the army, and yet the offer was rejected, and the soldiers continued to advance. They must be by this time close upon Florence, intent upon besieging it, or otherwise march onwards. The artillery they have left with the Duke of Ferrara, having first obtained a promise from the Siennese to furnish any guns, ammunition, and provisions that may be required for the undertaking.
The latest news is that neither France nor the Venetians will accept the armistice concluded with the Pope. Such being the state of affairs, and war being imminent, Antonio de Leyva has determined to send Captain Rivadeneyra [to Spain], that he may inform His Imperial Majesty verbally of the wants of this army, &c.
His (Caracciolo's) opinion is that when the Viceroy proposed an armistice it was chiefly owing to the precarious position of the kingdom of Naples, and also to the plague which is now visiting it. Thinks also that Mons. de Bourbon, or rather the army under his orders, has good reasons for not accepting it; for certainly, though eight months' truce might be considered a sufficient basis whereupon to build hereafter a solid and lasting peace, the fact of France and the Venetians refusing to grant the armistice sets the Emperor entirely free from his engagements, and places him in a condition to show to the World that it was no fault of his if the truce was not accepted.
Had the 200,000 ducats been delivered, and a short date fixed for the payment of the remainder, he (Caracciolo) has no doubt that the soldiers would have been persuaded to go back. The Imperial army might then have encamped on Venetian territory, and perhaps induced the Signory to accept the armistice, and pay a reasonable sum of money, which they can well do, being, as they are, the richest people in Italy just now. Once in the Venetian territory the Imperialists might keep an eye over Lombardy and defend it from any attack of the French; whereas, now, the truce not being accepted, the army, without receiving the 200,000 ducats, goes far away from this estate of Milan, which is so ruined and so exhausted that no help whatever can be expected from it. No money is to be had, and such is the scarcity of provisions, not only in the capital but in the whole of the Duchy, that many people in the villages actually die of hunger, as no other food is left but the grass and plants in the fields. The Germans and other soldiers of this garrison are living entirely at the expense of the inhabitants (viueno sopra le spalle della cità et del estato). Antonio de Leyva has not a "quatrino" to pay his men with. But let not His Highness fancy that these Germans or Spaniards will on this account allow one single penny (soldo) to be deducted from their usual stipend; on the contrary, though their arrears amount to more than double the sum that it was last year, they will not consent to a reduction, and the Milanese, on the other hand, cannot be expected to furnish both provisions and money. If the Imperial army goes as far as Rome it will be nearly 300 miles away from Milan, and when the enemy sees our forces occupied in those parts, and Antonio de Leyva unable to move for want of money and provisions, it is almost certain that their army, opportunely reinforced by Frenchmen, Switzers, and others, will make a dash upon the Duchy and put it in jeopardy. Leyva has at present only 5,000 Germans and little more than 1,000 Spaniards under him, a force insufficient to garrison and defend so many fortified towns and smaller castles as there are in the estate. Another thing to be taken into consideration is the Emperor's express command to his ministers in Italy to conclude a truce with the Pope, for it might happen that, in consequence of the advance of the Imperial army, the Pope and the Florentines would be induced to pay a larger sum and offer better conditions of peace, as otherwise Florence might ultimately be sacked, (fn. n6) and perhaps Rome too, and the Pope obliged to fly from his capital; all matters of the utmost consequence at the present juncture. Owing to these reasons the expedient (apuntamiento) above proposed, though violent, would be far preferable. The sack of Florence, though beneficial to the army itself, he (Caracciolo) fancies would not be approved by the Emperor, whose heart is too compassionate not to regret such violence in time of truce. It might still happen that the Duke of Bourbon, perceiving that Florence was in a condition to resist his attack, would leave it behind and march on Rome. But these are matters on which he (Caracciolo) cannot express his opinion, since he does not know what Mons. de Bourbon's plans and intentions are. Has no doubt, however, that the generals (fn. n7) have duly informed the Emperor of their determination, and that they have plenty of reasons to act as they do. Captain Latore (La Torre), present bearer, will duly inform His Highness of the state of things here.—Milan, 28th August. 1527.
Signed: "El Prothonotario Caracciolo."
Addressed: "Sac. Ce. Mti."
Italian. Original mostly in cipher. Contemporary deciphering on separate sheet pp. 4.
29 April. 59. Secretary Seron to the Emperor.
M. Re. Ac. D. Hist.
Salazar, A. 40,
f. 361,
B. M. Add. 28,576,
f. 174.
Sends duplicate of the Viceroy's despatch, which Lorenzo Aguirre, the courier, took.
His Imperial Majesty must feel sure that the principal reason which the Pope had for signing the armistice was his total want of money for carrying on the war. The Florentines have spent nearly one million of gold, and refuse to give any more. The Pope, besides, saw that were his troops to be worsted he would infallibly lose Florence, and perhaps the Pontificate too; whereas if he was successful all the gain would be for France, and for the Venetians. Knowing this well, and wishing for a truce, the Pope was for some time in suspense, as he found no means of allaying the fears which pressed on his mind respecting the Emperor's intentions. The ambassadors of the League kept telling him that the Emperor wished to make himself master of Italy, and that the Imperial army in Lombardy would come to the Romagna, and though he (the Pope) was told that Mons. de Bourbon had received positive orders to remain where he was, and fulfil the treaty signed by the Pope, he could not be quieted until it was suggested that the Viceroy should be sent for to come to Rome, as he did, and settle, if he could, the affairs of the army.
The Viceroy, on the other hand, knew perfectly well that his visit to Rome would be fraught with danger and excessive personal annoyance, but, all things considered, he decided to come. (Cipher:) The ruin of the kingdom [of Naples] had already commenced, and if no remedy was provided, the whole of it would have been lost. His Imperial Majesty may believe him (Seron) when he says that not only the provinces and districts [of Naples] were unprepared to make any resistance, but that spontaneously, and for the sake of change, most of them had sent deputations, some to the Pope, and others to the King of France, through Renzo da Ceri, offering their services, &c. The Viceroy perceiving this, and that he could not possibly prevent it, as he had no money or men to carry on the war at so many points, decided on a suspension of hostilities. The armistice was then concluded, by which means the towns and castles conquered by the enemy were restored, the fleet of the confederates sailed away, and the Pope forsook his allies, who had almost conquered the whole of Naples and the Abruzzi.
All this was obtained through the Viceroy's coming to Rome. The Pope, at first, showed great satisfaction and confidence, but very soon letters came from Cesaro Ferramosca, from Bourbon's camp, explaining how he had found slight disposition there to abide by the truce. It was consequently agreed that he (the Viceroy) should go to Florence, that he might from thence negotiate with Bourbon, and persuade the Imperialists to go to the Venetian territory, such as the distrct of Rubico, (fn. n8) where there are no fortified towns. The Duke of Ferrara could not oppose an arrangement of this sort, as he asserts that this district, which is contiguous to his estate, belongs to him. The Pope himself approved of the scheme, saying, "When the Venetians see the Imperialists encamped in their territory they will the sooner agree to the armistice." And so it happened, for when the Venetians heard that the Pope had signed the truce, they suspected that the Imperialists would occupy Reggio, and immediately withdrew their forces on the other side of the Pò.
Meantime the Duke of Bourbon, who had remained inactive at Castel San Giovanni, between Bologna and La Mirandola, for upwards of one month, perceiving that the Venetian army could no longer offer opposition, began to march in the direction of the Romagna, and notwithstanding the agreement entered into with the Pope, sent here a gentleman of his chamber, named Montbardon, who saw His Holiness, and agreed that on the payment of 150,000 cr. the army under his orders should withdraw from the estates of the Church; though in a letter to the Viceroy, of which a copy is enclosed, (fn. n9) he had positively declared that he wished that sum to be raised to 200,000. The Viceroy arrived in Florence, where he was visited by Mons. de la Mota (La Mothe), and by another gentleman of Bourbon's suite, when an agreement was made with the Florentines on precisely the same terms as those stipulated by Montbardon, namely, that on the payment by the Pope of 150,000 cr. (escudos) the Imperial forces would withdraw from the estates of the Church. This sum was to be paid in the following manner: 80,000 cr. within four days, and the remaining 70,000 during the ensuing month of May, by bills of exchange on Ferrara or Modena, at Bourbon's choice. With this arrangement Bourbon's men seemed very pleased, and the Pope recovered his tranquillity of mind. The Viceroy thought, and not without reason, that his journey to Rome had been quite successful, although out of the 150,000 ducats he (himself) paid 20,000, and pledged himself pro formâ that His Imperial Majesty would repay the remainder to the Florentines. Of the remainder, 60,000 were to be paid by Philippo Strozzi and Giacopo Salviatis, according to the agreement made with Moncada on the 22nd of September [1526].
In consequence whereof the Viceroy decided to hold an interview with Bourbon, whom he met on this side of the Alps (Apennines).
I will not stop to describe what happened to the Viceroy on his way thither and since, because His Majesty will be informed by a letter which I have just received from him, and of which a copy is enclosed. Since then no argument has been omitted to persuade the Pope to increase the stipulated sum by 50,000 ducats; but his answer has always been that he could not, if he wished, give one farthing more, for the sum which had been prepared at Florence, in virtue of the first agreement, had been entirely spent for the subsidy of the garrisons of Florence and Bologna. Has written to the Viceroy announcing this determination of the Pope, and also that His Holiness has again returned to the League with Venice and France; that the Duke of Urbino and Marquis of Saluzzo, with their respective forces, are now marching to the assistance of Florence and of His Holiness, and are already in Tuscany, not far from our army.
The Imperialists who had left behind the territory of Sienna, the better to ensure the supply of provisions, and were marching upon Florence, have suddenly returned to their former quarters close to Sienna. The object of this movement is evidently to leave Florence on one side, and march on Rome. God knows what may ensue, for both parties have fears and anxiety to deal with. (fn. n10)
It is reported that the Pope is enlisting troops as fast as he can, and that he will have at the end of .this week 8,000 men, with whom he intends defending Rome in case of its being attacked. Some of these new levies are destined for the service of the galleys, and to infest the coast of the Siennese, but as it might happen that, after going thither, they might be sent against Naples, I have written to the Council of that kingdom, and also to Don Ugo and Alarcon, warning them to be on their guard, and call the Spanish infantry together again.
All things considered, the Imperial servants ought to rejoice at Bourbon's determination. It is very desirable that he should approach Rome under present circumstances, because were the Pope to dally with the Viceroy, courteously or uncourteously (cortes ó descortesmente) as it might be, then the whole of the Spanish and German force might advance and make a sudden attack upon this city (cargar sobre lo de acá). The Colonnese might also make a dash (venir de golpe) and recover the lands they lost during the last campaign; for although they have not the means of increasing their force, or doing much by themselves, yet united to the detachments from Naples they might be of great assistance in an undertaking against this city, and thus prevent the Pope from acting contrary to the Emperor's interests. His Holiness is well aware how strenuously the Viceroy has laboured for the observation of this armistice. He is now at Sienna, and probably will not return here. I fancy that were the Pope's wish to be carried out, and the Imperial army to stop in its march, the Viceroy's safe-conduct would be respected by the enemy; but such not being the case, he (the Viceroy) will not dare return to Rome.
The Pope evidently wishes for the strict observance of this truce in all that concerns Naples, because were he to be attacked by the troops of that kingdom and by the Colonnese, whilst the Imperialists advanced on Rome, he might be in great danger. The Viceroy, himself, has an interest in observing it, as otherwise the Pope would never again trust the Emperor or his ministers, and the war would rage more fiercely than ever. This cannot be successfully carried on with the want of discipline now prevailing in our army, for the men will not obey their commanders unless they are regularly paid. Even in the event of their advancing as far as Rome—which is the best solution that can be expected under present circumstances—it is to be feared that, after doing all possible harm in this city, they will march on to Naples, there to demand payment of their arrears, &c. — Rome, 28th of April 1527.
Spanish. Original mostly in cipher pp. 4.
29-30 April. 60. Secretary Perez to the Emperor.
M. Re. Ac. d. Hist.
Salazar, A. 40,
f. 364.
B. M. Add. 28,576,
f. 183.
After closing the duplicate of his letter of the 26th, which went by Bernardino de Albornoz, present bearer, the Viceroy's courier was sent back with the answer that the Pope would not give the 300,000 ducats demanded of him, on the plea that he was not sure that after paying that sum the Imperial army would positively retreat. He therefore preferred spending that sum in his own defence. He is now enlisting troops as fast as he can, who are to be sent to Viterbo in all haste. News has come that the Imperial army has retaken the road to Florence, at which these Romans are greatly delighted, as they say the Imperialists (cesareos) are sure to be annihilated, the army of the League being much stronger in numbers than they are. They place great confidence in the Duke of Urbino, whom they say the Florentines have lately gained over to their cause by restoring a very strong castle of his, which they took some time back, at which the Duke has been highly pleased, and promised his support.
Has been told that the Siennese gave Bourbon 22 field pieces and 4,000 infantry, and offered to supply his army with provisions for three months gratis (de gracia). They are all very determined, and ready to sacrifice their lives and fortunes for the success of the undertaking.
The Pope is somewhat in dread of the Neapolitans, though he says he feels sure that the Viceroy will nevertheless fulfil the conditions of the armistice. Yet if the Imperialists were to be worsted, which may God avert, serious inconvenience might arise from their being hand over head as they are at present.
(Cipher:) All those who wish for the Emperor's success would very much like to see the Neapolitans stirring and coming this way, because were they to enter Rome now, the Imperial army would not come and sack the city, which is what these Roman courtiers fear most. The Florentines, on the other hand, do nothing but send their goods and chattels here from fear of Bourbon's army. He (Perez) has written to Don Ugo informing him of the state of affairs; does not know what resolution will be taken, but certainly should he come here [with the Colonnese] the Pope would not remain one day more at Rome.
(Common writing:) This morning the Prince of Salerno and the Dukes of Malfa (Amalfi) and Traietto, Cesaro Ferramosca, and several more Neapolitans who were here [at Rome] left for Naples. They go by land, and will ride so hard that they expect to reach the frontier to-morrow.
The Viceroy is expected here to-morrow. All are anxious to hear what message he brings from Mons. de Bourbon, and the Pope wants also to know what his intentions are respecting Naples, as he seems confident that the army there will not stir to invade the lands of the Church.
Has just been told that the general of the Franciscans will also start for Spain to-morrow. Cannot yet say whether he will be the bearer of this letter, but whether he does or does not, he cannot fail to inform His Majesty of the state of affairs.
There has been much difference of opinion in this last consistory about the new creation of cardinals. Some people doubt whether any will be made, though most of the applicants have paid the money beforehand.
The Romans have not yet offered the Pope either men or money; the only thing they have promised is to pay one third of the amount that the ecclesiastics and courtiers shall give. This proposal has been accepted, and their quota, estimated at 60,000 ducats, is actually being distributed among the citizens according to their individual income.— Rome, 29th April 1527.
News has come to-day that the German lansquenets and the Spaniards, when at 14 miles from Florence, suddenly retraced their steps and marched towards Sienna. They had marched 13 miles in one day. This movement of Bourbon is considered as of very bad omen here, since the people suspect that he intends attacking this city. So great has been the alarm caused by this intelligence, that the guards at the city gates are being doubled, and great fears are entertained lest the Colonnese and Neapolitans should make another attempt. The Pope, it is said, has ordered three or four of his own galleys to come to Sant Paolo, close to Rome, for what purpose nobody knows.
Gave last night to the general of the Franciscans the duplicate of the present letter, and of that of the 26th, which Bernaldino de Alarcon took. Hears that he (the general) will not go so soon, but will wait until the Viceroy returns. News has come that the Imperial army is soon to be reinforced by 15,000 Germans, and that His Majesty had sent 100,000 ducats towards their pay. Antonio de Leyva was preparing to meet them. Cannot say whether this news is true or not, but if true, these Germans will be of great assistance just now.
Military preparations of all kinds are being made here. Artillery has been sent to Viterbo and other places in. the Roman estates; everywhere the castles and towns that are susceptible of defence are being strengthened, and provisions, removed from the villages that cannot be defended, stored in them.
Hears at the last hour that the reason why the Imperialists, after approaching Florence, retraced their steps and took the direction of Sienna, was that certain secret intelligences (tratos), which Bourbon had in that city, had been discovered, and some of the parties concerned taken prisoners.—Rome, 30th April 1527.
Signed: "Perez."
Addressed: "Sacrmæ. Cesæ. Catholcæ. Mati.''
Spanish. Holograph partly in cipher. Contemporary deciphering on separate sheet pp. 4.
30 April.
S. E. L. 2,849, f. 72,
B. M. Add. 28,576,
f. 181.
61. Treaty of Peace between the King of England and the King of France. (fn. n11)
The Commissioners on the part of Francis, King of France, are as follows:—
Gabriel de Grammont, Bishop of Tarbes.
Francois, Vicomte de Turenne, Knight.
Antoine le Viste, Knight, Sieur de Fresnes, Parisiensis Senatus and Primus Britaniæ Præses."
Johannes Joachim Passanze (di Passano), Seigneur de Vaux.
Commissioners on the part of England:—
Thomas, Duke of Norfolk Treasurer of England.
Charles, Duke of Suffolk, Lord Marshal of England.
Thomas Bolenus (Bouleyn), Viscount Rochefort.
William Fitzwilliam, Treasurer of the King's Household.
Thomas More, Chancellor of the Duchy of Lancaster.
The following articles were concluded and agreed:—
1st. The treaty made at the More on the 20th of August 1525, between King Henry on one part, and Madame Louise, the Regent of France, and King Francis on the other, to remain in full force.
2nd. True peace, friendship, confederacy, and alliance between the contracting Princes, their heirs and successors, and the dominions which they at present possess, or may acquire in future, to subsist till the end of the World.
3rd. None of the contracting parties to help or assist in any way the enemies of the other.
4th. The King of England has claimed the title and possession of the kingdom of France. The wars which have arisen out of those claims have been the cause of mortal enmity between the two nations. The King of England renounces his claims to the title or kingdom of France for himself and his successors.
5th. The King of France binds himself and his successors and heirs to pay to the King of England and to his successors and heirs for all times to come, till the end of the World the annual pension of 50,000 gold crowns (each crown to be worth 38 soldi Turonenses) in two instalments, viz, the 1st May and 1st November of each year.
These payments do not in any manner liberate the King of France from the payment of the 2,000,000 which he owes the King of England and his successors, according to the said treaty concluded at the More on the 30th of August 1525.
The King of France binds himself and his successors to deliver, without any compensation, to the King of England and to his successors, in the town of Brouage, in Xantonia (Saintonges), every year, such a quantity of salt, that if paid down in money its price would amount to 15,000 gold crowns (of 35 soldi Turonenses each), which at present are worth 38 soldi. No export duty of any sort to be levied on this salt.
6th. Should subjects of either of the contracting parties infringe any of the above stipulations they shall be punished accordingly, and yet the treaty will remain in full vigour.
7th. The contracting parties bind themselves to ratify, and exchange the ratifications of this treaty formally subscribed by themselves, and sealed with their great seal. They also bind themselves to swear to the same, and give them the force of perpetual law in their respective kingdoms.
Follow the names of the prelates, nobles, and cities in both countries who are to be securities for the strict execution of this treaty. (fn. n12)
The King of France binds himself to have this treaty ratified by the estates (etats) of Normandy and Languedoc, the Parliaments of Paris, Fontaines, Rouen, and Bordeaux. The King of England takes it upon himself to have the same authorised and ratified (authoricetur et emologetur) in his Court of Chancery, as well as in the Court of King's Bench, in the Court of Common Pleas, and in the Court of Exchequer.
Follow the powers. Franciscus Dei gratia, &c. Henricus Octavus Dei gratia, &c.
Latin. Contemporary copy. pp. 14.


  • n1. No. 47, p. 136.
  • n2. Quod predicta Respublica Florentinorum de vetere sit et esse intelligatur liberè et expressè tanquam principalis in præsentis fœderis, ligæ et intelligentiæ [actu] comprehensa, &c." Some days before, on the 26th, and after Lannoy's departure from Florence (on the 23rd), there had been a revolution in that city, which was easily put down by the Duke of Urbino, though the inhabitants later succeeded in expelling the Medici from the city and proclaiming independence. See Brewer, p. 1361.
  • n3. The League was renewed on the 27th of June. See Rawdon Brown, Venetian State Papers, &c, vol. iv., p. 69.
  • n4. Che per sua signoria non restaria, ma lo exercito contradicea.
  • n5. Probably that of the 25th, No. 52.
  • n6. Potria occorrere que essendo passato avante lo exercito, per el timore incorriano il Papa et Fiorentini a mayor (sic) summa et ad altre condizione, ò vero potriano pigliare Florencia et saccagiarla et similmente Roma, et fare fugir il Papa, cose tutte di grandissimo momento."
  • n7. "Ambi dui questi signori habino facto con cause urgentissime quello hanno facto."
  • n8. Rovigo,
  • n9. Not in the Academy's volume.
  • n10. Dios sabe lo que se seguirá, por que ninguna de las partes está sin trabajos."
  • n11. Published by Rymer in the fourteenth volume of his Fœdera, p. 218, with a few slight alterations. It is there preceded by an introductory preamble, beginning: "Cum divinior illa hominum pars," which I have omitted as unnecessary.
  • n12. Their names are given at full in Rymer, p. 223.