Spain: November 1527, 1-20

Pages 449-460

Calendar of State Papers, Spain, Volume 3 Part 2, 1527-1529. Originally published by Her Majesty's Stationery Office, London, 1877.

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November 1527, 1-20

2 Nov. 229. Paragraph of a Letter from King Ferdinand.
M. Re. Ac. d. Hist.
Salazar, A. 41,
f. 317.
The Hungarians at the diet generally called Ragūtse (sic) have decided to furnish to His Majesty two ducats for each house, and one light horse (unum equitem levis armaturœ) for each 20 inhabitants, to be paid at the expense of the kingdom. The King and Queen had left Buda for Alba Regalis (Sturk Weissemburg), where they were to be crowned the day after, or the 3rd inst.—Vienna, 2nd November 1527.
Latin. Contemporary copy. 1.
3 Nov. 230. Andrea del Borgo to the Emperor.
S. E. L. 1,55.
ff. 194-6.
B. M. Add. 28,576,
f. 398.
The agent (factor) of the Duke of Ferrara came yesterday to see him (Borgo) at the fifth hour of the night. Told him that Lautrec had lately received a new commission from France, according to which the French ambassador was to demand from the Duke 200,000 ducats, one third down, the rest in two instalments. The Duke was furious when he heard of this, and remonstrated strongly against what he called want of consideration on the part of the French. Upon which the ambassador insisted and threatened to break off the negotiations. The ambassadors of the League then sent the Duke certain articles, and a brief from the Pope, dated December of last year, advising him to reconsider the proposals of the League before he rejected them. At last the Duke asked to see the King of France's powers concerning the proposed marriage and other matters. Seventeen more days will be gained by this stratagem, during which the Duke hopes that the Emperor will make peace. After many nego tiations and much threatening language from Lautrec's ambassador, the Duke has consented to give free passage [through his dominions] as well as provisions to the army of the League, but positively refused to help it against the Emperor. The French offer to make the Duke's son, Hercole, captain-general of the force, if he will declare for them.—Ferrara, 5th of November 1527.
Signed: "Andrea del Burgo."
Italian. Original, pp. 2.
4 Nov. 231. Alonso Sanchez, Imperial Ambassador in Venice, to the Emperor.
M. Re. Ac. d. Hist.
Salazar, A. 41,
f. 292.
In his letter of the 27th September, when mentioning the names of the foreign ambassadors who had repaired to Ferrara, he (Sanchez) said that Ambrosio of Florence was one of them. Has since ascertained that it was not he, but one Joachin [Passano], who used once to reside in England for the King of France. As this Joachin was sent here by Lautrech, and had an audience of this Signory conjointly with the French ambassador (Bishop of Bayeux), took his leave for Ferrara on the 28th, and joined on his way to that city Gaspar Contarini, the Venetian ambassador, who was waiting for him, the intelligence seemed to be correct. The remaining deputies were Cardinal Cibo, in representation of the cardinals who are at Parma, Cavalier Casale for the King of England, and Count Massimiliano Estampa (Stampa) for the Duke Francesco.
About that time letters came from His most Serene Highness the King of Bohemia and Hungary addressed to Miçer Andrea del Burgo, ordering him to speak to the Duke of Ferrara in his name, and exhort him to persevere in his duty to the Emperor ; also for the Germans at Rome to make haste and march on Lombardy. Immediately on the receipt of these despatches I sent a trusty messenger to Ferrara, who delivered them to Miçer Andrea, together with a memorandum of his. The Duke then showed him the answer received from Lautrech, which was to the following purpose: "The Duke's excuses cannot be admitted ; he must say yes or no, declare for the League or for the Emperor" Miçer Andrea asserts that the Duke is in great tribulation, not knowing what to reply. He is very well inclined, but says that me army of the League invades his estate ; he has not the power of resisting them. He will do his utmost to gain time, but unless he hears soon of the approach of the Imperialists, or of peace being made in the meantime, he cannot see how he can possibly avoid taking part with the League. Such is also Miçer Andrea's view of the matter. He (Sanchez) has always been of opinion that the Duke will seize the very first opportunity of declaring in favour of the confederates, now that he has got all he wanted from the Emperor.
It is reported here (at Venice) that the Pope has made an agreement (concierto) with the Emperor, though the conditions are not stated. On the receipt of this intelligence, which was said to be most authentic, he (Sanchez) despatched a messenger to Miçer Andrea, that he might communicate it to the Duke and prevent his joining the League, as there could be no doubt that his affairs with the Pope had been taken care of in the negotiation, &c. May the Pope long persevere in this mood and fulfil his engagements. Many here say that he will not, and that Lautrech has gone from Piacenza to Parma. This would prove that His Holiness is in secret intelligence with Lautrech, for the French getting possession of those cities will be a sufficient excuse for his not delivering them as agreed. Has seen letters from Parma and Piacenza stating that Florence had strongly protested against that invasion, saying that they would not contribute to the expenses of the war unless Lautrech withdrew from the Roman estates and marched upon Milan. On the other hand, the English ambassador (Sir Gregory Casale) who resides here, has been heard to say that his brother, the Prothonotary, was the one who led the dance in the Ferrarese negotiations (es el que lleva el bayle de aquella negociacion). It is also reported that Lautrech had a long conference with Cardinal Freneses (Farnese) at Citadella, near Piacenza, and that the cardinals who are at Parma are constantly plotting against the Emperor.
Said in his last that Lautrech had repassed the Pò, in the direction of Milan. It was not so ; what Lautrech did was to detach his Gascons to the assistance of the Venetians and of the people of Sforza, whom Leyva was pressing very hard indeed, for he had taken Viagrassa, and after carrying away every valuable, returned to Milan.
It is asserted that the brother of Cardinal Lorraine has arrived before Milan with 3,000 Germans; also that the Imperial array has actually gone out of Rome.
(Cipher:) Certainly all this coming of reinforcements to the camp of the League does not look much like peace, and yet everywhere do the confederates announce that the negotiations in Spain advance, and that a treaty is soon to be concluded between His Imperial Majesty and the King of France. His (Sanchez's) impression is that no reliance can be placed on such statements, and that they are only designed for the purpose of preventing the Emperor from making proper preparations. The French King is every day informed of the progress of his arms, and according as this may be he causes his ambassadors to make more or less concessions in his name. Lautrech is intriguing busily just now, and what with his late success, what with the disorderly state of the Imperial forces, which neither the Emperor nor his brother the King [of Hungary] seems able to remedy, is no doubt drawing to his master a most favourable picture, and writing as if the whole of Italy were in his power (que lo tiene todo en su puño). His (Sanchez's) zeal for the service prompts him to say that if His Imperial Majesty decides for the continuance of the war, something must be done towards the reformation and maintenance of his Italian army. With money, an able commander-in-chief to restore discipline, and perhaps, too, some reinforcements, things are not yet so far gone but that they can be retrieved.—Venice, 4th November 1527.
Signed: "Alonso Sanchez."
Addressed: "To His Sacred, Imperial, and Catholic Majesty."
Indorsed: "To the King. 1527. From Venice. Sanchez. 4th November."
Spanish. Original mostly in cipher. Contemporary deciphering on separate sheet pp. 5.
6 Nov. 232. Andrea del Borgo to the Emperor.
S. L. 1,553, f. 196.
B. M. Add. 28,576,
f. 398.
Some of the ambassadors of the League admit that Lautrec is dealing too harshly with the Duke. It is probable that the 200,000 ducats will be reduced to one halt; and perhaps less. The Duke in his turn asks,—
1o. The most ample protection. 2o. Absolution for all injury he may have done to the present Pope or his predecessors. 3o. Restitution of Ferrara as well as cession of all signorial rights which the Pope and the Papal See claim to have on Modena and Reggio. 4o. A cardinal's hat for his own son. 5o. Restitution of the Polesino, now occupied by the Venetians. 6o. "Quod habeat mare liberum." 7o. That he may be allowed to raise salt at Comachio (Comaccio) 8o. All stipulations to be ratified by the Venetians and by the Pope, and the rest of the confederated powers. 9o. the Duke's son to be Bishop of Modena, and Archbishop of Ferrara.
The Duke nevertheless persists that he wishes to remain true to the Emperor, and hopes that this will not cause the loss of his estate.—6th November 1527.
Signed: "Andrea del Burgo."
Latin. Original, pp. 1½.
6 Nov. 233. Summary of Letter from the Marquis Del Guasto to the Emperor. (fn. n1)
M. Re. Ac. d. Hist.
Salazar, A. 41,
f. 329.
Lautrech, after leaving part of his army in front of Milan, has taken the road to Naples. His artillery goes by water (poragua).
Don Ugo has expelled from Baja the Venetian fleet, which had effected its junction with that of Doria.
The rest of the confederated forces maintained their positions, with the intention of coming to Rome, if the Imperialists march on Florence.
Great want in the army, and provisions very scarce in Rome and its neighbourhood.
The men-at-arms very diminished in numbers, most of them having retired to the Abruzzo.
Should Lautrech invade Naples by sea and land, as he announces, no great resistance could be made; and if this army goes to its help, Lombardy must fall into the hands of the enemy.
There are only two means of defending the Emperor's possessions in Italy, and recovering what has already been lost, namely, a good and honourable peace, or a vigorous war. If the latter is adopted, there will be urgent need for us to have money and reinforcements from Germany.
Has come to Rome, though not yet recovered from his late illness, at the express desire of Don Ugo, and done all he could conjointly with Alarcon, Vere (Veyre), and the General [of the Franciscans] to bring about the Pope's liberation.
Is trying to take the army out of Rome and lead it against the enemy. If the Germans consent (queriendo los alemanes) he intends attacking Florence, but that will very much depend on the enemy's movements.
Has written to the Prince of Orange [Philibert de Chalon] requesting him to come to Rome and take charge of the army. The Prince in reply has asked for an escort, which shall be sent to him. On his arrival the Marquis will deliver the command into his hands, and retire to his own estates in Naples. He cannot consistently with his honour do otherwise. Should he tarry, it is his intention to resign and leave Juan de Urbina in his place. Before his departure, however, will introduce certain reforms in the Spanish and Italian infantry, as Juan Baptista [Castaldo] will explain.—Rome, 6th November 1527.
Spanish. Contemporary copy. pp. 2.
10 Nov. 234. Martin de Salinas to the King of Bohemia and Hungary.
M. Re Ac. d Hist.
C. 71, f. 186, vº.
On the 22nd of October Francisco de Llanos arrived with His Highness' despatches, the contents of which were exceedingly agreeable to the Emperor, as might have been anticipated. Not so the news from Italy, of the same date, for the loss of Pavia and Alessandria in Lombardy, and the state of things in those countries, were anything but reassuring.
This is the moment, now that in consequence of the late victories the campaign of Hungary must be at an end, for His Highness to come to the succour of Milan and the rest of Lombardy, thus securing the object of his wishes.—Burgos, 10th November 1527.
Addressed: "To the King."
Spanish. Original draft .. 1.
10 Nov. 235. The Same to the Same.
M. Re. Ac. d. Hist.
C. 71, f. 186, vº.
Owing to his own letters being generally addressed through Miçer Enrique Velzer [Belzer?], who is for the time the surest conveyance, he (Salinas) thought he might dispense with the formality of sending duplicates by another route. However, as experience shows that no precaution is superfluous in these times, he will now repeat the substance of former despatches. The Emperor is doing all he can to raise funds, and with the advice of his councillors the following taxes are to be levied on the inhabitants of his several kingdoms. Each parish or baptismal font is to serve His Imperial Majesty with one mark of silver; the cathedral churches with a proportionate sum of money. The grandees [of Spain], the nobles in general, the prelates, &c. are to give large sums as a loan, and the towns that are represented and have a vote in the Cortes are already selling property to the amount of 400,000 ducats. Moriscoes and Jews (confessos) offer to give upwards of one million of gold, on condition of not being disturbed by the Inquisition. Out of the above sums His Imperial Majesty purposes sending in about a fortnight 100,000 ducats for the enterprise of Lombardy, and 300,000 more for the pay of his Italian armies, since it has been found that the soldiers, for want of pay, are not doing their duty. Should His Highness be unable to go to Italy in person, he is to make such provision and send such reinforcements as may be deemed sufficient to reconquer what has been lost, and initiate the offensive.
Certain men of business offer to pay in Italy the 400,000 ducats which are to be raised here out of the parish tax (pilas), so that if His Highness decides to cross over there can be no difficulty in transmitting the money.
It appears that Antonio de Leyva still occupies Milan and other towns in Lombardy with about 6,000 Spaniards and Germans. Should Milan be lost before the arrival of His Highness, its castle would still be left, which is a strong position, easy to defend. Leyva with his forces might then join, and the campaign be prosecuted with such vigour as to gain the prize for which His Highness baa been so long striving. The opportunity is at hand, and ought to be seized forthwith, for if His Highness is to wait for further and more explicit declarations on this subject than those contained in the Emperor's last letters, all will be in vain. The King of France, the Venetians, and the rest of the Italian potentates have formally declared more than once that they very much prefer the Emperor retaining the Duchy of Milan for himself than that it should be given to His Highness. In his (Salinas') opinion the present moment is the fit time to cross over to Italy. His Highness has already won most important victories over his enemies in Hungary, and cannot but be successful in Lombardy, and deserve his brother's gratitude.— Burgos, 10th November 1527.
Addressed ; "To the King."
Spanish. Original draft, .. 1.
11 Nov. 236. Miçer Andrea del Borgo to the Ambassador of the King of Hungary at Venice.
M. Re. Ac. d. Hist.
Salazar, A. 41,
f. 319.
Lautrech is already in the Parmesan, and part of his forces in the Duchy of Ferrara. His artillery on barges, beyond Parma, to be conveyed by water. The ambassadors of the League urging this Duke to declare in its favour. The ambassadors from England arrived yesterday by post, in order to remove certain obstacles which stood in the way of an arrangement. The Duke is delaying the conclusion as much as he can, but will be obliged in the end to accept the conditions offered, only that he will neither give money, nor engage his own person and estate, but merely furnish a small contingent of horse and foot for a certain length of time. As to his marriage with one of the King of France's relatives, the Duke is doing all he can to put it off. In all other matters he remains faithful to the Emperor. Begs him to communicate the above intelligence to Sanchez, that he may secretly and by means of his cipher inform Perez at Rome. The latter is to warn Alarcon and the Prince of Orange not to heed this resolution of the Duke of Ferrara, but make haste and come this way with all their forces.
Latin. Cipher. Contemporary copy of cipher, .. 1.
12 Nov. 237. The Secretary of the Duke of Ferrara to Alonso Sanchez.
M. Re. Ac. d. Hist.
Salazar, A. 41,
f. 314.
I am very much astonished at your Lordship no longer addressing me his letters, as before, to be forwarded to Spain. If your Lordship thinks that the presence at this city of so many ambassadors of the League is an obstacle, I can assure him that there is not the least danger, and that he can direct to me, as before, and that I shall be most happy to forward all letters sent to me.—Ferrara, 12th November 1527.
Indorsed: "Copy of letter of Bonaventura, the Ferrarese Secretary.
Spanish. Original in cipher. Contemporary deciphering on separate sheet, .. 1.
13 Nov. 238. The Emperor to Secretary Perez.
M. Re. Ac. d. Hist.
Salazar, A. 41,
f. 198.
B. M. Add. 28,577,
f. 1.
His despatches of the 18th Aug., 2nd July, and 24th Sept. have come to hand. Whereas the suit at law pending between the Marquis of Astorga and the Count of Benavente is being tried at Rome, let the affair remain as it is, and each party do his best, without interference with their proceedings. He (Perez) is not to move from Naples until an ambassador be appointed to represent him [the Emperor] at the Papal Court.
Is sorry to hear of the death of the Archbishop of Cosenza. He was an affectionate servant, and one who could be relied upon.
With regard to the filling up by His Holiness of that archbishop's See and others that have since become vacant, full instructions shall be given [to the ambassador] after the agreement resulting from the public negotiation with His Holiness is made known.
Respecting the census of Naples, the matter shall be arranged with the Pope at the time that the other secret and more important negotiation is brought to a close.
Cannot attach faith to the report that some of the Germans are in treaty with the enemy. Should it be so, it would be advisable to have them replaced by new levies.
(Cipher:) 400,000 cr. in bills of exchange are about to be remitted to Italy.—Burgos, 13th November 1527.
P.S.—Don Pedro de Castro, once a priest, is a prisoner here, owing to certain violence (ciesta violencia) offered to a widow at Saragossa. Since the judicial proceedings began he has tried to resume his former clerical habit, and thus exempt himself from the royal jurisdiction. On his papers and titles, of which a copy is enclosed, being examined, it appear that besides being a spurious son (for he was begot by a nun and a married man), he himself has been twice married, ne second time to the widow of two husbands, he being the third. He first obtained from the Penitentiary at Rome a dispensation to enjoy the title and privilege of the sacred orders of priesthood, and lately a bull from the present Pope, allowing him to marry a widow or virgin without losing thereby his former clerical character. On the strength of which bull the said Castro now pretends that the marriage, which he says he has contracted with the said widow at Saragossa, is valid, and that in case of prosecution he must be arrayed before the Ecclesiastical Court and not in any manner subjected to the civil tribunals. As this petition of Castro, who is said to have appealed to Rome, might, if attended to, cause great injury to our royal jurisdiction, and favour bigamy in these kingdoms, he (Perez) is desired to go to the Pope, and request that his application may be disregarded.
Spanish. Original minute. Pp. 3.
15 Nov.
M. Re. Ac. d. Hist.
Salazar, A. 41,
f. 308.
239. Copy of Letter from Lope de Soria to Don Ugo de Moncada.
Has .written many times since he left Genoa. Wonders whether his letters have reached, for not one has been answered.
Our army of Lombardy still holds Milan, Como, Treço, Leco, and Monza; all the rest the enemy has taken. If the army comes from Rome Leyva will recover all this in less time than the confederates took to possess themselves of it, and war will be averted from that kingdom [of Naples] which Lautrech threatens to invade.
Three days ago, on the 15th, the terms of the agreement between the confederated powers and the Duke of Ferrara were published in that city. They are as follow:—
The Duke promises to help the League with 100 men-at-arms, and 6,000 ducats during six months, to begin the very day that the ratification of the terms arrives from France, as well as the powers for the marriage between his son Ercole and Madame Renea (Renée of France).
The Duke to have the protection of all the members of the Italian League, besides the investiture of Ferrara, Modena, Reggio, and other fiefs of the Church, the salt of Comacho, &c.
With regard to that of Carpi, which the Duke received from the Emperor as a marriage portion for Don Ercole, the King of France will do everything in his power to enable him to retain it.
The marriage of Don Ercole to Madame Renée.
A cardinal's hat for the other son, together with the archbishopric of Ferrara and bishopric of Modena.
Absolution for every sinful act he may have committed against Pope Clement VII. or his predecessors, which absolution and granting of investiture, as above said, the King of France engages to procure from His Holiness as soon as he recovers his liberty.
Andrea del Borgo wishes this information to be transmitted severally to all the generals and ministers of the Emperor in Italy. He excuses the Duke of Ferrara, and says that he could not do otherwise, and that if the Imperialists go that way he will prove by his deeds that he is still the Emperor's friend. He (Soria) is much afraid that Miçer Andrea is mistaken in the Duke, and that all this is mere talk, though it is possible that our army taking that direction he will turn round and desert the League, which at any rate will show us how to deal with him in future.
The ambassadors of the League who are at Ferrara have requested Count della Mirandola to expel him (Soria) from his estates. Imagines that the Count, who is a good servant of the Empire, will not attend to their request. Should he yield at last, it is Soria's intention to take refuge at the Court of Mantua, though there is every reason to suppose that the confederates are trying to win him over as they did the Duke of Ferrara.—La Mirandola, 15th November 1527.
P.S.—To-day, the 18th, news has arrived that Lautrech was at Parma, and his army in the neighbourhood. He is waiting for some Germans, and part of his infantry is encamped on the road to Pontremoli, as if he intended going to Florence, which route the ambassador of that Republic, now at his camp, is daily pressing him to take, as he says that at the sight of his army the Florentines will declare for him.
Spanish Contemporary copy. pp. 3.
15 Nov.
K. u. K. Haus-
Hof-u. Staats Arch.
Wien. Rep. P. C.
Fasc. 224, No. 70.
240. Don Iñigo de Mendoça, Imperial Ambassador in England, to M. de Bouclans.
Has forwarded the following letters for the Emperor. Does not know whether they have been received. One written on the 6th of September, sent by Antonio de Layçola; another to him (M. de Bouclans) (fn. n2) towards the end of the same month sent by Olo de Braça ; (fn. n3) two by the Imperial ambassador in France; one more by the vessel (zabra) which sailed on the 26th of October; and the last by an English vessel on the 6th inst. In all of which letters he (Mendoça) has fully replied on all points mentioned in the Emperor's despatch of the 30th of September, dated from Palencia. Has sent his answers by every possible route. Thinks some must have reached the Emperor; repetition will therefore be needless.
Last Sunday, the 10th inst., the King was presented with the Order of St. Michael, and in the evening entertained the French ambassadors at a grand banquet. The King, Queen, Princess, and Cardinal were at one table; at another the Grand Master of France (Montmorency) took the head, and with him were the other ambassadors, the two Dukes of this kingdom, and some French noblemen. Dancing began after the banquet, the Grand Master of France dancing with the Princess. Then came the play (farsa), which represented the King and Cardinal supporting the falling Church by their writings against Luther, and also procuring the Pope's liberation. In which play the Spaniards were called barbarians, and the Emperor a tyrant. The two sons of the King of France were introduced, imploring the help of the King and Cardinal, who agreed to challenge the Emperor, should he not consent to release them. Then the Emperor's Chancellor (Gattinara) came forward to conclude peace, and so the performance ended, the whole argument tending to show that the Emperor was the enemy of England.
The answer publicly given to the French ambassadors by the Bishop of London the day before their departure was that the King (of England) would assist the King of France to the extent of his power, both in obtaining the liberty of the Pope, and regaining possession of his sons. Writes this without cipher, because the thing is too public to require any.
As regards the Queen's affairs secrecy is for the same reasons equally needless. The present report is that next Tuesday all the prelates and lawyers of the realm will assemble to give their opinion upon the matter, and it is thought that some will stand up for truth and justice. Will write all that he can learn about it. In the meanwhile it would be well that the despatch which the general [of the observants] was charged to procure at Rome should come at once. Has written frequently about this, but from the imperfect means of communication between Flanders and Italy fears his letters did not arrive before the death of the Viceroy of Naples, which is reported here just now. (fn. n4) If so, letters should be sent from Spain urging haste in the transmission of this despatch, for which the Queen greatly longs.
News has come from Italy this week that the Pope has been already set at liberty by the Emperor's command, and that the Germans and Spaniards are more cordial than usual towards each other, that they have received two months' pay, and that it was hoped that they would march to the relief of Milan. It is also said that the Doge of Genoa is preparing troops. But the Emperor will of course have had earlier and more certain information of all this.
It is also said that the King and Queen of Hungary [Ferdinand and Anna] were to be crowned at Buda on St. Simon and St. Jude's Day. Does not know whether the coronation has taken place. God grant it may have been so, for if peace should not be concluded, the King will be able to help effectually to the Italian war.
Spanish. Original draft, pp. 2½.
17 Nov. 241. The Emperor to Lope de Soria.
M. Re. Ac. d. Hist.
Salazar, A. 41,
f. 371.
His letters of the 3rd and 17th August advising the loss of Genoa have been duly received. The news came first by way of Monego (Monaco). It cannot be helped, but every effort must be made to recover the city from the enemy, either by peace or war. He (Soria) is right when he says that our losses by sea must be immediately repaired ; a number of galleys is now being built at Barcelona. Leyva must also be provided with money; bills of exchange shall be procured as soon as possible, or a remittance in specie sent through our brother of Hungary. In the meantime Soria is to give Leyva the rest of the 100,000 ducats which is still in his hands. But Georgio de Franspergh (Fruntsperg) must first be paid the sums which he lent, or stood security for, in Mons. de Bourbon's time for the pay of his Germans.
It is not probable that the cardinals alluded to in his dispatch will go to France, though they may still meet in some Italian city for the purpose of providing for the administration of ecclesiastic affairs on the plea of His Holiness' detention, and that of the cardinals who are with him. This might after all be the origin and cause of a schism through the favour and assistance which the Italian cardinals would give to those assembled in France, the Cardinal of England (Wolsey) having of his own free will, and without any commission from His Holiness, conferred that high dignity on the Chancellor of France (Antoine de Prat); but it is to be hoped that God will overrule this as befits his service and the Holy Catholic Faith, and that all intrigues shall cease the moment the Pope's liberation is accomplished, as it must have been by this time.—Burgos—November 1527. (fn. n5)
Spanish. Original draft in Gattinara'. hand. pp. 2.


  • n1. On the margin of this paper, which forms part of a "Sumario de las cartas del Marques del Gasto y otros," drawn for Gattinara's inspection, is a minute of answer in that Chancellor's hand, referring the Marquis to the memoranda sent to Don Ugo, as well as to the verbal instructions whereof Castaldo had been, or was to be, the bearer.
  • n2. Jean Lallemand, the Emperor's secretary.
  • n3. Thus in the original, perhaps Ochoa de Isasaga.
  • n4. He died at Rome on the 20th. of September.
  • n5. The date is not filled up, but as the draft is placed between Don Iñigo's despatch of the 15th, and another one of Salinas of the 23rd, it is natural to suppose that it was made out and closed between those dates. The Emperor arrived at Burgos on the 18th, and remained until the end of the year.