Calendar of State Papers, Spain, Volume 6 Part 2, 1542-1543. Originally published by Her Majesty's Stationery Office, London, 1895.
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September 1543, 11-30
|12 Sept.||227. The Emperor's Instructions to Thomas Perrenot, Sieur de Chantonnay.|
|B. Neg. d'Ang.
Vol. I., f. 242.
|These are the Instructions for what you, the sieur de Chantonnay, (fn. n1) "gentilhomme de la bouche," are to represent and follow in your present mission to the king of England, Our dearest good brother and cousin.|
|First of all you shall go as hastily as possible to England, and to Our ambassador resident in that country, to whom you will hand over the letter of which you are the bearer, as well as these present Instructions, that he may take cognizance of them. After taking his advice, both of you shall go together to the King's Privy Council, and will then and there say and declare whatever you may deem proper for the good direction and brief accomplishment of your mission. That being done, you will present to the King Our letters of credence in favor of you and of Our resident ambassador in that court, and will tell him that We suppose Our resident ambassador (Chapuys) has already acquainted him with the reasons We had, and have still, for undertaking Our voyage by this sea, and the causes which actually compelled Us to take that route, notwithstanding the favorable progress of Our arms in Germany and other countries, as We explained in Our letter of the 29th ult. For that particular object, and that you may verbally inform him of the above causes, as well as of later events like the taking of Remonde (Ruremonde), and other towns, villages, and fortresses in the duchy of Juliers, and the siege of this Venlo, We now send you to England.|
|Likewise you will inform him of the arrival at this Our court of the duke of Clèves, accompanied by the coadjutor and other ambassadors of the archbishop of Cologne and duke of Brunswick, and of the former's humble submission to Our Imperial mercy, with offers of restoring to Us absolutely and without delay the duchy of Ghelders and county of Zutphen. You will tell the King how We received the Duke with clemency and ordered Our ministers to treat with him, as you yourself have witnessed, and how finally a treaty has been concluded with the Duke.|
|You will also tell him that We are expecting the deputies of the notables and towns of Ghelders, to whom, at the Duke's request, We have granted safe conducts that they may come to Our court, subscribe their names to the restoration of the Duchy, and take the customary oath of fealty.|
|The King of England, in his wisdom and the sincerity of his friendship for Us, of which We also partake, will easily understand and recognize how important and necessary it was for Us and for Our reputation, for the security of Our Low Countries (pays d'embas) and the keeping up of the Imperial authority, as well as for the success of the enterprize which We both are about to make against France, to reduce the said Duke under Our sway; for, as the king of England has no doubt understood by this time, king Francis, our enemy, thought of nothing but to mar and impede by the Duke's means Our common enterprize against him, and intended, as he actually did, to assist him with all his power. God, however, was pleased to dispose matters in such a way that, through the signal victory obtained in so short a time over the Duke's army, king Francis' plans have been frustrated.|
|This forced submission on the part of the Duke has likewise considerably diminished king Francis' credit and reputation, if he ever had any, in Germany, whose prince-electors and others had already begun to decry, blame, and reproach his acts. The consequence of all this will be that his alliances with Denmark, Sweden, and other provinces and towns of the Easterlings will be dissolved, which will be a great advantage for Our common navy and merchant on the side of England and Scotland, as well as in the Netherlands and Spain.|
|To remedy the evils which from king Francis' alliance with the above-named Northern powers might have fallen on Our brother and ally, the king of England, has always been Our constant aim, and therefore, no sooner did We hear of the Duke's defeat, and of his willingness to acknowledge his multifarious misdeeds and return to Our obedience, than, notwithstanding his great and desperate rebellion, his obstinate perseverance in it, and the immense damage by him caused to Our subjects in the Low Countries—besides the harm which king Francis through his means and close adherence has done Us, such as preventing last year and this present one the assistance by land against the Turk, and his joining his fleet to that of Solyman—We have acted leniently towards him, restoring to him the duchy of Juliers, after, retaking possession of Ghelders, without his having to pay Us for the expenses of the war. (fn. n2)|
|That, disengaged in that quarter, We have immediately thought of sending you to England for the purpose of telling the King that, having, as We have, a powerful and victorious army, very much incensed against the French, and this season not being yet so far advanced as to preclude some good undertaking or other, We send you to tell him confidentially and under reserve that king Francis, as he himself must know, took possession last year, and still preserves some towns of Ours in the duchy of Luxenburg, besides Landresis [in Flanders], and that not contented with that, he is now, according to the last news received, making all efforts to collect from the provinces of his kingdom, as well as from Italy and the Swiss Cantons, as large a force as he can again to invade Our Low Countries, so much so that We cannot do less than prepare for resistance and try to do him all the harm We can. We cannot at present determine when and by which side of the frontier We will invade France, but upon Our arrival in the Low Countries We will see on which side Our attack had better be directed. Indeed, We hope that with God's assistance and help We will give him a good drubbing, and before the winter sets in occupy some of his towns and keep him at bay until the spring, when We both will decide as to a joint attack.|
|Respecting the English soldiers on this side of the Channel, you are to request the King, as We have already done, the general-in-chief, or "seneschal," of the said forces, to be pleased that they do not move from where they are until Our own arrival in Flanders. Then We will see what can be done, and write to the King accordingly, that he may order his troops either to co-operate with Our army on the side of Picardy or withdraw them entirely, sooner or later, according to season and circumstances, as the King himself may determine.|
|But whereas this Our expedition against the common enemy is and will be for that king's profit and advantage, and for the better issue of whatever Our mutual plans may be for the future, you will very affectionately request the King in Our name to assist Us with the pay of one month only for this present year, which will probably amount to 150,000 crs., and that We should not have troubled him with such a request had it not been for the total impossibility of obtaining bills on Germany or the Low Countries, at any discount whatever, and Our having been quite unable, as he can well understand, though We tried to do so, to bring specie from Spain. We also thought that Our Low Countries would have assisted Us, as they have done at other times, and so they would now were it not for the great expense they have been put to by this last war against the duke of Clèves and the French.|
|Should Our brother, the King, withdraw his forces from Flanders, he will no longer have that expense to sustain. We will, however, continue to work for the common weal, as above said. We feel certain that Our very dear and good friend the King will attend to this very reasonable request of Ours, as We fully hope, from Our mutual friendship and alliance as well as his own generosity, that he will, since, thank God, he has abundant means to assist Us with the above-mentioned sum.|
|You will offer Our affectionate commendations to all the lords and personages near the King's person and give them, notice of the above, urging them to back Our request, as you may think fit, trusting that you will do, in conjunction with Our resident ambassador, whatever you may deem proper to forward Our interests in that country, after which you [Chantonnay] will return to Flanders without loss of time.—At our camp before Venlo, the 12 of September 1543.|
|French. Original. pp. 5.|
|12 Sept.||228. The Emperor to Mr. de Chantonnay.|
|B. Arch. de Bourg.
Corresp. d'Ang., Vol. I.
|Besides the above Instruction drawn out on purpose to be exhibited to the King and his ministers, if required, should Our resident ambassador in that country deem it fit and opportune, or should the King and his ministers wish to see what We write to him on the subject—though it would be rather a bad precedent to exhibit what We write confidentially to an ambassador of Ours—yet, should you and your colleague perceive that a refusal on your part would arouse the King's suspicions, you may show him the contents of Our confidential letter to the said ambassador; in which case the paragraphs of the one not to be shown will be written on a sheet of paper apart.|
|Should you be unable, in conjunction with Our resident ambassador (Chapuys), to induce the King to grant Us gratuitously the sum of money mentioned in the Instruction, you will try, after exhausting all your means of persuasion, that he may let Us have the money by way of a loan with interest, with a full promise and engagement on Our part to return the sum borrowed within four or five months' time, or as soon as We can send for, or bring the money from Spain or from the Indies, assuring the King that there will be no fault in the fulfilment of Our promise, and, if necessary, that We will give him a bond with Our obligation and assurance in writing.|
|French. Original draft. pp. 4.|
|12 Sept.||229. The Emperor to Master Wallop.|
|Wien, Imp. Arch.
Corresp. Engl., 9.
|"Tres chier et bien amé,"—We are in receipt of your letter of the 5th inst. relating what passed between Our councillor, Cornil (fn. n3) Sceperus, and you, when the latter informed you of Our intentions and of the success of Our arms until then; and, although you must also have heard since of the advantages gained over the common enemy by Our cousins, the duke of Aarshot and count du Rœulx, and of Our going in person to join them at the head of Our army, We have no doubt that the two above-mentioned captains have already written to you to announce Our determination; and yet We have considered it necessary again to re-advise you of Our approach, which will take place between the 23rd and 26th inst. at the latest, requesting and begging you that, since time is short and there is such an appearance of good success, you may meanwhile remain with Our two said cousins, and not separate from them. (fn. n4)|
|We have despatched a gentleman of Our chamber as an express messenger to the king of England, your master, to advise him of Our determination as above, and We trust and have no doubt that on the receipt of Our message the King, Our good brother, will not only be pleased at it, but will readily approve of Our determination, and transmit to you his orders to that effect.—Venlo (Venloo), 12 Sept. 1543.|
|Indorsed: "Charles V. to Mr. Maistre Walop, captain of the English."|
|French. Original draft. p. 1.|
|12 Sept.||230. The Same to Eustace Chapuys.|
|Wien, Imp. Arch.
Corresp. Engl., 9.
|"Venerable, chier et feal,"—On the 29th ult. We wrote to you an account of events up to that date that you might inform the king of England, Our good brother and cousin, of Our military operations, as the perfect amity between Us two demands. We now send the sieur de Chantonnay, gentleman of Our body (gentilhomme de la bouche), but as you will hear from his own lips, and by the Instructions of which he is to be the bearer, what his charge is and what he is to say to the King, We will abstain from writing any more about it, recommending you to do your best to forward Our views according to the tenour of the said Instructions.—At the Camp in front of Venlo (Venloo), 12 Sept. 1543.|
|Addressed: "To the ambassador in England in credence of Mons. de Chantonnay."|
|French. Original draft. p. 1.|
|13 Sept.||231. King Francis to the Landgraf of Hesse-Cassel.|
|S. E. L., 47.
Arch. Nat. of Paris.
|"Most illustrious Landgraf and dear relative,"—We wrote to you on the 10th inst. of Our determination to send Our second son [the duke of Orleans] with an army to Luxemburg, We Ourselves intending to follow with the rest of Our forces for the sole and express purpose of assisting Our beloved friend and relative against the German Emperor and his tyrannical rule. Such was then Our intention, but now news has come to Us, both from the enemy's camp and from the Imperial Court, that the whole of the duchy of Juliers, after the occupation of Duram (Duren), its capital, has surrendered to the Emperor. We also hear that Henry, duke of Brunswick, without Our knowledge (me inscio), has undertaken to intercede in the Duke's favor, and has obtained from the Emperor what no one else but him could obtain, since his influence over the latter is considerable: that is, certain proposals of peace. Yet We hear also that the duke of Clèves is disinclined to accept the terms offered to him. He will neither go to Spires and appear before the Diet, nor will he furnish the provisions and money demanded of him from the bishoprics of Treves and Cologne, still less from his own dominions. If the above intelligence be correct and true, you may well judge what Our conduct must be under the circumstances and in this emergency. I shall patiently wait for the recess of the diet of Spires (fn. n5) until We know what has been decided there, and will nevertheless persist in Our resolution. Should the Duke agree to Our proposition, that part of the engagement which We took by Our letter of the 10th We at once are ready to fulfil; the other does belong to you. In which mutual engagement, if you will show Us what part you chose to take, We Ourselves shall not be in fault in ours, but will work and apply all Our power and faculties to it. Deliberate then whilst it is yet time, and whilst you possess friends and allies ready to co operate with you, for We know of many who would willingly side with you [and yet are undecided because of their not knowing who are your allies].|
|We have written to you for two reasons, the one that you may know that We shall never abandon the duke of Clèves and that whenever he asks Us for assistance in men and money he will never be left without if he demands it, nay, that We will rather postpone Our own affairs, even a sure victory over the English and Belgians, to attend to him. (fn. n6) The other reason is, that if We can in any wise aid you in finding out a remedy to the present evils, you may at once let Us know, that We may help to the realization of your plans; for We will work with all Our power and resources so that Our ardent wishes for the preservation of German liberty may at once become manifest.—Manehildis (St. Menehould), 13 September 1543.|
|Addressed: "To the most illustrious and powerful prince, Our beloved relative the Landgraf of Hesse."|
|Latin. Original. pp. 2.|
|16 Sept.||232. The King's Privy Council to Eustace Chapuys.|
|Wien, Imp. Arch.
|Magnifice Domine, S[alutem] P[lurimam]. We are in receipt of reliable information stating that the garrison of Ardras is in want of provisions, and that the French have accordingly decided to revictual the town, having already collected a considerable force for that express purpose. Such is the news we have, and yet the King's Most Serene Majesty, having frequently experienced the stratagems of the French, is fully convinced that whilst they are giving out that they merely intend revictualling Ardras and its garrison, their real object is to invade Our Breduck territory, and perhaps also attack the Church of Ouderwyck, and your own castle of Hannawaynes. (fn. n7)|
|In order, therefore, that the French may not carry out their plans of invasion; that your districts and ours, so fertile and so abundant in provisions, and yours especially may not, after the loss of the afore-said castle [Hannawaynes] be overrun by the enemy, but may be free from aggression, and able to offer resistance to the French, and that the road between Calais and Gravelines may be secured, His Most Serene Majesty thinks that the defence of the above-mentioned castle should no longer be intrusted, as hitherto, to raw levies of country people hastily made, but to veteran soldiers having long experience of warfare. Should these precautionary measures cause more expense than the Emperor's ministers [in Flanders] are able or willing to defray, His Most Serene Majesty, the King, is ready to undertake at his own cost the defence of the said towns and districts, and provide them with proper garrisons rather than let them fall into the enemy's hands.|
|The Queen of Hungary, your sovereign mistress, will better understand the importance of this our warning if she will cast her eyes on the enclosed plan of Hannawaynes and the surrounding country executed at home by one who is well acquainted with the locality. (fn. n8) We beg Her Most Serene Majesty to attach full faith to it, and in short most earnestly request her for the safety of Our master's subjects and her own, to have the said castle garrisoned with veteran soldiers, or else to intrust its defence to Us. Fare thee well and receive our commendations.—Woodstock, 16 of September.|
|Signed: . . . . Thomas Wriothesley = St. Winton. (Stephen, bp. of Winchester) . . . . (fn. n9) Antone Browne.|
|Indorsed: "Magnifico et Egregio viro D. Eustacio Chapuis Cæsareæ Majestatis Oratori."|
|Latin. Original. pp. 2.|
|18 Sept.||233. Eustace Chapuys to the Queen of Hungary.|
|Wien, Imp. Arch.
Corresp. Engl., 11.
|"Madame,"—This king having heard that the enemy, with a force amounting to 8,000 men, between foot and horse, has resolved within a couple of days or so to revictual the fortified town of Ardres, and wisely considering by the experience he has of the character and doings of the French, that after accomplishing their aim they are likely, with such a force as they have, to undertake something else, has ordered his privy councillors to write to me the letter of which a copy is herein enclosed. He, himself, has shown me a map and design, pointing out the danger and inconvenience to arise were not the two fortified towns mentioned in the letter sufficiently provided with means of defence, observing that were the French to be successful, they will undoubtedly waste not only the Emperor's country on that side, but whatever else the English possess between Calais and Gravelinghes (Gravelines), will stop the intercourse of trade between Flanders and this country, as well as all messengers and couriers passing to and fro from one country to another. The King has now sent me word by the Porter of Calais and by another gentleman, who was the bearer of the map and design to which I allude, earnestly requesting me to beg and entreat Your Majesty to provide at once for the defence and security of the two mentioned towns by appointing trusty and experienced officers to command their respective garrisons; and that should Your Majesty wish, for the sake of economy and to avoid expense, to entrust the defence of those towns to the English, he (the King) will readily undertake the same and attend to it in such a manner that no apprehension may be felt on that side of the frontier. Such being the case, and should Your Majesty entrust the defence of those places to him, he will request you to arm them with some pieces of heavy ordnance, and order the peasants in their immediate neighborhood to aid in the construction of bastions (ramparts) and any other defences that may be wanted, and besides command the inhabitants of the neighbouring towns and villages to succour in case of need.|
|Such is the King's proposal. As the danger is imminent, as, in his opinion, which is also mine, the affair suffers no delay, and much time might be lost in sending messengers backwards and forwards, the King begs Your Majesty to look to that and inform, as soon as possible, the Deputy of Calais (fn. n10) of your determination.—London. 18 September 1543.|
|Signed: "Eustace Chapuys."|
|French. Original. pp. 1½.|
|29 Sept.||234. The Same to the Same.|
|Wien, Imp. Arch.
Corresp. Engl., 11.
|"Madame,"—As Your Majesty will particularly hear from Mons. de Chantonnay's lips all the news of this country, I shall not refer to them here, save to say that I beg and entreat Your Majesty as humbly as I possibly can to order the release from prison of sieur Bernard de Sainct Boniface arrested at Rippemonde (sic), in whose behalf and favor some of this king's privy councillors have spoken to Mons. de Chantonnay, besides earnestly praying me to write, as I do, in his commendation.|
|I cannot sufficiently thank Your Majesty for the payment of my arrears, &c.—London, 29 Sept. 1543.|
|Signed: "Eustace Chapuys."|
|French. Original. p. 1.|