Calendar of State Papers, Spain, Volume 5 Part 1, 1534-1535. Originally published by Her Majesty's Stationery Office, London, 1886.
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October 1534, 16-20
|16 Oct.||99. Consulta of the Emperor's Privy Council.|
|S. E., L. 1458,
B. M. Add. 28,587,
|The better to understand what steps must be taken for the security of Italy after the Pope's death, the following considerations have been put forward:—|
|1stly. That by the treaty of Bologna of the 27th Dec. 1529, between pope Clement, Your Majesty, Venice, and the duke of Milan—the king of the Romans being also included therein as principal contractor—a league and confederacy was made for the defence of Naples, Milan, and Venice, more especially against any Christian princes attempting to invade Italy.|
|His Holiness, however, only contracted as regards his own dignity and Papal authority, without any express mention being made in the document of the Holy Apostolic See, or of the lands of the Church, except, perhaps, Cervia and Ravenna, which the Venetians promised to restore, as they afterwards did, though reserving their right to them, so that in fact pope Clement promised nothing specifically, either for the particular or for the general defensive league.|
|By the other defensive league, made at Bologna on the 26th of February 1533, His Holiness treated for the estates of the Church as well as for that of Florence. His Imperial Majesty did the same for the kingdom of Naples, and all the other Italian potentates for their own respective dominions, it being expressly stipulated by all the contracting parties that not only should the Venetians be included in the new treaty, but that the league of 1529 should remain in full force. The duke of Ferrara (Alfonso d'Este), notwithstanding his differences with pope Clement, was also included in the league, for a term of 18 months, on condition that neither the Pope nor he should, within that period, innovate in any way, and that if at the expiration of the 18 months the Pope was unwilling to prorogue, the Duke could remain in or out of the league, as he thought best.|
|Now it is to be considered whether the two above-named treaties of defensive league are to remain in force and vigour, notwithstanding the demise of one of the chief contracting parties (pope Clement), or whether some modification should be introduced therein, or a new treaty made, inasmuch as, by the first, pope Clement himself promised nothing specifically for the defence of Naples, Venice, or Milan, and in the second, it was expressly stipulated that the defensive league was to be lasting.|
|From this might be inferred that by the letter of the second treaty the Holy Apostolic See is bound to the general league and confederacy therein specified; the more so, that it has since recovered through it Cervia and Ravenna, and that if the Pope does not observe the treaty in all its parts, this may give the Venetians cause to attempt force, without having recourse to the ways of justice, as stipulated in the first treaty.|
|On the other hand, it must be borne in mind, that both treaties might be taken strictly and understood as they are; for in the first no mention is made of the Holy Apostolic See, and those words (a league everlasting) cannot be applied to the Holy Father for more than his lifetime, since he made the treaty for himself. And with regard to the second, though in reality it refers to the Holy Apostolic See and to its advantage, yet a ratification and approval would have been required, which have not been forthcoming. Besides, it is a well-known fact that the Venetians would never expressly confirm this second treaty, but have, on the contrary, strongly adhered to the first, which, as far as the Holy Father himself is concerned, contained only a general promise for the defence of Italy; and also that by the second treaty the duke of Ferrara has the option of remaining in or out of the league, since His Holiness [Clement VII.] himself did not consent to the prorogation of the 18 months, which expired during his life-time. To this must be added that the command in chief of the league was committed to Antonio de Leyva, with the assistance of two commissaries, one from the Pope, the other from Your Majesty. Pope Clement being dead, the powers of Abbé del Negro (Nero), his commissary, have naturally ceased, and therefore Leyva will have his hands tied without being able to do anything, and, if he does, will not be obeyed.|
|For the above considerations it is very important to induce the future Pope to confirm and ratify in the name of the Apostolic See the two said treaties, and especially the latter one for the defensive league.|
|In this manner we shall be able to ascertain what the present Pope's views are; the approbation by him of both the treaties of league must be promoted, the better to bind him and the other potentates on this occasion. The threatening movements of Barbarossa, and likewise of the Venetians—who must already have experienced the good accruing to them from the peace and tranquillity of Italy, as well as the securities the latter have from Your Imperial Majesty—are in favour of that measure, so that, considering the state in which the Turk now is, at war with the Sophy, it is highly important to obtain the prorogation, and, if possible, also the extension, of the said two treaties, for the security of Italy.|
|Let it be done immediately, and as soon as possible, that the despatch may be ready for the departure of Juan Pedro.||In case of this last expedient being adopted, it is to be considered whether our action ought to be postponed till after the creation of a new Pope, and until we know what Mr. de Nassau has negotiated [in France], so as to have a better chance of carrying our aim, in view of the new Pope's inclinations and politics, or the necessity that may arise; or whether we ought to proceed at once, inasmuch as in any case, and whoever may be the future Pope, whatever treaty may be made with France,— if it can at all be secured—it will be convenient, nay highly advantageous, to obtain immediately the said approval and ratification of the league by the new Pope and the Venetians. Indeed, it will be more justifiable under present circumstances, and during the present uncertainty of election, although, on the other hand, should the Most Christian King come to treat, he might be offended at our having forestalled him in that particular. (fn. n1)|
|This to be entrusted to Leyva, explaining to him the reasons for holding both treaties to be valid; and a letter to be prepared for Lope de Soria accordingly.||If, considering the importance of this affair, and of making people feel the expediency and necessity of the case, a person from this court should be sent to Italy for this express purpose; or whether it will be sufficient to intrust the negotiation to Antonio de Leyva as captain general of the last league, under the plea, nay the belief, that the prorogation shall be granted, and that count Cifuentes with the Apostolic See, and Lope de Soria, with the Venetians, will do their duty, and at the same time keep up a good understanding with the said Antonio de Leyva. Letters of credence on this matter should be made out in favour of those ambassadors, as well as of those persons whom Antonio de Leyva might appoint to go to the duke Alessandro at Florence, as well as to the duke Ferrara and others included in the last treaty of League.|
|Let it be so.||Whether it would be expedient to insist that the Venetians, on renewing the said league and treaty, should agree to co-operate in the general defence of Italy, since by the treaty of the year '29, they only engaged to defend Naples and Milan; and also insist upon the said defensive alliance being understood to apply equally to Infidels and Christians—which last they (the Venetians) had refused to grant by the first treaty (el precedente)—in consideration of what has since occurred with Barbarossa's fleet, and the strait (necessidad) in which the Turk now finds himself in his wars with the Sophy; or whether it will be better, giving the Imperial ambassador, who resides in Venice, minute and timely notice, to leave it to his discretion, he being such a prudent and wise person, to declare to the Venetians the foregoing points, and persuade and influence them according as the affairs of the Turk may be viewed in Venice, entrusting to him the whole negotiation, that he may act as he thinks best.|
|18 Oct.||100. Count Cifuentes to the Emperor.|
|S. E. Rom., L. 861,
B. M. Add. 28,587,
ff. 64, 68.
Let the Count be thanked for all he has done. His Majesty is now sending Mr. de Vaury to offer congratulations and so forth. Vaury will take besides a set of instructions which the ambassador must follow implicitly.
To look at the instructions.
Let the ambassador suspend all proceedings in what concerns Naples and Sicily, but not so with regard to the Spanish clergy.
|Wrote on the 13th by Francisco de Acebes, (fn. n3) reporting on the Pope's election. Attended principally to three things: 1stly, to obey His Majesty's commands; 2ndly, to see that no party (apasionado) Pope should be elected, which the French tried to compass; and, 3rdly, that among the candidates for the Papacy that one should be elected who seemed least unfitting for the Apostolic See. (fn. n4) This was done throughout, and though he (Sylva) had no instructions respecting the person to be preferred, the Imperial influence was used, and the election "nemine discrepante" fell on cardinal Farnese, who is not only grateful, but has already offered to serve the Emperor in all his personal affairs, and especially in those concerning the welfare of Christendom. Among other things, he said to him (Sylva) that he had been the first to move in conclave that a General Council should be held, and that he was determined to have it assembled, in order that the peace and welfare of Christendom might be thereby ensured, so as to resist the Turks, &c. His (Sylva's) answer was, that it was urgent to fit out the fleet against Barbarossa, and fulfil the promises made by his predecessor. Farnese replied that he would, but that there was no money just now in the treasury, for pope Clement had left none. He (Sylva) hears that some has since been found in the Castle. Has been told so in secret, but cannot say whether the report be true or not. Has not yet had occasion to speak with him respecting Dr. Andruvino's (fn. n5) report about the tithes of Naples and Sicily, &c.|
|He has done well in this.||Nor has he (Sylva) applied for the "executoriales" until the Emperor decide what is to be done in the English affair.|
|Has spoken to the cardinals of Trent and Saltzburg, and requested them to do all they can in Germany to promote the meeting of a Council. They have promised to do so.|
|Most people think that Farnese will make a good Pope. Even if he were not, his age is such that he cannot do much harm. He has sent word to his son not to come to Rome for the present.|
|Encloses a letter from the College of Cardinals in answer to that which the Emperor wrote to them respecting this late election.|
|These two the ambassadors ought to win over.||Jacobacis has been appointed Datary, and the bishop of Rimini (Ascanio Parisani) the Pope's "mastro di Casa."|
|Has not yet said a word respecting the Italian league. If this present Pope only fulfils his promise there will be no need of it; for at the time that his predecessor, Clement, used to say that he could not make the Christian Princes agree, this new one (Paul) declared that he himself would do it without much difficulty.|
|He will do well.||Intends, nevertheless, to ask for the deposit at Milan of the 4,000 ducats as help to the Swiss Catholic cantons, for it is a thing that concerns the Faith.|
|The coronation of the new Pope will, it is said, take place next week in St. Peter's. The enclosed letter, with a few lines in his own hand, is from him.|
|Nothing more has reached us here.||Encloses copy of a letter from the king of the Romans to the cardinal of Trent.|
|Let Antonio de Leyva and count Cifuentes look out for some fit person to go thither, and persuade the Florentines to deposit a sum of money towards the 25,000 ducats, as others have done. As to the monthly quota to be paid by them in case of war, that, of course, cannot be at present determined, but must be proportionate to what other parties in the League will have to pay.||Whether the signory of Florence ought not to be pressed to contribute expressly and directly towards the League with a proportionate sum of money over and above that which the Holy See may ultimately choose to give, inasmuch as, owing to pope Clement's dissimulation, and his wish to conciliate France, and promote the intercourse of trade, the extreme poverty of the Florentines in consequence of the last war and siege being also alleged,—that Signory was intentionally left out. Whether the same thing ought not to be done with regard to the Luquese; for, after all, the first reason alleged might create envy and jealousy among other towns and republics of Italy; besides which, it is a notorious fact that the city of Florence, whatever may be said to the contrary, has, in a great measure recovered its losses, and is at present one of the richest and most flourishing cities in all Italy.|
|As it is not known who will be Pope, nor what will be his way of thinking on this matter, and as it might happen that he delayed entering into the League, and in the meantime some urgency might occur, it would be advisable to solicit at once and procure the adhesion of His Holiness and others to the League.||Should His Holiness refuse to negotiate about the League, or try to delay it—which would be unreasonable, especially with regard to other kings and princes—it is a matter for consideration whether we ought still to insist upon the said league being renewed between the rest of the Italian princes and powers, thus leaving the Pope the option of joining it afterwards, and contributing towards it on account of the estate of the Church, as previously stipulated.|
|Whether it would not be expedient that against the renewal of the said league all Italian princes should assemble somewhere or send thither their ambassadors to discuss the terms thereof; or whether it will be preferable to obtain from each and every one of them individually the ratification of the said league, thus gaining time, and avoiding the confusion, debate, and delays consequent on such meetings; for, besides the improbability of the princes being induced to take engagements beyond those stipulated in the two former treaties, it will be almost indispensable to negotiate privately with the Venetians, taking as a basis the treaty of 1529. This will then constitute a particular negotiation with them; and if Venice chooses to conform with the terms of the last League, the thing can easily be done, and we can make a separate treaty with them. Most likely they will prefer this latter method to that of an assembly; perhaps also they may wish that the negotiation with them remain secret until seasonable time.|
|With regard to the help and assistance against Barbarroja, though all Italy is equally interested in it, it appears that the princes and powers—especially those whose dominions are farthest from the coast—will not contribute, or take further engagements than those stipulated in the treaty of League; owing to which it is well worthy of consideration to determine whether all this had not better be the subject of a special negotiation, as it was formerly in the days of the last Pope.|
|It may be done so with regard to the Duke and others, who may be in the same case. The term, of course, to be prorogued.||Whether any changes ought to be introduced in the paragraph relating to the duke of Savoy (Carlo), and whether a fresh term ought to be appointed for him to join the League, the prorogation of which might be used according to circumstances, &c.|
|Let the confederated powers be sounded as to this; and since it has been hinted above that it would be preferable that the powers, or their agents, did not meet for such a purpose, it is urgent to write to Leyva to attend to it, and take care that the terms agreed to by the Florentines, as well as the ratification by the other powers, be well defined and worded (clausulada), especially if he (Leyva) sees that the future Pope or the Holy See refuse to approve and ratify, or otherwise delay joining the League. He must also consider at what time the duke of Savoy will be able to join, and, above all, resolve when, how, and in what manner he is to join the League, since there has already been some contradiction on that point, especially on the part of His Holiness, on account of Novi and the Papal interests in that quarter. (fn. n6)||In case of the new Pope, whoever he may be, refusing to join the League, what is to be done respecting Antonio de Leyva and his office of captain-general of the said League, with the intervention of a Papal commissary? Whether an agreement is to be made with the confederates to the effect that, pending such refusal or delay on the part of the future Pope in joining the League, the said Antonio de Leyva be authorised to act in union with the papal commissary in all matters concerning the same, as otherwise that captain would have no powers to act individually; and, besides that, it is to be presumed that, were it not for considerations due to the last Pope—who was the principal promotor of that same league—the confederates would have been glad that the charge now rested entirely with Leyva without the assistance and co-operation of a Papal commissary. (fn. n7)|
|The last consideration is, whether, in consequence of late events and movements and occupations of territory in Italy, any additional clause should be introduced, or any change made in the letter of the last treaty of defensive league; or whether it ought to remain as it is, for fear of delay, and, perhaps, also of the breaking up of the negotiations.|
|Though Your Majesty must know by this time the substance of the letter relating to Gritti and his difficult position, I yet imagine that I ought to enclose it.|
|The duke of Urbino (Francesco Maria della Rovere) has sent me a message by his agent here [at Rome], with a request that I should transmit it to Your Majesty, namely, that he has concerted a marriage between his son [Guidobaldo] and the daughter of the duchess of Camarino (Giulia), and that in order to prevent obstacles the marriage had already been accomplished and consummated. He is to send soon some one to take possession of the duchy. I have told him that Your Majesty would rejoice at any increase of honour and property accruing to his house. He made very large offers; placed that estate and everything he possessed at Your Majesty's disposal, and said he would serve you well The Duke's agent, who brought his message, said that this Pope was not at all pleased at the marriage, (fn. n8) for he had sent a brief to the dowager duchess [of Camarino], the mother, bidding her suspend any negotiations for her daughter's marriage.—Rome, 18 Oct. 1534.|
|Signed: "El conde de Cifuentes."|
|Spanish. Original pp.|