Spain: October 1543, 16-31

Pages 503-517

Calendar of State Papers, Spain, Volume 6 Part 2, 1542-1543. Originally published by Her Majesty's Stationery Office, London, 1895.

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October 1543, 16-31

18 Oct. 243. Eustace Chapuys to the Emperor.
Wien, Imp. Arch.
Corresp. Engl., 11.
"Sire,"—This king has taken in very good part, and shown great pleasure at hearing the contents of the letter which Your Imperial Majesty caused to be written to me on the 2nd inst., as well as the information conveyed in that of Mons. de Grantvelle of the 4th. Of the pleasure and satisfaction shown by the King on this occasion, the enclosed copy of the privy councillors' letter to me will give sufficient testimony, and, therefore, will not dwell further on the subject, inasmuch as by this time I have no doubt that the sieur de [Sir John] Wallop, commander of this king's forces on that side of the Channel, must have acquainted Your Imperial Majesty with the orders and instructions he has received from his master respecting the attack on Landrecies and the prosecution of the war against France.
With regard to other news, Your Imperial Majesty must already have heard from Master Briant's lips how the cardinal of Scotland (Betoun), being informed of the military preparations made by this king to invade that country, has with-drawn to one of his ecclesiastical benefices that being the cause of several Scotchmen declaring in favor of this king; upon which the English on this side of the Borders had made a predatory raid into the districts and lands belonging to the Cardinal's adherents, and debated with considerable loss a body of 1,000 cavalry that attempted to stop their march. Since then intelligence has been received that seven French ships, under the Patriarch of Aquileia, and a captain of king Francis' Scotch body-guard, have arrived on the coast of Scotland, having on board 5,000 landing men, 50,000 crs, 10,000 spears, 4,000 halbarts, and a large quantity of hackbuts, with plenty of powder and ammunition. It is added, that the Patriarch has already persuaded the Scotch to assemble the States of the Realm, that they may dissolve and annul the convention lately made with this king and the Scotch, promising them, if they do so, full absolution for breaking their oath. That is why I consider that this king must and will for the present attend to his affairs in that quarter, as he has the wish and the power to do.—London, 18 October 1543.
Signed: "Eustace Chapuys."
French. Original. pp. 1½.
21 Oct. 244. The Emperor to King Henry.
Wien, Imp. Arch.
Corresp. Engl., 9.
"Tres chier, tres excellent et tres puissant prince, &c.,"—We have purposely delayed writing and sending you news of Our doings until the sieur de Chantonnay had returned from your court, as We wished before all things to pitch Our camp within the enemy's territory and pass muster to Our army, so as to be able to inform you of the amount of Our forces and of Our plan of campaign, as well as of those of Our common enemy. But We have been of late so molested and tormented by gout, that We have been quite unable to attend to any military business (fn. n1) for several days until about a week ago We ventured to quit Binche and go to Mons, which place, still weak from pain and fatigue, We left for Beauvois, and on the ensuing day went to Quesnoy. From the latter town We started in the direction of Landreschies (fn. n2) to inspect Our army (fn. n3) besieging that town, as the general-in-chief and the provost marshal of your forces (fn. n4) cannot fail to have informed you. After a careful inspection of Our army, divided, as it is, into two camps; after examining the positions it occupies, and the approaches to the two camps and to the town itself, the defences of the latter, and the works and trenches already raised by Our engineers, as well as gathering such information as We could concerning the plans of the enemy, who is said to be daily advancing—both king Francis and his two sons announcing and boasting that they are coming to the relief of Landrechies, and will soon offer Us battle—We have resolved to keep up the two army camps before that town, prosecute with vigor the siege thereof, and wait for more reliable intelligence respecting the enemy's plans. As, however, We have not yet recovered from Our last very sharp fit of gout, We came last night to this place close to the said town of Landrechies, from which We can establish speedy communication with Our army, and where We intend to remain until the town itself surrenders or the movements of the enemy require Our presence elsewhere.
Such are Our plans for the present, as Our ambassador has no doubt informed you by this time. Should there be any change in them, or should any important military event take place, you shall be immediately apprised of it. Pray believe Our ambassador's words as if We Ourselves were speaking to you.
We cannot, however, omit testifying to you of the good service which the general-in-chief of the English forces and the provost marshal, in their respective commands, are daily rendering Us, as well as the soldiers under their orders, who (We must declare) are truly a well trained and picked body of men, behaving very well in the field, and with such order and discipline that nothing more could be desired. Indeed, We are sure that whenever they come to hand with the enemy nothing shall be wanted on their part; they will do their duty.
With regard to your letter in commendation of the son of Our cousin, the duke of Norfolk, that he may be trained in military affairs and gain experience of war, We must tell you that he has already profited so much by the example of your own soldiers that he will hardly require further tuition, All Our people will regard him as his father's courage and merits and his own genteel manners, and your royal commendation, (fn. n5) deserve.—Davesnes (from Avesnes), 21 October 1543.
Addressed: "Charles V. to Henry VIII., king of England."
French. Original draft. pp. 2.
22 Oct. 245. The Same to the Same.
Wien, Imp. Arch.
Corresp, Engl., 9.
"Tres chier, tres excellent prince, nre. tres chier et tres amé, bon frere et cousin, &c., "—Since the return (fn. n6) of the sieur de Chantonnay We have purposely delayed writing to you until Our arrival at this camp, that We might inform you of the state of Our forces and the plans and designs of the common enemy. Gout however, has molested Us in such a manner that We have been unable to attend to any other business than the care of Our health until eight days ago, when We ventured to leave Binch and come to Mons, whence, being still weak, We marched to Beauvois, and the day after to Quesnoy, Yesterday We went to inspect Our army, now before Landrecis, divided into two camps, as We have no doubt that the general in command, and the marshal of your forces, horse and foot, have already informed you. After reconnoitring the said town of Landreccis, and seeing how Our engineers are proceeding to work the approaches to the town, and what direction those works are to take, besides inquiring for news of the enemy and of his advancing to the relief of the place—which king Francis and his sons seem determined to succour, giving Us battle— We resolved to keep the said two armies in front of Landrechies, and prosecute the siege of that place until We hear what the enemy's plans really are, and what he will do next. As We have not yet recovered from Our last very sharp attack of gout, We came last evening to this place close to Landrechies, from which We shall be in daily correspondence with Our army, remaining here or going to the camp according as the movements of the enemy render it necessary. Of whatever We do you shall hear from Our ambassador residing at your court, as well as of any other news concerning the war. You may believe him as if We Ourselves were speaking to you.
Meanwhile We cannot do less than testify to you Our satisfaction at the good behaviour and admirable conduct in the field of the general and provost marshal at the bead of your forces, as well as to the services of your men, who are really and truly a well appointed and disciplined band, doing their duty in the field and behaving altogether so gallantly as to leave nothing to be desired. Indeed, We are sure that they will do their utmost against the common enemy. Respecting what You have written Us in commendation of the son (fn. n7) of Our cousin, the duke of Norphorc (Norfolk), whom you have sent here to learn the art of war (pour le dresser es choses de la guerre), We can only say that he daily receives so good an example from your own people the English that he cannot fail to get instruction. All Our men consider and respect him, as the father's well-known courage (valeur) and the son's gentlemanly behaviour (gentil cueur), as well as your own commendation of his person, rightly demand. — Davesnes (from Avesnes) the 22nd of October 1543. (fn. n8)
Indorsed: "To the king of England."
French. Original draft. pp. 2.
Oct. 246. Eustace Chapuys to the Emperor.
Wien, Imp. Arch.
Corresp. Engl., 11.
"Sire,"—The bishop of London (Bonner) and Master Bryant have called upon me saying that they have been charged with a mission to Your Majesty, which mission consists of the following points:
To visit Your Majesty and congratulate on Your prosperous victory over the duke of Clèves.
To report confidentially on the state of affairs in Scotland, which is more hopeful than when my son (fn. n9) was last in that country, owing to several lords, counts and barons having embraced the King's cause, and to the Cardinal himself having fled to the Continent.
The King trusts that in case of need Your Majesty will assist him according to the letter of the treaty, and the mutual friendship uniting you both.
Also that Your Majesty will completely interdict the intercourse of trade between your subjects and the Scotch.
The King of England wishes to know beforehand what is to be done next year against the common enemy, and when, and at what point of their frontier the French are to be assailed, so that he himself may prepare and make the necessary provision for the undertaking.
Previous to the duke of Holstein's alliance and confederacy with France, the king of England lived on good terms with the former, and, therefore, he has reason to think that it would not be difficult for him to enter now into relations with the said duke. That would be (as he says) a blow struck against the common enemy, and if Your Majesty be pleased that he (the King) do interfere and take up the negociation, (fn. n10) he will undertake the task, as the friendship he professes for Your Majesty demands. The above, as the privy councillors inform me, are substantially the items of the ambassadors' mission. I myself had invited them to supper at this Embassy; but they excused themselves on the plea that they will not quit home until they actually start on their mission. ..... (fn. n11)
French. Original. p. 1.
24 Oct. 247. Sir John Wallop to the Emperor.
Wien, Imp. Arch.
Corresp. Engl., 9.
Begs respectfully to inform him that the king's treasurer has given him (Wallop) notice that the term of one hundred and eleven days, during which he and his men are bound to serve, is about to expire; but that, if he (the Emperor) wishes them to remain under arms, he can still retain them in his service by paying them. (fn. n12) From our camp, 24 of October 1543.
French. Original. p. 1.
25 Oct. 248. The Emperor to Chapuys.
Wien, Imp. Arch.
Corresp. Engl., 9.
"Venerable, chier et feal,"—The day before yesterday your letter of the 5th inst., brought by Master Briant, came to hand. The bishop of London (Boner) came with him, and We gave them both audience. After presenting their credentials in the King's own hand, (fn. n13) the two English envoys declared their charge, which, after visiting Us in their master's name, consisted, as they said, of live different points.
The first, to congratulate Us on the prosperous success of Our aims against the duke of Clèves [at Duren], and the subsequent conquest of the duchy of Ghelders and county of Zutphen.
The second, to declare to Us the state of affairs in Scotland, which the King's ambassadors said was in much better condition than when the sieur de Chantonnay went over to England the last time. The King (said the ambassadors) was in hope of some sort of agreement being made with the Scots; should, however, French practices again prevail in that country, and should the arrival there of the patriarch of Acheleya (Aquileia) prevent his plans, he (the King) confidently trusted that We would assist him according to the treaty of closer friendship and alliance.
The third, that he (the King) wished to know as early as possible what Our plans were for next year's campaign against the common enemy, in order to be ready and prepared to take the field in person.
The fourth, to urge that Our fleet should join his in order to prevent the French from herring fishing. On this point the ambassadors did particularly insist, saying that up to this day We had not fulfilled the conditions of the treaty, and that Our combined fleets might already have inflicted great damage upon the enemy.
The fifth, and last, was that their master, the King, has received intelligence that the duke of Holsten (Holstein), who assumes the title of king of Denmark, since hearing of Our victory over the duke of Clèves, shows a desire of coming, to terms with Us. The King (said the ambassadors) wished very much that We would listen to the Duke's overtures, as that might be the means of getting rid of an enemy in those quarters, and consequently of applying all Our forces against the common enemy. If We liked (added the ambassadors), the King, their master, would personally help in the affair.
To the above five points the sieur de Grandvelle has by Our order and in Our name answered as follows:—Respecting the first, he said that We were delighted to hear of the King's good health, and accepted his hearty congratulations conveyed by such a trusty messenger as Master Briant.
To the second, that We were pleased to hear that the affairs of Scotland were in better train than before, and presumed also that king Francis would do all he could to thwart their master's plans and molest him. Whatever the issue of those affairs might be, should Our assistance be required We would not be at fault, and would comply with the articles of the treaty as Our duty and the perfect friendship existing between Us demanded.
To the third, that for the present it is almost impossible for Us to take a resolution as to what ought to be done in the next campaign, very much depends upon the success of the expedition in which We are at present engaged, the siege of Landresies, and the future movements of the common enemy either for the relief of that town or to give Us battle, as he is at this moment boasting that he intends to do. It is also necessary to know how other political affairs in Christendom stand, and likewise what are the Turk's intentions and plans not only on the side of Hungary, but of France also, where, and at the port of Tholon (Toulon), he has now a fleet. The Imperial Diet itself (said the sieur de Granvelle to the ambassadors) was one of the reasons which prevented Us from returning a categorical answer to the said third point of their charge, for wishing, as We do, to attend it in person, We might perhaps be prevented by circumstances and the state of German affairs at the time from carrying on Our plans of campaign. All depended entirely upon the causes above specified and Our own disposition at the time, according to which We must needs regulate Our movements. If We could, as We expressed, personally attend the Diet, We imagined that much good might be done to public affairs generally and Our own private and common ones particularly. Our personal attendance would also serve to gain and secure the affection of the Germans, who were daily giving Us fresh proofs of their attachment as well as of their indignation against the common enemy, and, therefore, that We fully intended to be present at the Diet unless We were prevented by circumstances.
To the fourth point the answer was—that on the very day that your despatch concerning the herring fisheries and the King's desire that the French should be kept off from them was received, We caused a letter to be written to the sieur de Bevres, Our admiral in Holland and Zeeland, commanding him to look to it. An answer has since come from him, reporting that out of the six ships which in obedience to Our orders he had destined for that service two had been wrecked, and the four remaining had sustained much damage at sea; (fn. n14) which report from Our admiral the said Master Briant then and there saw and read. We have since heard from the same sieur de Bevres that six more ships had been fitted out and joined the English fleet, and, moreover, fresh orders have been sent to the said admiral and to the naval authorities in Holland and Zeeland to do all they can to prevent the French from fishing in those seas.
As to the fifth and last point, a declaration has in Our name been made to the abovesaid ambassadors respecting the many wrongs and injuries which the duke of Holstein has done Us, how he had last year allied himself with France and helped the king of that country, as well as the duke of Clèves, against Us, insolently provoking and challenging to war the inhabitants of Our Low Countries. We have since heard and understood that the said Duke, hearing of Our arrival here and of Our proceedings against Clèves, has shown signs of repentance, and seems inclined to treat. We have, however, refused to listen to his overtures unless We knew beforehand how and on what terms and conditions he (the Duke) intends to treat. Were these acceptable, We would still wait until those who had gone to Denmark on the King's part should return with an answer, and would then decide as to the course of action to be followed. (fn. n15) It was not desirable, however, for the king of England to take up cards in that affair, lest the Duke should thereby become more insolent. We deemed it more advisable to drop the affair altogether, and not advance one step more until We know for certain on what terms the Duke intends to treat. You (Chapuys) will thank the King for his kind offer and the good will he manifests for Our sake, assuring him that in this affair, as well as in any other in which We both are concerned as friends and allies, We will take care that nothing is done unprofitable to Our action against the common enemy, and that We shall not fail to advise him from to time of Our progress of the war, that he himself may shape his movements according to circumstances.
As far as We can gather from the ambassadors' mien and countenance when they heard this explanation of Our views from the lips of the sieur de Granvelle, We must say that they seemed satisfied at the answer that was made upon each of the five above-mentioned points, They tell Us that they have no doubt their master, the King, will approve of it. This they themselves declared, without making any further comment or remark on the subject.
Master Wallop, the commander-in-chief of the English, has, moreover, written to Us a letter to the effect that the period of four months stipulated by the treaty for the assistance of an English contingent in Flanders and the Low Countries has nearly run out,, and that the treasurer [of Calais] has declared to him that after the expiration of that term he has no orders from home to continue to pay the men. He (Master Wallop) has given Us cognizance of the fact in order that, if We wish to retain longer the services of his men, We should provide means for their payment—which they would most willingly accept. On this point We have signified to the English ambassadors that, according to the mission entrusted to the sieur de Chantonnay, and the kind answer made by the King to that ambassador's overtures concerning the English contingent, We really expected, and indeed firmly believed, that should the English force remain in the field longer than the four months, the King, Our brother and ally, would retain them in his pay, inasmuch as Our present undertaking is principally directed against Our common enemy. Both the King's ambassadors and Master Walop, the general, ought to bear in mind that as Landrecis is being actually besieged by Our forces, and as king Francis boasts that he will shortly relieve that town and offer Us battle; as news come every day that he himself is approaching with his son, the Dauphin, at the head of considerable forces, if the intelligence be true—as We have no doubt it is—We could never be persuaded to believe that the king of England could advise or order the withdrawal of his men from the field at such a juncture, but would, on the contrary, retain them in his service, or else, when they returned to England, would again send them on at his own cost on such a service against the common enemy as that which they are now performing before Landrecis, out of which much honor and reputation may accrue to him and to his people. As it is, one way or other, the siege of Landrecis cannot last long; there is every appearance that the place will soon surrender. So Master Walop thinks, and if king Francis with his army approaches it, he may receive such a blow as to incapacitate him, and allow us to prosecute the war to advantage next year. At any rate, Landrecis once carried, the English can return home with honor and reputation.
No direct reply came from the English ambassadors to these remarks of Ours, nor did they offer any contradiction save saying that they had no mandate from the King, their master, to treat of that point, but would consult him thereupon, and let Us know his answer as speedily as possible. It was represented to them that personally qualified, as they were, and enjoying the King's confidence and credit, they might easily take upon themselves the responsibility of the measure, especially as the English commander, Master Wallop, was of Our own opinion, considering the pressure of time and circumstances, and hoped that the King would continue to pay his men. Nothing however was decided, the ambassadors absolutely refusing to incur the responsibility.
As the English ambassadors are pressing Us to reply categorically to their questions on the five above-mentioned points, We will no longer dwell upon them, trusting that you are hereby sufficiently instructed as to the answer you yourself are to give when personally interrogated by the King on the subject. You may, in addition to the above reasons adduce any others that may seem to you most fit and opportune to persuade the King to accept Our answer, such as it is, and be satisfied, since it is the sincere expression of Our sentiments of friendship towards him, as well as of Our perfect desire to fulfill the articles of the treaty, at the same time begging him for the good of Our common cause to continue the pay of his forces some time longer.
Respecting news of this camp, all We can tell you is that two good batteries of siege guns are actually firing upon Landrecis, and that We expect ere long its surrender. Should king Francis come to its relief at the head of his army, he will find the two divisions of Our joint army encamped before its walls, well provided with every necessary, and ready to accept battle should the French offer it. As We have no doubt that the [English] ambassador here with Us and Master Walop also will keep the King, their master, daily informed of every military event in these parts, We need not say any more about it, but refer you to the above particulars.—Davesnes (from Avesnes), 25 of October 1543.
French. Original draft. pp. 5.
22 Oct. 249. The Same to the Same.
Wien, Imp. Arch.
Corresp. Engl., 9.
"Venerable, chier et feal,"—We send you herein enclosed the copy of Our letter to the king of England, written at the request of the commander-in-chief of the English force on this side of the Channel, Master Walop, who, to say the truth, is fulfilling admirably the duties of his charge. As to the marshal, he has shown himself colder and more difficult to meet than We should have wished; but this is merely intended for your own particular ear.
We also enclose the copy of that which, on Our return to this place from the camp [before Landrecis] on Saturday last, We wrote to the Queen, Our sister, informing her of the resolution taken by Us after a conference with Don Fernando [Gonzaga], the duke of Aarshot, and count de Rœulx, as well as with the English commander. According to the contents of that letter to Our sister you will speak to the King, and since he wishes Us to be open and frank with him as to Our plans, you will tell him as much about them as you may deem necessary and convenient.
Since Our return to this place, We have been informed that the Dauphin (Henri de Valois) is at St. Quentin, or in its neighbourhood, and that the Swiss, Germans, Italians, and Frenchmen of his army are encamped at one or two leagues' distance from that town, his intention being to do his best to succour Landrecis, and, if they can, take possession of Cambray. Yet it appears that the inhabitants of the latter town have obtained a safe conduct, and sent a deputation to the French camp to ask the Dauphin for reparation and indemnity for the flour mills, which his men have destroyed in the neighbourhood, and other damage done in the Cambresis. We have sent thither, at the request of the bishop of that see, six companies (enseignes) of infantry and five hundred horse for the defence of the town in case the enemy persist in their attempt to enter it. We must, ere long, hear what the result of their present movements will be.
We likewise send you the copy of a letter written by the duke of Orleans to the Landgraf of Hesse with the instructions (fn. n16) concerning it, and two more from the King, his father, to the said Landgraf, which you are to show to the King, as well as the Instruction appended to the latter, by which Instruction the king of England, Our ally, will see that king Francis is doing all he can to ally himself with the heretics (les desvoyez de la foy) as well as with the Turks, from which fact it is to be hoped that he will receive the punishment that his wretched doings deserve.—From Avesnes, the 22nd of October 1543.
Addressed: "To the ambassador in England."
French. Original draft. pp. 2.
27 Oct. 250. Eustace Chapuys to Granvelle.
Wien, Imp. Arch.
Corresp. Engl.
"Monseigneur,"—Your Lordship's letter of the 12th inst. could not have arrived more opportunely than it did for enabling me to answer the questions of these privy councillors in their letter of the 20th, both of which, letter and answer, are here enclosed. (fn. n17) Notwithstanding my reply to them, which I consider satisfactory enough, these privy councillors have again spoken to me respecting the equipment of the fleet of the Low Countries, as Your Lordship will be able to judge by their recent letter to me of the 25th, which is also enclosed. (fn. n17) Not only have they, as also the King, their master—who spoke about it to my secretary—taken in very good part the great cart Your Lordship takes to keep them au courant of the Emperor's movements in Flanders and plans of campaign for the future, but they have applauded as very wise and convenient the measure of recalling the men besieging Guise, in view of the considerations (respetz) contained in Your Lordship's letter.
At Mons. Francisco d'Este's mishap (fn. n18) these people have been much concerned, yet they imagine and hope, according to what Your Lordship writes, that it is perhaps convenient at times to sacrifice to fortune, as happened once to the Romans in their wars [with the Carthagenians], and as has been often experienced, as Your Lordship rightly, observes, in the Emperor's affairs.
Certainly it would seem as if this king's affection for His Imperial Majesty were daily on the increase. There is, in my opinion, no fear of his refusing to send 15,000 men, perhaps more, across the Channel to the Imperial camp the day that it is decided to give battle to the common enemy, even if he should have to give each man four times his ordinary pay. (fn. n19)
The King has not approved of a certain foolish letter written by the earl of Surrey (Henry Howard), a copy of which I purpose sending to Your Lordship. He (the Earl) has received orders to abstain in future from making such reports. There is, however, no need, in my opinion, of asking for an apology or correction of the news conveyed in the Earl's letter, unless the officers in Flanders should ask for it, for otherwise the people to whom I owe my information and who have procured me a copy of the letter might be seriously compromised through it.
A report is afloat that a great embassy will soon come here from Scotland. The privy councillors do not know what it will be about, nor what the Scotch are wishing for. As soon as I can learn anything certain I shall not fail to inform Your Lordship.
I have to thank Your Lordship most gratefully for the favour shown to my man, who would have wished to be here with me and leave off his present pursuit till a better opportunity arises.—London, 27 October 1543.
Signed: "Eustace Chapuys."
Indorsed: "À Mons. de Granvelle, etc., etc."
French. Original. pp. 2.
28 Oct. 251. The King of England's Privy Council to [Vice-] Admiral Bryant.
Wien, Imp. Arch.
Corresp. Engl., 4.
"Monsieur de Bryant,"—After the usual commendations to your person, we, the assembled councillors, inform you that the King, our master, having maturely considered and weighed the state of the Emperor's affairs with France, as well as the probable issue of this campaign [battaille] against that country and after long debating the question whether hostilities ought to be prosecuted [during the winter] or suspended for a time, has decided that you, the [Vice-] Admiral, go and declare to the Emperor what his (the King's) opinion happens to be on the subject. You are, therefore, requested and ordered to look out for some fit opportunity or other of going to his camp or court, as the case may be, and after presenting to him our dutiful commendations, say that the King, our master, out of the particular love and brotherly affection he bears the Emperor, and considering also that the issue of this present war against our common enemy, the French—whether prosperous or adverse—is a matter that concerns equally the Emperor and himself, and, therefore, that all means of molesting and afflicting the foe ought to be carefully looked into and weighed, is of opinion that until next spring no invasion of France by the joint forces of the Empire and England should take place, for the reasons that will be stated hereafter. We hope that after you, Bryant (fn. n20) have signified to the Emperor our master's opinion in this matter His Imperial Majesty will take his advice in good part, as proceeding from the heart of his good brother, friend, and ally, who does not presume in the least to give him lessons as to the manner of conducting political or warlike affairs, but who wishes only to communicate his own fancies and ideas (fantaisie) on the subject, for him to choose and follow afterwards whatever course he may consider best, especially with regard to his honor and military reputation.
After a preamble of this sort, you will tell the Emperor that the King, our master, considering the very heavy and unbearable charges which king Francis has had to support so large a force as he has in the field; considering also that our master, the King, knows from authentic quarters that it will be almost impossible for King Francis to assemble and pay an equal force next year; for this reason and others, he (the King) thinks that it will be more profitable and advantageous for the Emperor and for himself to suspend hostilities for awhile, and not to engage in battle with the French unless it becomes evident and manifest that we have the advantage over the enemy, or that the Emperor is so provoked that he may not without injury to his honor and military reputation decline battle. This, we know, the Emperor would never consent to do, and yet the King, our master, having regard, above all things in the World, to his honor and reputation, earnestly recommends him to employ all means in his power to avoid encounters with the enemy.
If, however, the war could thus be prolonged for the French king to be obliged to diminish the army he has in the field; if he should be frustrated from achieving anything important in a military point of view, the King, our master, thinks and hopes that next year he himself on one side of the French frontier and the Emperor on the other, with their invincible power—when the enemy will no longer have his present forces and friends—he will be so assailed on various points of his frontier that, with the help of God, he (king Francis) will suffer a loss and damage he will never recover from.
All this the King, our master, wishes you to represent to the Emperor in his name, though his great experience in military affairs, and his being so close to the enemy, will better enable him to judge whether this advice is to be followed or not, and whether honor and profit can be gained otherwise.—Ampthill, 28 October, 1543.
Indorsed: "Le Conseil d'Etat du Roi d'Angleterre à l'Admiral Bryant."
French. Original. pp. 2.
Oct. 252. Eustace Chapuys to the Queen of Hungary.
Wien, Imp. Arch.
Corresp. Engl., 11.
The bishop of London and Master Briant have called on me to say that they have been appointed to go to His Imperial Majesty, and that their mission is as follows:—
1stly. To visit His Imperial Majesty and congratulate him on his very great success against the duke of Clèves.
2ndly. To inform him confidentially and under reserve of the state of affairs in Scotland, which is more hopeful than it was when my son was in the country, owing to the King having there many friends among the lords, counts, and barons of the country, and to the Cardinal himself having retired to the other side of the water. (fn. n21)
3rdly. That the King, their master, trusts that, in case of need, His Imperial Majesty will assist him in conformity with the treaty of closer alliance and mutual friendship.
4thly. That His Imperial Majesty will forbid the intercourse of trade between his subjects of the Low Countries and others with Scotland.
That the king of England wishes to know beforehand what is to be done against the common enemy in next year's campaign, and what part of his frontier is to be assailed first, that he may prepare and store provisions, &c.
That previous to the alliance and confederacy of the duke of Holstein with king Francis, the King, their master, had entered into an understanding with the former, and that most likely whoever could negociate with him might easily win him over, which would be sp much gained against the common enemy. That if His Imperial Majesty approve of this, and the negociation be entrusted to him, he (the King) has no doubt something may be gained by it.
I (Chapuys) pressed the ambassadors to remain and take supper with me; but they excused themselves, saying that they were going home to prepare for departure. (fn. n22)
Signed: "Eustace Chapuys."
Indorsed: "Fragment of a letter from the ambassador in England to Queen Mary."
French. Original. pp. 2.
29 Oct. 253. The Same to the Same.
Wien, Imp. Arch.
Rep. P., Fasc. 234.
Encloses copy of letters received from the Privy Council, by which Her Majesty, the Queen Regent, will be able to judge how much the King and his ministers insist upon the fleet of the Low Countries being fitted out and armed for sea, and sent to this coast according to the stipulation of the treaty.—London, 29 October 1543.
Signed: "Eustace Chapuys."
French. Original. p. 1.


  • n1. "Mais la goutte nous à tellement faict la guerre que n'avons peu personellement entendre en l'autre."
  • n2. Elsewhere Landrecies or Landrechies, now Landrecis or Landrecy near Avesncs in the dep. of Le Nord (France).
  • n3. "Jusques à ce qu'il y a huit jours que nous aventurasmes de partir de Binche, et convenir á Mons, ou pour nous trouver encoires deboli (sic faible?) vinsmes à Beaurains et le lendemain au Quesnoy, et hier fusmes veoir nre. armee mise en deux camps sur Laudreschies."
  • n4. Lord Seymour and Sir John Wallop (?).
  • n5. "Et quant à ce que nous avez escript en recommendacion du filz de nre. cousin, le due de Norphocq pour le dresser es choses de la guerre, il a si bon example de vos gens quil ne pourra faillir den estre instruict et tous les nostres le respecteront comme merite la valeur du pere et le gentil cueur du filz et nous oblige vre. recommendacion."
  • n6. The copy before me reads: "dois le retour devers vous du sieur de Chantonnay," but nous must be meant, for the ambassador, who was no other than Thomas Perrenot, had returned from London and was back at Ulm (in Wurtenberg) on the 20th of July. See above, No. 189, p. 441.
  • n7. Henry Howard, earl of Surrey, son of the duke of Norfolk.
  • n8. Two drafts of the same letter are preserved in the Imperial Archives, one dated the 21st, the other the 22nd of October. Though differently worded, the subjects treated are the same. The latter, however, has emendations in Granvelle's handwriting.
  • n9. "Dont ils out meilleur espoir quilz navoient quant mon filz y fut dernierement pour y avoir de[s] bons amys, sieurs, contes et barons." This is the first time that Chapuys alludes in his correspondence to a son of his, of whom nothing is known.
  • n10. "Et sil semble à vostre Mate quil sen doige entremectre, il le fera volontiers selon lexigence de vře amytie."
  • n11. "Javoye pria instanment au souper les dits ambassadeurs, mais ilz se sont excusez [en disant] quilz ne bougeront mishuy (?) de leur logis." .... Thus closes the letter as if it were unfinished; it is besides unsigned and undated; though on the dorse, in a more modern hand, I find "8bre 1543."
  • n12. "Apres ce temps ils ne sont plus à la charge du Roy, mon maistre, mais si l'Empereur veult les entretenir à ses gages ils demeureront à son service."
  • n13. "Et avec les lettres en credence sur le dict sieur Briant de la main du roy."
  • n14. "Au quatrieme qui dois que nous escripvistes dempescher la pesche des arantz (sic) incontinent se fisrent lettres au Sr de Beures, admiral de la mer en Zelande et en Hollande, à ceste fin, et que le dict admiral nous a adverty comment il avoit envoye six naves (sic), dont les deux sont rompues et les autres mal traictees," &c.
  • n15. "Et syl y avoit apparence, et que aucuns qui de sa part en avoient faict instance en actendoyent (sic) response."
  • n16. "En oultre nous vous envoyons une copie de la lettre du sieur d'Orleans au lautgrave de Hessen avec l'instruction y servaute, et deux autres lettres du roy de France au dict lantgrave, lesquelles vous pourrez communiquer au dict sieur roy, et mesmes la dite instruction."
  • n17. No enclosure at all within the letter itself.
  • n18. "Quant au mesahu de Don Francisco d'Aste." Don Francisco d'Este marchese della Massa, son of Alfonse I., duke of Ferrara. Sandoval (Historia del Emperador Carlos V, lib. XXV., cap. XXXIII., calls him Don Francisco Aristino [Aestino?], and again (cap. XLV.) Don Francisco de Aste, capitan general de los caballos ligeros del Emperador. He was taken prisoner before Landrecis in October 1548, together with Mons. d'Isiesse, brother of Monsieur de Rin (Reu, Rœulx?) and Alfonso Visal (?) "gentilhombre de la boca."
  • n19. "Oeres quil leur deu bailler quatre souldres (sic) à chascun."
  • n20. Sir Francis Briant, who, as will be seen, was accompanied in his mission by Edmund Bonner, the bishop of London.
  • n21. "Secondement. l'advertir confidemment de lestat des affaires d'Escosse, dont ilz ont meilleur espoir quilz navoient quant mon filz y fust dernierement pour y avoir de bons amys sieurs, contes et barons, et que le cardinal se soit retire dela leau." This is the first time that Chapuys mentions a son of his, who must have gone to Scotland on some private mission, and for the purpose of obtaining reliable information on the real state of affairs in that country.
  • n22. "Javoye presse instamment au souper les dits ambassadeurs, mais ilz se sont excusez en disant quil leur falloit aller à la maison et preparer pour le depart, et quilz ne bougeront de leur logis qua pour aller en mer."