Calendar of State Papers, Spain, Volume 5 Part 1, 1534-1535. Originally published by Her Majesty's Stationery Office, London, 1886.
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August 1535, 1-31
|2 Aug.||188. Dr. Ortiz to the Empress Isabella.|
|S. E., L. 863, f. 42.
B. M. Add. 28,586,
|Congratulations for the taking of La Goleta. Quotes at length and translates a prophecy of Isaias (chap. xlv.) to show that the recent victory against the Infidel is a harbinger of many more.|
|Has had frequent occasion of writing to Her Majesty respecting the blind obstinacy of the English king, and the haste with which he is proceeding towards damnation by making martyrs of holy men. Now lately, on the 22nd of June, besides eight more who preceded them on the scaffold, the most reverend and most virtuous cardinal Rophensis (Fisher) and Thomas More, once High Chancellor of England, have been sentenced to death. Glory be to our God for his great mercy in thus granting them the palm of martyrdom! However, as most undoubtedly God has resolved to pour His ire and indignation on the king of England, it has come to pass that after their last meeting [at Calais] he of France is displeased with Henry, owing to his having advised separation from the Church of Rome, to which Francis would not consent. At the same time the king of France had asked for the hand of the princess [Mary] for his son the Dauphin [Henri], and the English king had refused. The execution of the above holy men, and especially that of the cardinal (Fisher), has had another good effect. It has so incensed the Pope and all these cardinals against him that they are preparing everything for the punishment he so richly deserves and the deprivation of his kingdom. Letters are being written to the Emperor and to all Christian Princes exhorting them to take up the defence of the Roman Church; and, what is more, His Holiness consents now to the executory letters (executorias) being made out, which is the thing we could not obtain from him before. Rome, 2 Aug. 1535.|
|Signed: "El Doctor Ortiz."|
|Spanish. Holograph. pp. 2.|
|3 Aug.||189. Eustace Chapuys to the Emperor.|
Rep. P. C.,
Fasc. 229½, No. 42.
|Having lately written in full concerning events in this country, I shall not be over prolix in this my despatch. Dr. Adam, (fn. n1) who resides here as ambassador from the Lubeckians, sent me word yesterday through one of my men—whom I had directed to his haunt that he may watch his movements, and ascertain what he is here for—that if I promised to procure him the favour of the king of the Romans, and likewise that of Your Majesty, so that he might freely live in Germany and other countries subject to the Empire, he would engage to find means for the kingdom of Denmark to fall into the hands of the duke of Holsten (Christiern III. of Holstein), or any other prince selected by Your Majesty. It was in his power (he said) to accomplish that without much difficulty, for he could easily persuade the Lubeckians to agree to it, and help the election of your candidate with all their might. Should he not succeed in his attempt, he was ready to renounce the liberty of action for which he bargained. The Doctor's message also was that this King's mission to Lubeck and Denmark was for the purpose of binding the duke of Holstein and the Lubeckians to certain articles of peace founded entirely upon English vanity, (fn. n2) and that the courier who arrived from Lubeck four days ago came for the sole purpose of requesting the King not to talk to them about peace, as they would not hear of it on any account.|
|The Doctor is waiting to-day for some assurance on my part concerning his proposals; on the receipt of which, he says, he is quite prepared to make further disclosures. My intention is to tell him that if he declares or does anything worthy of consideration, I will do my best to obtain for him Your Majesty's favour and that of the king of the Romans, your brother, and that I neither could nor would promise him more. On these terms I will correspond with him, and make such offer as may seem to me convenient to unravel the intrigue.|
|The King, as I hear, has been singularly displeased at hearing of the reported interview of the two Queens, (fn. n3) and has since despatched two couriers to France in great haste.|
|On his recent departure for Court, Cromwell left here his own chief steward and another servant of his household, besides the King's treasurer (Fitzwilliam) and other gentlemen to take me to a hunt in one of the Royal parks, to which I have been often invited (fn. n4) with some importunity. Express orders have been issued forbidding any one to go and hunt in that forest before I myself had gone thiher; by which mysterious means these people have gained momentarily their object, which is to publish everywhere that this King wishes to show me all favour. All this has been done in the French ambassador's teeth, and to make the English believe that Your Majesty is on good terms with this King, and satisfied at what is going on in this country. Yet I have only accepted the invitation conditionally. I have told them that I would not attend the hunting unless I first obtained permission for myself to visit the Princess, who is residing in the neighbourhood of the Royal park, or send my servants to her. The Princess and the Queen are of the same opinion. Cromwell, before parting, promised to let me know soon his master's will and intention concerning these two points; but the Princess being impatient, I have sent since to inquire from that secretary what the King's decision is. As soon as I hear it I shall not fail to apprise Your Majesty thereof.—London, 3 August 1535.|
|Signed: "Eustace Chapuys."|
|Addressed: "To the Emperor."|
|French. Original, entirely in cipher.|
|3 Aug.||190. The Same to Nicolas de Granvelle.|
Fasc. 229½, III.
|Doctor Adam is certainly a clever intriguer. I will try to sound him, without, however, trusting him in the least. He says that he only wants permission to live quietly in Germany or Flanders, and that the duke George of Saxony would not like such a permission to be granted to him.|
|Hears that this King is trying to make peace between the duke of Holstein and the Lubeckians for fear of the Count Palatine. Hears also that one of the ambassadors who are to go to Germany is instructed to complain of a certain book written by Cochleus against this King. The complaint is to be addressed to the duke George of Saxony and likewise to the Elector.|
|Has been informed that now-a-days the fashion at Court is to abuse the French, and that Cromwell is the very first in doing it.|
|The rumour about the meeting of the two Queens has greatly irritated these people.—London, 3 August 1535.|
|Signed: "Eustace Chapuys."|
|French. Holograph. Cipher. pp. 2.|
|8 Aug.||191. Katharine to the Queen Mary of Hungary.|
Fasc. 229½, III.
|Has heard that she is going to meet the queen of France (Eleanor). Confidently places her affairs in her hands, and begs her to induce the queen of France to recommend her to her husband, the King.—Quimbolton (Kimbolton), 8 Aug. .|
|Signed: "Your good aunt Katharine."|
|Spanish. Contemporary copy. pp. 1½.|
|9 Aug.||192. Lope de Soria to the Emperor.|
|S. E., L. 1311, f. 8.
B. M. Add. 28,588,
|The glorious news of the taking of La Goleta was duly received by letters dated the 13th ult.; that of the subsequent splendid victory at Tunis came later by way of Sicily. Lost no time to inform the Signory thereof. The people seem pleased; yet the pleasure is not so general as might be expected, for many here are afraid that, considering the Emperor's great power by land and sea, also that the Turk (Solyman) is absent from his dominions, and that his Christian subjects are everywhere ready to revolt, His Imperial Majesty may be tempted to undertake the conquest of Constantinople, of which there is now a better chance than ever. They think that, should the Emperor resolve on such an enterprise, the Signory would naturally be invited to join, whilst the Turk, owing to previous mutual engagements, would also call upon Venice to help him in his difficulties. In case of their refusal, the lives and property of their friends and relatives throughout the Turkish empire might be in danger.|
|The enterprise of Constantinople is considered here easier than that of Tunis, as, no doubt, the Emperor is aware by this time. Such at least is the general belief, and the Signory is so much afraid of the Emperor deciding upon it that I should not be surprised if they remitted thither plans and views of the principal towns and ports on the coast of Syria to engage the Emperor to attack them in preference to Constantinople.|
|Spanish. Original. pp. 3.|
|10 Aug.||193. Eustace Chapuys to the Emperor.|
|Wien, Rep. P.C.,
Fasc. 229½, No. 46.
|On the 3rd inst. I wrote by the secretary of the English ambassador returning to these parts, (fn. n5) informing Your Majesty of general occurrences until that day. On the 8th Your Majesty's letters of the 13th and 28th June, with the most welcome and joyous news of your prosperous voyage, good health, and successful disembarkation, (fn. n6) came to hand, for which all your faithful servants are very affectionately and heartily praising and thanking the Divine Providence, and praying that your undertaking be crowned with success.|
|Since my last of the 3rd, Dr. Adam, before taking his departure to return to Lubeck, again begged me to do my best for his reconciliation, (fn. n7) as I had promised him, adding that on his part nothing should be omitted. He also told my man that the gentleman named Bernard Melland, (fn. n8) about whom I once wrote to Your Majesty, was a captain of the duke of Saxen (Saxony), and commanded the force which that Duke was sending you against the Turk; and that the said Mellant, coming to these parts (par deça) had been sent to Lubeck by the said Duke and by the Landgrave [of Hesse] to try and make some agreement between the duke of Holstein and the people of that town; but that having found the Lubeckians rather hard and obstinate on that point, he had, in hopes of being more successful here, in England, come, as instructed, to see this King. He could not do much, however, having obtained no answer to his mission, except that this King would shortly explain to the Duke and Landgrave, by means of his ambassador, what his will and intention were, and that for such a purpose he had determined to send Dr. Fox, recently made bishop, (fn. n9) as his ambassador to the said princes. It appears, however, that, for some reason or another, the matter has cooled; perhaps the King is waiting for the answer of the ambassador he sent to Lubeck. Dr. Adam further told my man that Melland had charge of making certain overtures respecting the Evangelical sect, which he could not and would not reveal, inasmuch as Melland had confided them to him under great secrecy. The King had offered to make him Knight of the Rose, but Melland had declined that honour on the plea that he had already been knighted by Your Majesty's own hand, and that he could not possibly be knighted by a better and more virtuous prince than you. Then the King offered to give him his help and aid against the king of Suvvede (Sweden), with whom the said Mellant has at present a quarrel; but, thinking that the King's words were not said in earnest, or that he advanced them for some dishonest purpose, he answered that it would not be honourable for him to accept of such aid, and treat of his own personal affairs, without having been first able to achieve something in favour of his employers. Upon which he went away unsatisfied, without accepting the offers of these people, save 200 ducats given to him for his return journey, of which he was much in need; the moment he received which he took to his horse, and went away, leaving behind two of his pages.|
|The bishop of Tarbes, French ambassador in this country, as he himself informed one of my men this morning, has only heard once from his master since his arrival in London, that was yesterday, when he had a letter, with no other news except the approaching meeting of the two queens, of which he is instructed to inform this King. To which end he (the bishop,) (fn. n9) this afternoon, left for Court. These people, as I have already written to Your Majesty, knew already of the fact, but in order to render the French more and more jealous, have delayed making them any communication on the subject. The ambassador affirms that he went to court for no other motive than to announce the said interview; but I intend to have him followed and closely watched down there, in order to ascertain whether he has, or has not, some other object in view. At any rate, I expect to know soon the whole truth when Cromwell returns from Court, for he wrote lately to me, announcing his speedy arrival, and saying that he wished to take me to the royal park that we might hunt and have some sport together whilst we conversed on various matters; and that surely, before he left Court, he would ascertain the King's will respecting the permission I had applied for to see the Princess, or send messages to her. On his return, therefore, I dare say I shall learn the whole truth concerning the Frenchman's mission, and likewise how this King takes the interview of the two queens, of which I myself informed him four days ago by the command of the Queen of Hungary, though I must say that the messenger I sent for that purpose has not yet returned from Court.|
|The French ambassador, conversing with my secretary, told him some time ago that many in France found it strange that Your Majesty should have undertaken the expedition to Tunis without allowing their King (Francis) to accompany you; and although the contrary is the fact, they will, no doubt, try to persuade people here that Your Majesty never invited him to join. The said ambassador stated also to my man that he was sure that, had this King contented himself with preventing the money of the bulls and annats going to Rome, king Francis would have agreed to that. He further believed it quite impossible that the General Council should meet, even if most princes agreed to its being held; the Germans certainly would not; for, were the affairs of Germany, spiritual as well as temporal, to be thoroughly reformed, the Empire would become too powerful, and many of the privileges of the Clergy might be modified or abolished. I should not, therefore, be surprised if, in order to prevent altogether the meeting of the Council, the French were now spreading in Germany rumours of this sort.|
|This King is still on the borders of Wales, hunting and visiting that principality with a view to gain popularity with his subjects. This he attempts by all possible means and ways, and it is reported that a large number of peasants in the villages through which he has passed, after hearing the preachers who follow the Court, have been so deceived as to believe that God inspired the King to repudiate his legitimate Queen owing to her having once been married to his brother. But those who believe in such things are only idiots and ignorant people, who would be soon converted to the truth, were there only an appearance that the remedy was at hand.|
|The Queen and the Princess are in good health, and incessantly praying God for Your Majesty's prosperity.—London, 10 Aug. 1535.|
|Signed: "Eustace Chapuys."|
|Addressed: "To the Emperor."|
|French. Original. pp. 3.|
|12 Aug.||194. Mary Tudor to Queen Mary of Hungary.|
Fasc. 229½, ii. 47.
|Has had the greatest pleasure in receiving her letter. Hopes that an efficient remedy will he found for these troubles. Accredits the bearer. Written in haste and fear, the 12th of August .|
|Signed: "Marye Princess."|
|French. Contemporary copy. p. 1.|
|12 Aug.||195. James of Scotland to the Emperor.|
Fasc. 229½, ii. 45.
|Would certainly have liked to marry the princess of Denmark, the Emperor's niece; but as this is no longer possible, he now sues for the hand of the Princess of Portugal if the conditions of the marriage can be agreed upon. He must, however, come soon to a determination one way or other, as he is anxious to marry in order to secure progeny to succeed him on the throne, and also that he may give a definite answer to the French. Hopes that, whatever be the course of events, he (Charles) will remain his friend. Stirling [Castle], 12 Aug. 1535.|
|Latin. Holograph. p. 1.|
|21 Aug.||196. Dr. Ortiz to the Empress Isabella.|
|S. E., L. 863,
B. M. Add. 28,588,
|Congratulations for the taking of Tunis and liberation of 20,000 Christian slaves.|
|Wrote on the 2nd, advising that after the meeting at Calais the kings of France and England had separated in disgust and anger against each other. The latter had asked his brother of France to imitate him, and refuse obedience to the Holy Apostolic See. King Francis had declined, but at the same time had applied for the hand of the Princess for his son, the Dauphin. (fn. n10)|
|On the 24th Chapuys, the ambassador, wrote from London, advising that both the Queen and the Princess were enjoying good health (God be praised for it!), and that the archbishop of Canterbury (Cranmer) had summoned to his presence a Carthusian monk, the greatest theologian remaining in London, in order to talk him over and pervert him. It appears, however, that the monk and nine more of the same order, and six capuchins (barbados) adhered firmly to the Roman Church, and were ready to die rather than consent to the innovationsab out to be introduced into England, such as the marriage of the Clergy, &c. The same letter mentions the fact of the dean of the Royal Chapel (Stephen Gardyner),—generally held as a man of letters and good morals, who had once absented himself from Court in order not to be compelled to meddle with such matters—having written a book (fn. n11) against Papal authority, deprecating it so much that even the decisions of Councils held in virtue of such authority are therein considered as invalid. In fact, he leaves no firm ground or rule whatever in the Church for the correction of the abuses and errors of that kingdom.|
|The queens of France and of Hungary (fn. n12) were to meet at Cambray on the 10th inst. May their interview have a successful issue, and may their joint prayers bring about the departure from England of the Queen and Princess. Application for funds, &c.—Rome, 21 Aug. 1535.|
|Spanish. Holograph. pp. 4.|
|22 Aug.||197. Lope de Soria to the Emperor.|
|S. E., L. 1311,
B. M. Add. 28,588,
|Answered on the 9th the Emperor's letter of the 14th ult. Since then he (Soria) has not heard from Court, though the news of the splendid victory at the Goleta and at Tunis had reached Italy. Tried to send to Constantinople a person of trust, who might report on the state of affairs in Turkey. Not finding such a man as he wished, he wrote to Cavalier Marino Magno, of Ragusa, begging him to procure one fit for that service, which he did. The man went to Constantinople, and his report is as His Majesty will see in the enclosed letter of Cavalier Marino, namely, that Turkey and the whole of Greece are very much afraid of the Imperial fleet.|
|To thank him for his information. As to the Imperial fleet, it is on many considerations, of which he (Soria) must have heard already, to be disarmed, &c.||Dionisio de la Vecha (sic), the same person who had audience of the Emperor at Bologna, has brought information that Albania and the surrounding provinces, chiefly inhabited by Christians, are only waiting for the news of the Emperor or his fleet going to Constantinople to rise in rebellion; and that he himself, with a very little help from His Majesty, would cut the throats of all the Turks in the country, and seize Scutari, which is an important fortress on that coast.|
|The same Dionisio has told him (Soria) that the Patriarch of Servia is about to send an embassy to the Emperor acquainting him with certain matters concerning that country, and that as soon as the arrival of the Imperial fleet at Naples is announced, he (the Pariarch) will without fail send thither one of his bishops, if he cannot go himself. Dionisio, being a rich merchant, and a man of great credit among his countrymen, would hardly venture on such assertions if he had no foundation for them. Advises respecting the enterprise against the Turk. Fears that the Signory will not help, for the reasons stated in former despatches.|
|The ambassador must do his best to ascertain what foundation there be for such a report, and whether His Holiness really said such or similar words to the Venetian ambassador. To the Signory the ambassador will give repeated assurances of the Emperor's good intentions. If the disarmament of his fleet, after so many victories, is not a sufficient proof of his love of peace, as well as of his good will towards the Signory, we really know not how else the fears of Italians can be calmed down.||Hears from an authentic source, and believes it to be true, that the other day, whilst the Pope and the Venetian ambassador were congratulating each other upon the Emperor's victories and their probable results, His Holiness declared to the ambassador that he, as a Christian and the Head of the Church, was glad of the Emperor's victories over the Infidel; but that, as temporal lord of a state, he was terribly afraid of the Emperor, victorious as he was by land and sea, turning his arms in another direction. It was for them (he said), as the wise and prudent men that they were, to avert the danger. He was their friend, and would willingly communicate his misgivings to them: the Emperor's designs in Italy, if he really had any, should be thwarted in time. The Pope added that it was necessary to discuss the matter, and come to some agreement, and that he was sure the king of France would also stir himself in their favour.|
|A rumour is afloat that king Francis has just now great dealings with the Lutherans, and that he has sent to Rome to His Holiness a copy of certain articles he has stipulated with them. Also that he has sent for Melancthon, one of the chief Lutherans. (fn. n13)|
|Intelligence from the Austrian court has been received. The ambassadors sent to the Vayvod had not yet returned, but were expected back soon. The duke of Würtemberg had come to swear obedience to the king of the Romans, and receive from his hands the investiture of his estate as a fief of the house of Austria. The cardinal bishop of Trent [Clesi] was expected to leave on the 9th of August for his diocese.|
|The marquis Joachim de Brandenburg, Elector, was dead. His son and successor is supposed not to be so staunch a Catholic as his father was. The wife of this last, daughter of the Vayvod of Transylvania [Zapolski] by his first wife, had started to join her husband, the new Margrave.|
|The queens of France and Hungary were to meet at Cambray on the 10th. It was thought that king Francis would also attend the conference, from which some good was expected.—Venice, 22 Aug. 1535.|
|Spanish. Holograph, with answer. pp. 7.|
|25 Aug.||198. Eustace Chapuys to the Emperor.|
Fasc. 229½, No. 47.
|On the 14th inst., and by a letter from Mr. de Likerke, I was apprized of the most glorious and important taking of the Gouletta (fn. n14) of Tunis; to announce which in due form, and at the same time to press the affairs of the Queen and Princess, of which I have lately written to Your Majesty, I immediately dispatched one of my men to Court. Not only did the King show great joy at the news, as Your Majesty will see by the enclosed duplicate of the letter which Cromwell wrote to me on the occasion, but, though he knew of it two days before from his ambassador residing with Your Majesty, he caused 10 angels to be given to my man, besides two deer that he himself had slain that very day. Cromwell also sent me word that immediately upon the King's return to town the money claimed by the Queen as part of her arrears would be supplied, and that my petition to visit or send messages to the Princess would also be looked into. For the last fortnight the latter has been suffering from a bad cold, which has not been improved by seeing that the permission to communicate with her by word or writing, for which she has continually been urging, is not forthcoming.|
|The French ambassador, who, as I again wrote to Your Majesty on the 10th inst., was going to Court to inform the King of the interview of the two queens, has only approached it by six miles or thereabout, owing to a French merchant, who rode along with him, having died on the road, not without some suspicion that it was the plague that caused his death. I am further told that this King, wishing the ambassador to put down in writing what his mission was, the latter had answered that his instructions were to speak to him personally, and that the affair was not so pressing that it could not be delayed for some days. At last the ambassador received a message to go to a certain place in the fields, where the dukes of Norfolk and Suffolk, as well as Cromwell himself, were then hunting, the latter of whom actually declined listening to the ambassador until he knew what the ambassador came about Cromwell at first did not seem much pleased with his visit, and made a dry answer, but upon second thoughts he graciously told him two or three times, by way of compliment, that the King, his master, was grateful for his good offices in announcing to him, the interview of the two queens, but that he already knew of it through me. "In fact (said Cromwell) the King owned that he was most grateful for my good offices, adding that there was more honesty on my part in informing them of it than of the Frenchman in keeping it secret until now." All this Cromwell said to me very passionately, and as if he were exceedingly angry at my man's departure. (fn. n15)|
|The Venetian secretary, (fn. n16)who resides here, and is on familiar terms with the French ambassador, tried the other day to make me believe that the latter had not gone to Court for the sole purpose of announcing the aforesaid interview: his object (he said) was also to give him news of the Turk's return to Constantinople; which news the French have long ago fabricated for their own profit, and because they wish it to be true.|
|Yesterday, at Windsor, several knights of the Garter met the Scotch ambassadors for the purpose of celebrating and solemnizing the reception and installation into that Order of the king of Scotland. This done, they will proceed to France for the purpose of escorting, in union with those already in that country, the King's betrothed; who, it is said, is to go direct to Scotland by sea, though there was once a rumour that permission would be asked for her coming by land. The principal man in the embassy is one named Erschin, (fn. n17) who has with him about 30 mounted followers.|
|There is a report that the earl of Childra (Kildare) is daily doing harm to the English in Ireland. This King did some time ago send thither reinforcements of men and ammunition. Should I hear more particulars about it, I shall not fail to apprize Your Majesty thereof.—London, 25 Aug. 1535.|
|Signed: "Eustace Chapuys."|
|Addressed: "To the Emperor."|
|French. Original, mostly in cipher. pp. 3.|