Spain: November 1527, 21-30

Pages 460-477

Calendar of State Papers, Spain, Volume 3 Part 2, 1527-1529. Originally published by Her Majesty's Stationery Office, London, 1877.

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November 1527, 21-30

22 Nov. 242. The Emperor to the Pope. (fn. n1)
M. Re. Ac. d. Hist.
Muñoz, A. 80.
Has heard of his delivery through letters from France Though his ministers have not yet informed him of it, he (the Emperor) is sure that they cannot have failed in the execution of his orders. Nothing could afford him greater pleasure than to hear that his detention, in which he (the Emperor) had no part, had been put an end to, and especially that his delivery had been accomplished by his own ministers and servants. Can assure His Holiness that if he will he in future, as he hopes, a, good father to him, and a good shepherd to the Christian flock, his behaviour and acts shall be those of an humble and dutiful son, attending rather to the restoration and increase of the Apostolic See, and of its dignity, than to the glory of his own Empire, as he has fully declared to his Nuncio, and as His Holiness will soon learn from the lips of the person whom he (the Emperor) has deputed for the purpose, and who is shortly to leave for Rome. Wishes for nothing so ardently as to be able to give His Holiness pleasure and satisfaction in all things, and, therefore, begs him until the arrival of his said ambassador not to allow himself to be deceived by those who, led away by their bad passions, will by false report contrive to lead him astray.—Burgos, 22nd November 1527.
Latin. Original draft, pp. 1½.
23 Nov. 243. Martin de Salinas to the King of Bohemia and Hungary.
M. Re. Ac. d. Hist.
C. 71, f. 187. vº.
Wrote on the 10th inst. Does not enclose the duplicate, as the conveyance is not a very sure one. The Emperor is still making active preparations for the Italian campaign. He is about to remit 100,000 ducats for the expenses of the war. Should His Highness be unable, owing to other business in hand, to cross over in person, in that case he is requested to make such provision and raise such new levies of men as to ensure victory to the Imperial arms. Leaves it entirely to His Highness' well-known prudence to dictate the measures required to deliver Lombardy from the French.
Peace is as far off as ever; not that the Emperor is less desirous of it, but because King Francis, though he uses very pacific language through his ambassadors, is carrying on war as briskly as ever.
The Emperor has decided to go to Valencia to be sworn, and thence to Aragon to hold the Cortes, as he hopes to obtain a considerable sum of money from that kingdom. He will not stay there long, as he intends to appoint a person to represent him, and will return to this city (Burgos), where the Empress and the Prince actually reside, and the Council of State is sitting.
His Highness' letters of the 5th of October have come to hand. The intelligence contained in them respecting the Vayvod [of Transylvania] and Count Christobal [Frangipane] has given much satisfaction.
Respecting Miçer Andrea del Borgo all the members of the Council have been spoken to ; various opinions prevail, some of the Councillors being in favour, others against, and it is doubtful whether the Emperor will accede to his petition.
As His Highness has frequently written to inquire about news from the Indies, he (Salinas) takes this opportunity to enclose the memorial of Pedrarias Davila, one of the Emperor's captains. All other papers of the same sort shall be sent in future.
Laxao (La Chaulx) requests with urgency the payment of his pension. Has no other answer to give to his application but that he must take patience and wait, as he himself (Salinas) does, and he too is considerably in arrear.—Burgos, 23rd November 1527.
Addressed: "To the King."
Spanish. Original draft, pp. 2½.
25 Nov. 244. The Archbishop of Bari [Fr. Gabriel Merino] to Alfonso Valdés.
M. Re. Ac. d. Hist.
Cart. De Erasmo,
etc., f. 62.
Is glad to hear that the Grand Chancellor Gattinara has returned, and been so well received by the Emperor.
Has received the transcript of the letter which Erasmus wrote to him (Valdés). Begs him to send information of whatever relates to Erasmus.
(Holograph:) The latter has applied to him for assistance in his case. Wishes to know what the Archbishop of Toledo (Fonseca) (fn. n2) and others intend doing in his behalf, as he is desirous to assist him with all his power.—Jahen, (fn. n3) 25th November 1527.
Latin. Original, and partly holograph, pp. 2.
28 Nov.
M. Re. Ac. d. Hist.
Salazar, A. 41,
f. 306.
B. M. Add. 28,577,
f. 7.
245. Lope de Soria to the Emperor.
Duplicate of his letter of the 15th with the following postscriptum:—
Lautrech is still at Parma, and his army encamped in the neighbourhood. Part of his infantry on the road leading to Pontremoli; an evident sign that he intends marching on Florence. Indeed it is said that an ambassador of that Signory, now with him, is urging him on, pretending that his countrymen will otherwise declare for the Emperor.
Novi has been delivered to the Duke of Ferrara by Lautrech's order. Leonelo, (fn. n4) the brother of Count Alberto, was inside the place, and certainly has not gained much by his French predilections, since the whole of his estate has been quietly handed over to Ferrara.—La Mirandola, 28th November 1527.
Signed: "Lope de Soria."
Spanish. Original, pp. 4.
28 Nov. 246. Andrea del Borgo to the Emperor.
S. Arch. Gen. E.
L. 1,551,
ff: 199—202.
Sends this note by a messenger of the Marquis of Mantua (Federigo Gonzaga). Hears from Home that a peace has been concluded, though it is not yet known for certain whether Don Hugo de Moncada has signed it or not. The army of the League is still at Cassano, &c. On the 16th inst. a proclamation was publicly read [at Ferrara], stating that the Duke bad joined the League at the request of Cardinal Cibo, and signed it. The treaty, it is asserted, contains 17 articles, as follows:—
1. The Duke to give the army of the League free passage through his territory, and provisions besides.
2. During six months after the ratification of the treaty by the King of France the Duke to maintain 100 men-at-arms (equos gravis armaturœ), and to contribute 6,000 cr. (escudi) every mouth.
3. Not to allow the passage of the Imperial troops through his dominions, but to stop all couriers and intercept all letters, and in general do all he can for the Pope's liberation.
Many other similar services were then required of the Duke which he refused to perform.
4. A marriage between Hercules [d' Este], the Duke's son, and Madame [Renée] of France.
5. Full protection from the League, and the promise of the Pope's absolution for all the harm he (the Duke) may have caused to the Church.
6. The investiture of Ferrara.
7. The abandonment by the Pope of all his rights to Modena, originating in the sale and pledging of that estate by Emperor Maximilian.
8. The Duke is at liberty to take salt at Comachio (Comaccio).
9. Another of the Duke's sons to be created cardinal, and to have besides the bishopric of Modena and the archbishopric of Milan.
10. The Venetians and Florentines to give back all former property of the Duke's now retained by them.
11. The King of France to stipulate in his next treaty with the Emperor that Hercole [d' Este], the Duke's son, is to remain in possession of Carpi.
12. The Venetians to give back Catiguolani, whilst Francesco Sforza is to renounce all rights he may have upon that place.
13. The Duke to be one of the contracting parties in the treaty of peace. (fn. n5)
For 18 consecutive days the Duke has sustained a contest with the ambassadors of the League. He says that he could not be of use to the Emperor if he were to hold his estate through the favour of those who have inflicted such serious losses upon the Emperor.
The Prince of Orange returns to Rome.
The French and Venetian fleets are at a port in the Siennese territory; Don Hugo de Moncada at Naples.
The Imperial array is stronger than that of the confederates, but the errors committed are very grave.
Roman news. The treaty with the Pope not yet signed. His ministers ask 200,000 ducats indemnity.
Lautrec intends taking the Imperialists at Rome by surprise.—Datum die 28th Novembris 1527.
P.S.—News concerning the movements of Lautrec's army.
Addressed: "To His most Sacred, Imperial Majesty."
Latin. Holograph mostly in cipher. Contemporary deciphering, pp. 8.
29 Nov. 247. Secretary Perez to the Archdeacon of Belchite. (fn. n6)
M. Re. Ac. d. Hist.
Salazar, A. 41,
f. 324.
Received on the 9th inst. two of his letters dated 3rd, 9th, and 16th August, which Lope de Soria addressed to him from La Mirandola. Though they were rather old, having reached him in such roundabout way, he was glad to hear from Spain and learn that all his despatches to the Emperor up to the' arrival of Knight Commander Figueroa had reached their destination.
Soria could not send by the same opportunity a large packet of letters addressed to the late Martin Degues, (fn. n7) but as he promises to forward it soon, we shall open them when they come, and act accordingly.
Archbishopric of Granada, and pensions reserved on that see. Distribution by the Pope of those which the late Cardinal Rangone possessed on the archdeaconry of Belchite. Encloses list of members of the Papal household to whom the pensions have been granted.—Rome, 29th November 1527.
Signed: "Perez."
Addressed: "To his Signory, the Archdeacon of Belchite."
Indorsed: "Duplicate of the 29th November. From Perez."
Spanish. Holograph, pp. 2.
30 Nov. 248. Hernando de Alarcon to the Emperor.
M. Re. Ac. d. Hist.
Salazar, A. 41,
f. 330.
Rome is utterly destroyed, and the Imperial army fast falling to pieces, which will be the cause of the loss of Naples. On all other matters refers to Vere's despatch, and to the memorandum now taken by Captain Gayoso. (fn. n8)
Begs that the commandership vacant by the death of Aguilera (fn. n9) be given to Captain Amendaño, (fn. n10) an excellent officer, who has served well throughout the present campaign.
Begs also for the archbishopric of Cossenza for his brother, Lope de Alarcon. (fn. n11) —Rome, 30th of November 1527.
Indorsed: "From Alarcon. Rome. 30th November. Relacion de Cartas."
Spanish Contemporary draft, .. 1.
30 Nov. 249. Secretary Perez to the Emperor.
To 1 Dec.
M. D. Pase. d. G.
Pa. r. a. 1. Hist.
d' Esp.
B. M. Add. 28,577,
f. 9.
Since the 23d, the date of his last despatch, (fn. n12) much, negotiation has been going on respecting the Germans and the settlement of their arrears. No settlement, however has been made up to this date (1st of December), except that they insist upon being paid before they quit Rome; refuse to release the hostages (guitar los hierros á los obstages); and are dissatisfied with the pledges (prendas) offered to them.
On the 28th, Secretary Seron arrived from Naples with a memorandum of the stipulations which Don Ugo thought might be proposed for the Pope's liberation. Negotiations were accordingly set on foot, and though His Holiness found the conditions rather harsh, he agreed at once to almost all of them. Don Ugo was to be consulted thereupon, and the Secretary (Seron) to go back to Naples for that purpose.
As the Emperor must by this time be fully informed of the state of the negotiations, he (Perez) will but slightly allude to them. Respecting the securities to be given by the Pope for the payment of the 250,000 cr., there seems to be no great difficulty. He (the Pope) offers to give besides to the Germans a month's pay, amounting to 30,000 ducats, as soon as he recovers his liberty, and 30,000 more 15 days after, neither of those sums to be deducted from the 250,000. The Germans to keep the hostages during three months as security for the 150,000 ducats, to be paid by the Pope in instalments of 50,000 each month. Similar hostages to be given to the Spaniards for the remaining 100,000, though who, and how many, the hostages are to be has not yet been ascertained, nor has the time of payment been fixed. Between this and to-morrow this matter is to be settled, and it will also be known whether the Germans agree to those conditions or not. Cardinal Colonna has summoned their captains and officer; to a meeting, and if they approve of the conditions, the negotiations with the Pope will be proceeded with.
The Pope is willing to grant the Emperor the tithes of the temporal estates of the Church in Naples, on condition of his retaining one half. With this half His Holiness intends paying the 250,000 ducats, as the proceeds of the whole are calculated at 550,000. Don Ugo asked for a similar concession for Sicily, the whole to be exclusively for the Emperor, but this the Pope refused to grant. Cannot say whether he will do so in the end.
Out of the proceeds of this tithe His Holiness is now to give two months' pay to the Germans; for although several means of procuring ready money have been pointed out to him, such as the sale of certain ecclesiastical offices in Naples, which might easily bring him 300,000 ducats, or the creation of four Neapolitan cardinals, each to pay 20,000 ducats, he has rejected them all, saying that he is not at liberty yet, but will think of it in future.
Yesterday, the last day of November, the negotiations were on the point of being suspended or entirely broken off; upon which a message was sent up to the castle for His Holiness to prepare at once for a journey to Naples, and besides give the Spaniards three cardinals as hostages, namely, Campeggio, Triulzio, and Pisani. (fn. n13) The message had the desired effect, for although the Pope seemed at first determined to follow the army to Naples rather than grant the conditions demanded, he at last gave way through fear. He (Perez) saw him come out of the Cardinal's Hall (Congregation), and enter his own private apartments (comara), crying like a child, and saying that he would never consent to such humiliation. At last the abovementioned cardinals themselves, from fear of being sent as hostages, persuaded him to grant the conditions, which he reluctantly did.
Cardinal Colonna is doing all he can for the Emperor's service, without however forgetting his duties as an ecclesiastic and a high dignitary of the Church. He is working incessantly for the Pope's liberation, and offers his person and fortune for that purpose.
Ascanio, his brother, has been here lately, but has now gone to Naples on the summons of Don Ugo, who wishes him to be by his side as being High Constable of the kingdom of Naples.
Cardinal Armellino died on the 23rd ulto. The Pope gave his archbishopric to Fr. Geronimo de Monopuli (Monopoli), whom the Emperor had formerly presented on Lannoy's recommendation.
The Marquis del Guasto is doing all he can to get the Spaniards out of Rome. He thinks he shall succeed, though the greater part of them are in great distress.
The Marquis and Bishop of Astorga left yesterday, the 30th of November, for Gaeta, where a vessel (nao) is waiting for them.
The Pope no longer objects to the daughter (fn. n14) of the Duke of Camarino marrying the son of Ascanio Colonna.
It is said that Mons. de Vadamonte (Vaudemont) and Renzo de Cheri (da Ceri) are coming down through Revena (Ravenna) to invade the kingdom of Naples by way of Aquila, and that at the same time the French fleet will show itself on the coast.
Has frequently tried to obtain a prorogation of the term for the delivery of the white steed (hacanea) as census of Naples, but Secretary Seron writes to say that the Council of that kingdom have decided that there is no need to ask for further prorogation, as the Pope, being now the Emperor's prisoner, cannot receive the said steed or the 1,000 ducats which ought to accompany her. When the time comes both shall be sent.
The German captains have told the Cardinal (Pompeo Colonna) that they believe their men will agree to the conditions proposed, and quit Rome immediately, provided they are paid; but that now they ask for another half month's pay, which will make three. Every effort is being made to satisfy them by means of securities or pledges placed in their hands.
News from Piacenza of the 20th ultº. state that Lautreque was still there, but intended to come this way. Most of his infantry had already crossed a river there, and was close upon Forlin (Forlì). Eighteen galleys and two carraks of the enemy had arrived at Porto Ercole. The forces on board amounted only to 1,200 men, and their intention was to go to Sicily, and try if they could find wheat, of which there is now great scarcity in Provence. Renzo da Ceri was also expected there [at Porto Ercole] with more vessels and men.
Of the Venetian galleys, which Don Ugo repulsed at Baya (Baia) with so much loss to them, nothing has been heard since. Nor do we know the whereabouts of certain ships laden with Sicilian wheat, which another set of Venetian galleys captured between Otranto and Brindisi. The last news from Lautreque is that he was in the Parmesan. Having heard of the arrival of the Germans, and of the late successes of Leyva, who is said to have taken the artillery of the Venetians, he had decided to remain where he was. Others assert that he is gone to Piacenza, where he still was eight days ago.
Guasto and Alarcon had agreed with the captains of the Spanish infantry that on the payment of one ducat per man they should all quit Rome. Accordingly to-day, Wednesday, the 6th inst., (fn. n15) six months after their entering Rome, the artillery and ammunition, the light horse, and innumerable carts went out, so many that no one could have formed an idea of their number unless he had seen them. The infantry, with their standards unfurled, were already assembled at a piazza called Nagon (Navona), that they might all leave the city together. Everything was in order for the departure when the men, who were mostly hackbutiers, suddenly rose in mutiny, crying Paga! Paga! most of them refusing to follow the standard bearers of their respective companies, who, attended by the drummers and by a few welldisposed and honest soldiers, had already left Rome with the Marquis del Guasto at their head. The rioters then went out by another gate and took the road to Naples, but Juan de Urbina ran after them, and after a good deal of talking persuaded them to return [to Rome] the same night. Meanwhile the Germans, seeing the Spaniards fairly out of Rome entered some of the lodgings they had just left, and began plundering their contents, until their colonel, being informed of the fact, had a certain proclamation, threatening with death whomsoever should be found stealing, read to them. It is to be hoped that the Spaniards will soon obey orders and go out, as well as the men-at-arms, to whom considerable arrears are owing. Guasto with the few men who followed him, and the baggage went that very day to sleep at Imula (Imola), seven miles off. The artillery is outside Rome, not far from the city bridge, under a good escort, ready to follow the rest of the Spaniards when they choose to go out.
Has just heard that Lautreque is coming this way, and has readied a place called Il Borgo di Sant Donnino, on this side of the Parmesan.
The Marquis del Guasto, perceiving that the Spanish infantry did not follow him out of Rome, and also that Cardinal Colonna, Alarcon, De Bere (Veyre), and Moron were of opinion that he had better come back, did so the other day. Already ere his arrival most of the mutineers were beginning to join their standards, persuaded by Juan de Urbina, who had gone from house to house begging the men to stand to their duty. Meeting their comrades on the road, the mutineers returned, when all met in the piazza of San Pietro, and again broke out, entering Rome by the bridge of Sanct Angelo, firing their hackbuts and crying Paga! Paga! No sooner did the Germans hear of this than they also ran to arms. The Spaniards then retired to their lodgings, and remained quiet the whole day. What will be the upshot of all this he (Perez) cannot say; his opinion is that unless one month's pay at least is given to them they will not stir out of Rome, and that if they do, it will be to go to the kingdom of Naples, for which upwards of 1,000 of them, who would not return with Juan de Urbina, have already started. Alarcon has written to the mutineers, saying he wants to speak to them. Will they wait for him?
The artillery and ammunition has returned to where it was previously. The light horse are quartered at certain villages in this neighbourhood.
Thinks that the news of this mutiny must be welcome to the confederates, though they say that the Duke of Urbino has already started for Lombardy, and quitted the camp of the League.
Juan de Urbina has been, and is still, working very hard to persuade the Spaniards to return to their duty. The men generally love him, and those who do not dread him immensely. He sometimes inflicts severe punishments on the soldiers, and has been more than once in danger of his life. Only the other day, whilst he was addressing his men, and up- braiding them for their conduct, one of the hackbutiers stepped out of the ranks and aimed his piece at him. very luckily for Urbina the match fell to the ground, and he killed the soldier with his own hand.
Don Ugo's answer is hourly expected. Until then we shall not know what is to be done concerning the ropes liberation.
8th.—Up to this day no answer has come from Don Ugo. An estafette has been despatched requesting him to give it as soon as possible, and informing him that Cardinal Colonna and all those who look to the Emperor's affairs in this city are of opinion that it is far more important to maintain and feed this Imperial army than to have the satisfaction of seeing the Pope detained at Sanct Angelo; that since the Spaniards refuse leaving Rome without being paid at least one month, the Pope has necessarily been informed of it, and advised to provide for their wants if he wishes to obtain his liberty soon. The Pope, accordingly, is willing to create the four Neapolitan cardinals mentioned in Secretary Seron's memorandum, and to employ all the money proceeding therefrom, besides the 25,000 ducats of the tithes, in getting the army out of Rome. This implies, of course, that Don Ugo should make the cardinals pay, if possible, at the rate of 25,000 ducats each.
Has heard that His Holiness sent a message to the German captains by means of an interpreter, asking them for help and advice at the present juncture, as he said the Spaniards bad drained all his resources both at Rome and in Naples, so that he had nothing left with which to pay them. The captains' answer was that they would meet the next day, and let His Holiness know their answer; after which they called upon Cardinal Colonna and told him the message received from the Pope. The Cardinal went to speak to His Holiness about it. He owned having sent the interpreter to the Germans, but denied having given him the aforesaid message; he had only told him to represent the stress he was in, and request them to come to his assistance and treat the hostages well. (fn. n16) If the first part of the message be true, as the Pope himself admits, it is natural to presume that the whole was deliberately sent, more with an intention to embroil the Germans and Spaniards together than to promote peace between them.
On the 8th inst. the 1,000 Spaniards who took the road to Naples returned, having lost about 15 men in killed and wounded in an encounter with the inhabitants of Veletri, who stood up for the defence of their town and would not let our people in. Cardinal de la Valle, (fn. n17) who was inside, seeing the Spaniards approach, left the place in haste. On their return to Rome they joined their comrades, and determined not to move without one month's pay. They were to have a meeting today, but have not met yet. The men-at-arms, however, have done so, and agreed to remain six days [here at Rome] on the payment of six ducats per man. Has an idea that their terms will be accepted, and also that the Veletrians will pay the whole or part of that sum rather than have them quartered in their town, and that in the meanwhile they will procure them quarters elsewhere.
Lope de Soria writes in date of the 21st of October that Pavia had been taken by Lautrech, who, at the instigation of the cardinals assembled at Parma, is, they say, about to march this way for the Pope's deliverance. He had left the Venetians and Sforzini to prosecute the siege of Milan, and the fleet of the confederates was to attack Naples or Sicily.
Don Ugo's answer arrived on the 11th. He approves of the terms of the treaty with the Pope, provided effectual means be taken for the evacuation of Rome and the march of our troops on Lombardy, or wherever they may be most wanted. To effect this we calculate that 200,000 ducats will be required immediately, or a fortnight after the Pope's liberation; but if the latter consents to create four or five cardinals at Naples, the proceeds of such a creation, besides the 25,000 ducats he has there, and what money he may collect here [at Rome], will be sufficient to pay the troops and induce them to leave Rome. Don Ugo has been written to to hasten this business and remit the money.
Has received through Lope de Soria, who is still at La Mirandola, His Majesty's letters of the 17th of August. Is glad to hear that his own despatches of the 18th May and 11th June, which Knight Commander Figueroa took, have been received. Has no reply to make to the Emperor's letters, as his own contain all the information required.
Presentation of bishops—Licentiate Sebastian Ramirez for the sees of Sancto Domingo and La Concepcion.
Letters have been received from Palencia, where the court was on the 28th of September last, stating that a treaty of peace between His Imperial Majesty and the King of France had been concluded, but that before its ratification the French had invaded Navarre, owing to which it was thought that the negotiations would be suspended. It was further stated that His Imperial Majesty had granted the investiture of Milan to his brother the King of Hungary, and appointed the Marquis of Mantua (Federigo Gonzaga) commander-in-chief of all his armies in Italy. Whether this last intelligence he true or not, it is highly unpalatable for the Emperor's enemies.
As soon as the money comes from Naples the Pope's liberation will be accomplished. Don Ugo is doing all he can to collect it; he writes to say that six or seven more Neapolitans wish to become cardinals on this occasion, but cannot find the money required (20,000 ducats) as soon as needed.
Death of Auditor Casador, Bishop of Alguer.
With regard to the message said to have been sent by we Pope to the Germans, it appears now that it was a little exaggerated (no fué tanto como se habia dicho).
The Prince of Orange is coming from Sienna; a force consisting of 200 light horse and three companies (banderas) of infantry has gone to escort him through the estates of me Church.
Prothonotary Del Gambaro (Umberto di Gambara), once Apostolic Nuncio in England, arrived on the 15th. He passed through Piacenza and saw Lautreque there; he does not say for certain that he is coming this way, but only that he heard it so stated on the road. He asserts that peace between the Emperor and France was almost concluded; the only question unsettled being the Duchy of Milan, which king Francis wished to be returned to Francesco Sforza, without any previous trial of his case; whereas the Emperor insisted upon its being submitted to impartial judges. Gambara further adds that the King of England contributes 40,000 ducats monthly for the expenses of this war, and will go on paying the same sum until the Pope is liberated, but not afterwards. In England it was thought that the liberation had already been accomplished. Lautreque had with him 5,000 Gascons, 2,000 Switzers, and 3,000 German lansquenets, besides 350 or 400 lances, and good artillery. He was expecting Mons. de Vadamon (Vaudemont) with more troops. When Gambara saw him he was encamped at Florençola (Firenzola), on this side of Piacenza.
These Germans are every day increasing on their demands. To-morrow, the 16th, they will be addressed categorically by the commanders, so as to ascertain what their intentions really are, and see what had better be done for the Imperial service. They have made up the account of their arrears, and find that, till the end of September only, they are owed upwards of 297,000 ducats. If so, they must have included in that sum (han de tomar en cuenta) the 150,000 promised by His Holiness.
Don Ugo writes to say that he can only find two ecclesiastics willing to take cardinals' hats just now, and that they refuse paying the money before the Pope is liberated. Had he been free, Don Ugo thinks that five more might be found to take cardinals' hats.
Sanchez sends word from Venice that the ambassador of the Signory (Navagero), who is at the Imperial Court, had informed the Doge that peace was on the point of being concluded. He (Navagero) had not been invited to take part in the conferences, at which the Signory was anything but pleased, imagining that if not included in the treaty they are sure to have to pay money. He (Perez) went to call on the Pope by order of Alarcon, and communicated this intelligence, at which His Holiness seemed pleased.
It is rumoured that the Duke of Ferrara is very much pressed (combatido) by the ambassadors of France, England, and Venice, as well as by the cardinals residing at Parma, to desert the cause of the Empire. He (the Duke) resists as much as he can, but it is generally believed that as the French are gaining ground in Lombardy, he will in the end be obliged to accept any conditions that may ensure him the possession of his estates. He has already furnished them with provisions, artillery, and ammunition.
Don Iñigo de Mendoça. writes to Don Ugo in date of the 1st of November, advising that Mons. de Laxao (La Chaulx) was expected at the Court of France, with full powers from the Emperor to conclude peace. He (Don Iñigo) believed that La Chaulx would afterwards repair to London to assist at the peace being ratified and signed there through the instrumentality of the King and Cardinal.
Hitherto the Germans have not sent in their answer respecting the money which we propose giving them; namely one month and a half's pay before they leave Rome, a similar amount a fortnight after, and lastly 50,000 ducats monthly for three months. Their answer is hourly expected, and in the meantime every effort is being made to procure money to meet our engagements, and issue also one portion of pay to the Spaniards, who are willing to quit Rome on such conditions. The hostages remain as they were.
The last news from Don Ugo is that three Neapolitans have been found willing to pay each 20,000 ducats for a cardinal's hat, on certain conditions and guarantees.
Lautreque is reported to have abandoned his design, if he ever had it, of coming this way, and to have taken the road to Milan. On the 20th news came that the French fleet, consisting of 21 galleys, was in sight of Civittà Vecchia. Troops were sent in that direction, and, if necessary, more shall be detached.
The Germans persist in their former demand, and threaten that unless they receive immediately two months and a half's pay they will execute the hostages. If the money expected from Naples comes in soon, we shall be able to make them abate a little of their demands, and promise to pay the remainder within a fortnight. The Pope knows all this, and as much for his own sake, as for that of the hostages, whom he wishes to see fairly out of the hands of the Germans, is doing all he can to raise funds, in which work he is assisted by Cardinals Monte (fn. n18) and Sanctiquatuor, (fn. n19) each of whom has a nephew among the hostages.
Sarra (Sciarra) Colonna, who is at Camarino, sends to say that unless succoured in time he will be obliged to join the League, as he is closely invested, and has no provisions. Ascanio came here the other day to confirm Sarra's statement, but with the insubordination now prevailing among the Germans, it is considered by the Imperial captains that nothing can be done. Ascanio then went to see the Pope, and promised that if he would only order the confederates to raise the siege of Camarino he would prevail upon his brother [Sarra] and upon his retinue to set the Duchess and her daughter (fn. n20) at liberty, in obedience to His Holiness' commands. This proposition has been accepted with pleasure, and the Pope is about to send a message to the Leaguers; but Sarra will most probably hold out some time longer, in hope of being relieved by this army. With regard to the intended marriage of Ascanio's son to the daughter of the Duchess, of which he (Perez) gave notice in ins despatch of the 23rd October, nothing has been done yet; nor is it certain, as asserted, that the Duchess has married Sarra, only that they are living together like man and wife at Camarino.
On the 21st Don Ugo wrote, sending 15,500 ducats, and saying that three Neapolitan ecclesiastics were willing to give each 20,000 for their hats. They were ready to pay 10,000 down on condition of that sum not being delivered into the hands of the Pope until he was absolutely free, and themselves created cardinals, the remainder to be paid on the day of their creation. He (Perez) went to the Pope with Don Ugo's message, when it was settled that 10 days after the arrival of the money from Naples the Pope would be prepared to give 49,000 ducats to the Germans. Cardinal Colonna was to go and persuade them to be contented with this allowance, and to promise in his name that within a fortnight 68,000 more ducats, making together two months' pay, should be delivered. After some difficulty the Germans consented to these terms. It has therefore been settled that on the payment of the above sum, and proper securities being offered for the rest, the Pope will be liberated. As to the Spaniards, to whom one month's pay has also been promised, Mons. de Bere (Veyre) is now starting for Naples to persuade the three candidates for the cardinalship to come here and deposit the 30,000 ducats so that on the very same day of the Pope's liberation the sum may be distributed to the men. The Germans, moreover, have been requested to treat the hostages better, and remove their irons (quitarles los yerros). Cannot say whether they will or not.
Colonna's offers have been rejected. The Germans insist upon having one half month's pay more, amounting to 17,000 ducats. No sooner did His Holiness hear of it than, though by no means prepared to take such an engagement, he authorised Cardinal Colonna to promise the Germans that additional sum. The whole matter has since been settled in the following manner: The captains to go each to his respective company, and assure the men that they will be paid their 66,000 in full; the captains and officers (dobles pagas) not to have any of that money now, but to be paid out of the one month and a half's pay promised to the soldiers 15 days after the Pope's liberation. The men have signified their acquiescence with this arrangement; they will quit Rome when ordered, and will, moreover, send on a deputation of their own to see what sort of quarters are provided for them.
Thus the agreement stands for the present; if no obstacle intervenes, the Pope's liberation will soon be accomplished, and the army march out of Rome. And yet it must be said that in the discussion of the articles of this treaty with this Imperial army—not of the particular one with the Emperor, for about that there seems to be no difficulty—incidents daily occur, which, to a certain extent endanger the negotiations. Only the other day, whilst discussing the article stipulating that whoever (German or Spaniard) should own houses or property at Rome, taken in exchange for ransoms (tallas) at the time of the sack, might retain possession of the same without being in any way molested, the Pope became quite furious, and, rising from his chair, went into his own apartments, saying, "I will not go on with this treaty, or speak any more about my liberation;" and, though some of his cardinals and others present tried to appease him, he persisted in his determination the whole of yesterday, the 23rd of November, though it is believed that to-morrow he will be more quiet, and that everything will end well.
His Holiness has had news from his Legate at the confederated camp before Camarino. It appears that Sarra Colonna, perceiving that no help was coming from hence, surrendered to the enemy, on condition of having his own person, property, and family safe. He accordingly left Camarino and the Duchess to their fate.
On the 24th the article of the treaty to which the Pope so strongly objected the day before was again put under discussion, when he was made to understand that if the soldiers received houses, lands, or vineyards in exchange for ransoms, it was more for the purpose of accommodating their prisoners than to benefit themselves, and, therefore, that it was unjust to make them give back what they had gained on the occasion. His Holiness, therefore, allowed the article to pass, and after a few slight changes introduced in others, it was agreed by the cardinals there present to have a fair copy made for the Pope's signature, and for Mons. de Bere (Veyre) to take to Naples for approval. This as regards the Pope's treaty with this Imperial army; for the other between His Imperial Majesty and him only requires Don Ugo's ratification. He (Mons. de Veyre) takes also with him the three cardinals' hats, and such securities as they have applied for.
Cardinal [Pompeo] Colonna and his brother Ascanio wished to be named in the treaty with the Emperor, but the General [of the Franciscans] was of opinion that they had better not, as people might imagine that the Emperor wished to exercise a sort of pressure on His Holiness, and make it appear as if his liberation was made subservient to that clause. Instead of this, an article has been inserted stipulating that His Imperial Majesty shall order all estates and lands of the Church to be restored [to the Pope], except those cities and towns which are to be delivered in pledge, and those which they (the Colonnese) hold by motu proprio of His Holiness. With this clause they appear more satisfied, though at first they gave signs of discontent. The Cardinal has since devoted himself sincerely and with much ardour to the troublesome task of reconciling these Germans, who seem to trust in him thoroughly.
Leyva, it is said, has routed the Venetians under Fragoso, and taken 16 pieces of ordnance from them.
Nothing new about Lautreque. The intelligence of his having gone to Milan turns out untrue. It is asserted, on the contrary, that his artillery is already on this side of Parma, and that at the instigation of the Florentines, who offer him provisions and ordnance, he is about to attack Sienna. He, himself, was at Parma on the 11th, waiting for a gentleman of the King of France's chamber, who was to bring him, as he expected, news of the general peace.
On the 26th, at night, the treaty was signed by His Holiness and the cardinals, as well as by the General [of the Franciscans]; that with the army by the Marquis del Guasto and Don Hernando Gonzaga, and Alarcon and Juan de Urbina; and though before signing this last, some objections were started, it was ultimately signed by the Pope and the above-mentioned generals and commanders, His Holiness showing so much impatience that he was heard twice or three times to say, "Give me the treaty, I am ready to sign it as it is." God grant that he may fulfil it, and be as good a father to His Imperial Majesty as the Emperor is a dutiful son to him.
Cardinals Triulzi and Pisani are to remain as hostages until the nephews of the Pope come to fill their place. Disliking the proposed substitution, the former tried to escape from Sanct Angelo immediately after the treaty was signed. He left the room after the Marquis del Guasto was gone, and putting on a civilian's dress and cloak, determined to try his luck. He was recognised and arrested and taken to Alarcon's apartments. The Pope is said to have laughed heartily at the cardinal's pusillanimity (liviandad) and discomfiture, and to have sent a message to Alarcon to let him (Triulzi) go freely about the castle as before, winch has been done.
On the 27th Mons. de. Bere (Veyre) left for Naples with the treaty ready for Don Ugo's signature, and the cardinals' hats also. On the same day the Marquis del Guasto too went away on private affairs of his own (de su casa). He was to inspect on the road certain men-at-arms who for want of money and provisions, which could not be procured here, started some time ago for Naples, and are still quartered at a place 12 miles from Rome. He (the Marquis) intends returning here as soon as possible.
On the same day (the 27th) the Germans again took it into their heads to rise in mutiny. They imprisoned two of their own captains, Coradino (Conradin) and Gaspar, and threatened to kill them. The former had a sabre cut in his face, and the latter, who acts as treasurer, was also wounded and had a very narrow escape. Having inquired what was the cause and origin of the riot, we find that the Germans said they had been promised nine and a half crowns (escudos) per man, and were only to receive three. The mutineers, however, were decidedly in the wrong, since the time has not yet come for their receiving the above sum.
An officer has been sent to take possession of Civittà Castellana with a Papal brief, but it is feared that the governor in command of that place will not obey orders in a hurry Nevertheless, nothing shall be left undone to obtain it, as well as that of Forlin (Forlì).
There is a report that the Duke of Ferrara has gone over to the League, and made a treaty with France, His ambassador, who resides here, says that he does not believe it, and is about to send an express of his own to ascertain the truth.
The Germans still insist upon having the nine and a half crowns (escudos) per man, and moreover will not promise to quit Rome, which, they say, must be left entirely to their own choice (deliberation). He (Perez) thinks that unless they promise unconditionally to go out, they ought not to have their money. To-day, the 28th, they (the Germans) went to the Colonna Palace, took out the hostages, and, chained as they were, led them through the streets to Campo di Fiore, where they had erected a scaffold. They were about to hang them without remorse, when the cardinals promised that if they were taken back to their prison in the Colonna Palace they (the Germans) should be paid in full to-morrow. Far from taking part in these excesses, the captains of the lansquenets have fled to the Spanish quarters. Most of them are now staying with Juan de Urbina, and have offered to assemble the officers of their respective companies, and such of the soldiers as will follow them, and, together with the Spaniards, go and chastise their riotous countrymen, compelling them by force to quit Rome on the payment of the nine and a half cr. per man promised to them. Cardinal Colonna no longer enjoys credit with them, and will have no more to do with such people (. los da al Diablo); but after all he is the only man capable of managing them. The captains whom the mutineers arrested the other day, they allowed to depart free, though both were wounded in the riot.
To-day, the 29th, a captain leaves this for Civittà Castellana. As Fabricio Marramao is there in the neighbourhood with his 2,000 Italians, he will be able to help in case of the inhabitants refusing, as it is stated, to give up the town. His Holiness is also sending an express to the governor of the castle.
The Pope wishes to give the bishopric of Alguer to Doctor Solis, about whom Don Juan Manuel will be able to report at court.
It has been resolved that the captain who is to take charge of Civittà Vecchia shall remain here until the result of the message sent by His Holiness to the warder (alcayde) of the castle be known.
The German captains went away to an abbey called Grota Ferrata, 10 miles from this city. There they will remain until their men return to their allegiance.
To-day (the 30th) the ensigns, corporals (cabos de esquadra), sergeants, and other [non-commissioned] officers met at the Colonna Palace, when a resolution was passed to the effect that upon the privates and common soldiers receiving nine and a half crowns (escudos) per man they (the officers) would engage to take the men to any quarters outside the city, there to obey orders and march against the enemy. They also offered, after the men were paid, to show how the number of captains and companies could be reduced so as to economize more effectually for the Emperor. They themselves and their captains consented to wait for their money, but suggested that in the meanwhile the hostages should be placed in their hands, and a short date fixed for the payment.
His Holiness having been duly informed of all this, said, "Had the German officers granted us some respite we should have been glad to accept their proposals. As it is, the term being so short, we are quite unable to pay the sum demanded." He (the Pope) is consequently very much put out, as he sees that every day and hour that passes new obstacles are raised in the way of his liberation, which he much desires, as it stands to reason that he should do. The Pope, nevertheless, is doing all he can to content these Germans, although he knows well that unless the 60,000 ducats for the three cardinals' hats come from Naples he has no means in his possession to pay the sums demanded within the time fixed; but he fears lest the Germans should kill the hostages as they threaten. Were they to hurt any of these he declares that he will not abide by the treaty he has signed, but will rather remain a prisoner at Sanct Angelo, commending himself to God, and waiting for what His Imperial Majesty may wish to do with his person.
An express has been despatched to Don Ugo, acquainting him with the Pope's last resolution, and begging him to remit as soon as possible the money from the new cardinals, to whom all proper securities shall be offered both on the part of the Pope and of these commanders.—Rome, the last day of November 1527. (fn. n21)
Signed: "Perez."
Addressed: "To the most Sacred, Imperial, and Catholic Majesty."
Indorsed: "To the King. From Perez. Rome. 30th November."
Spanish. Original. pp. 22.


  • n1. A French translation of this letter of Charles to Clement VII. was given by Lanz (Correspondenz, i. 256), and may also be found, in Italian, in the Lettere de Principi, ii. 80.
  • n2. Don Alfonso de Fonseca, Archbishop of Santiago, and at this time of Toledo, was Erasmus' friend.
  • n3. Jahen is intended for Jaen in Andalucia, now the capital of a province and the see of a bishop, filled at this time by Fr. Gabriel Merino, Archbishop of Bari.
  • n4. Probably the brother of Alberto Pio, Count of Carpi.
  • n5. As only 13 articles are mentioned out of the 17 which the treaty is said to have been composed of, the omission must be attributed either to an oversight of the writer, or to the articles themselves being of minor importance.
  • n6. Alonso de Soria, one of the Emperor's secretaries.
  • n7. "Escriuiome Don Lope de Soria quo le quedava un grand pliego de letras de v. m. pā mīn de gues (?) que Dios aya."
  • n8. See the next paper, No. 249.
  • n9. He died on the 18th.
  • n10. Elsewhere written Auendaño.
  • n11. He became Bishop of Bitonto in Naples, and was present with his brother at the taking of Tunis in 1535. Comentario de los Hechos del Señor de Alarcon, Madrid, 1655, fol., p. 425.
  • n12. See No. 222, p. 425.
  • n13. Francesco Pisani, Bishop of Padua.
  • n14. Julia, daughter of Giovanne Maria Varane and of Catharina Cibo.
  • n15. That is, of November, for the despatch, which was not closed until the 1st of December, contains the news of one whole month.
  • n16. "Que le ayudassen en lo que pudiessen y que tentassen bien los ostages." Instead of tentassen, as in the original, "tratassen" must be meant.
  • n17. Andrea, Bishop of Mileto.
  • n18. Giovanne Maria da Monte, Archbishop of Manfredonia (Sepontinus).
  • n19. Or Sanctorum Quatuor; his name was Lorenzo Pucci.
  • n20. The Duchess' name was Catharina Cibo; the daughter's Julia. Perez, however, makes a mistake when he says, at page 428, that this last (Julia was the daughter of Sciarra Colonna.
  • n21. A postscriptum in Perez's hand states that this despatch was definitively closed and sealed on the 1st of December. Indeed, like most of the despatches written by the Emperor's agents at Rome, Genoa, and Venice, it constitutes a sort of diary of all the events in that city until the capitulation was finally signed.