Spain: July 1544, 16-20

Pages 250-255

Calendar of State Papers, Spain, Volume 7, 1544. Originally published by Her Majesty's Stationery Office, London, 1899.

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July 1544, 16–20

16 July. 152. Queen Mary's Instructions to Monsr. De Courrières.
B. Neg. d'Ang., Tome L. B.M. Add. 28.593, f. 329. Instructions and memorial for you Messire Jehan de Memorancy (Montmorency), Sieur de Courrières, of what in the Emperor's name and Our own you are to say, and to remonstrate to the king of England, to whom his Imperial Majesty is now sending you.
First of all you shall go to Calais, where the King is now said to be, and will tell him that the Emperor, hearing his (the King's) determination to cross the Channel, and come to Calais, had expressly sent you hither to wait for his arrival and landing, at the said port. That you go purposely to congratulate him on his safe arrival, and to inquire about his health, which, the Emperor hopes, has not suffered through the passage. The same congratulations and wishes to be also made in Our own name, and you shall not fail to inquire also about the King's health, which We do prize as much as Our own. Last, but not least, you will take care to inform Us, as soon as possible, how the King feels.
You shall by all possible means, and before you get an audience from the King, try to ascertain through the Imperial ambassador, if he should happen to be at Calais with the King, or through the duke of Albourquerque, what his will and intentions are; whether he purposes to remain at Calais, or go beyond with his army, and prosecute his right and fortune against France.
Should you find that he has made up his mind not to remain at Calais, but will go out and expose his person to the dangers of war, by marching through the enemy's territory, and so forth, (fn. 1) you will address him in the terms of the Emperor's letter to him (in answer to the commission brought by one of his chief secretaries, Messire Guillaume Paget).
At the same time you will tell the King that the Emperor, alarmed at his late indisposition, and fearing that it may be increased by the trouble, fatigue and privations of a campaign into the enemy's country, would beg of him to remain at Calais, and issue his orders from that town with less trouble and fatigue to his Royal person. That his Imperial Majesty should have wished, for many reasons already stated in his letters, that he should not have quitted England and the place of his residence, for fear the change of air should debilitate and prostrate him, or otherwise increase the nervous affection from which he is suffering; but since he (the King) has obstinately persisted in his former resolution, that can only be caused by his singular magnanimity, and his fervent desire to come to hands with the common enemy. The Emperor, you will tell him, has no doubt that the issue of the war will be such as the king of England wishes and expects, and yet the Emperor cannot fail to recommend him again to take much care of his precious life, and not to expose himself wantonly to danger.
Should you Monsr. de Courrières, find out that the King has determined not to move from Calais, you will encourage him and say that that is the wisest thing to do, as he can conveniently from that town send orders to his ministers, and direct the operations of his army. In short, you will make use of such arguments as are contained in the instructions which you took to England, the last time that the Emperor sent you thither.
You will try to ascertain, conjointly with the Imperial ambassador, if he should happen to be at Calais, or otherwise by yourself, how the King intends to operate [against the common enemy], and in what direction his army will march; whether his forces are to be employed exclusively on the siege of Montreuil, or whether they are to proceed beyond that town, and penetrate further into France according to the agreement (capitulation) made with the Viceroy of Sicily (Ferrante Gonzaga), in the Emperor's name, a copy of which agreement will be put into your hands, in which you will find that both princes (the Emperor, my brother, and the king of England) mutually bind themselves to march on Paris at the head of their respective armies as far as the reason of military warfare, the victualling of the men, and the movements of the enemy will permit.
You shall try, by all possible means, to induce and persuade the King to make his army advance into France as far as he can and march straight upon Paris, making use of Gonzaga's additional treaty, and your own instructions, and should the conversation turn on the provisions, waggons and draft-horses for the King's army, you will tell the King that if fault there is, it is not Ours, which appears from the paper we have caused to be drawn out, and placed into the hands of the duke of Suffolk's agents here, of which a copy will be given to you. These provinces have been so exhausted by war, and in some localities the havoc done by the enemy has been so considerable that provisions are by no means so plentiful as they were in the year 1530, when after a good and long peace these countries were flourishing.
The English ambassador, presently residing at this Our Court, (fn. 2) has applied to Us for 500 more waggons. We have promised him 300 of them, which is the utmost We can accommodate the King with, but We have told him that we shall be glad to help him to procure from private people as many as he may want for his money, and without using violence of any kind.
In short you will do your best to persuade the King to remain at Calais, and will keep us daily informed of whatever happens there, as We will take care that due notice be given to you of the events of this country, and the Emperor's movements.—Bruxelles, 16 July 1544.
French. Original. 5 pp.
17 July. 153. The Emperor's Instructions to the same De Courriêres.
Almost a duplicate of the preceding, with the only difference that the Queen Regent is not named in them.—Brussels, 17 July 1544. (fn. 3)
French. Original. 1 p.
18 July. 154. King Henry to Queen Mary.
Wien, Imp, Arch. Fasc. Varia. No. 5. Thanks her for her good will and kind assistance in the matter of provisions, horses, carts, waggons, and so forth for the English army. His ambassadors at her Court and also his commissaries have written about it. As the latter however have written home concerning the measures adopted by the Queen for the regular and orderly execution of their task, he (the King) has nothing to say save that he finds those measures and rules excellent, and approves entirely of them. He has, therefore, ordered his commissaries, to stay some time in Flanders, and fix their residence at St. Omer, so that they may be under the Queen's orders, and with her permission attend to the provisioning of the English camp before Montreuil.
The King hopes that the Queen of Hungary will continue to do her best for the advancement of their common interests.—Calais, 18 July 1544.
French. Original. 1 p.
20 July. 155. King Francis to King Henry.
Wien, Imp. Arch. “Monsieur, mon frére,”—Having heard by the Sieur de St. Martin's letter of the good and honest words in which you have addressed him, I now send towards you the present gentleman, (fn. 4) in order to inquire and ascertain from you whether those words are really the expression of your sentiments, and proceed directly from you in order that I may send a corresponding answer to them, and make you acquainted with my intentions. This, I calculate, you will find so fair and reasonable that you will have no difficulty in believing and acknowledging that my desire has always been, and is to maintain the good and perfect amity, in which I have constantly held you. I cannot persuade myself that, on your part, the friendship and brotherhood, in which we have always lived, has suffered any diminution, for, I can assure you that, so far as I, myself, am concerned, it has not been impaired in the least. That is why I now send the bearer of this, my letter, to declare to you verbally, and more explicitly, the above sentiments. Please believe what he will tell you in my name, and return an answer.—St. Mor des Fossetz, (fn. 5) the 20th of July 1544.
Signed: “Your good brother, cousin, and ally, Françoys.”
Addressed: “To Monsr., my good brother, the king of England.”
French. Contemporary copy. (fn. 6) 1 p.
n.d. 156. Proposals of France.
Wien, Imp. Arch. Rep. P. Fasc. 231. f. 68. The king of France will pay the arrears of pension due to the king of England, or will give him such securities that he will be satisfied with.
The war between them once over, the king of France will make the South lay down their arms, so that the king of England will become their friend, as much as the friend of the king of France.
Respecting the damages and interest, the peace once made between them, king Francis will be as reasonable in the matter that the king of England will have no cause for complaint.
As to the offers which the king of England makes to the Emperor, should the latter restore the duchy of Milan, which belongs to France, together with all the fortresses and castles, which he retains in that duchy, king Francis will restore to him all that he has taken since the beginning of the last wars, provided the Emperor does the same.
Respecting the Emperor's claims, and any other in which king Francis may be concerned, he would like to get the advice of his brother, the king of England. (fn. 7)
Indorsed: “Articles et conditions de paix entre le roy d'Angleberre et le roy de France.”
French. Original draft, 1 p.
20 July. 157. Eustace Chapuys to the Queen of Hungary.
Wien, Imp. Arch. Rep. P., Fasc. C. 235. “Madame,”—On my embarking at Dover, on the l8th inst., Your Majesty's letter of the 11th came to hand, and yesterday the 19th, I waited on the King, who made no other answer respecting Landenberg's business than what Your Majesty will find in the inclosed letter for the Emperor.
As to the business on which the duke of Suffolk wrote to Your Majesty, (fn. 8) the King showed satisfaction at the arrangement made—as he, himself, declared to Monsr. Doysot, telling him that he had written thanking you—and certainly the King says that he is very much obliged to Your Majesty for the great care and trouble you have taken, and are taking of his affairs, and is far from inculpating you if there be fault in the supplies for his army.
Neither the King, nor any of his Privy Councillors have said a word to me respecting the English army not having entered France on the day fixed for the invasion. I am very glad of it, for in the present state of affairs, it is far better to dissemble than to enter into discussion with these people on the subject.
With regard to the ill-treatment of the carriers, and payment of their salaries, the King cannot, or will not, be persuaded that his men ill-use them; yet he has promised to have the affair looked into.
As to the Zeeland cavalry the King has given me to understand, as your Majesty will see by the inclosed, that the duke of Holstein had sent for them (les avoit rappellé).
As to Octavian Bos, I heard two hours ago that an Italian had come expressly to speak to the secretary of the Privy Council in his favour, (fn. 9) offering to prove his innocence. I really believe that the Secretary will not stir in this affair more than he has done hitherto, and after all the rack will settle the whole matter.
I most humbly beg and entreat Your Majesty to be pleased to replace me and appoint another ambassador to reside at this Court, for the King will in a couple of days, leave for his camp in front of Boulogne. This favour I confidently expect from Your Majesty, the more so, that my secretary was told so at Brussels, and I, myself, have since received the confirmation thereof.—Calaix, 20 July 1544.
P.S.—As Your Majesty will understand by the inclosed copy of Monsr. de Courrières' letter how this business of Framozelle's is going on, I must not refer to it further.
Signed: “Eustace Chapuys.”
French. Original, partly ciphered. 1½ pp.


  • 1. “Et si trouvez quil est deiiberé nullement d'estourner ains passer oultre employer et exposser sa personne eu ceste guerre.”
  • 2. “Et pour ce que l'ambassadeur, presentement saident devers nous, nous a dem[audé] aultres Vc chariotz, auquel avons respondu que lui furnirions jusques à IIIc des ditz chariotz, et que sommes contente que davantaige il se serve de ceulx quil pourra recouvrer par argent.”
  • 3. Though bearing the date of the 17th, these Instructions must have préceded those of Mary on the 16th.
  • 4. No doubt Monsr. de Framozelles, who, as will be related hereafter, made his appearance at the camp before Boulogne on the 30th of July.
  • 5. Otherwise St. Maur les Fosses in the Isle de France.
  • 6. Sent by Chapuys to Brussels. The original is in the Record Office. See State Papers, Vol. X., p. l.
  • 7. There is no date to this paper, which is placed in the Imperial Archives immediately after Francis' letter to king Henry (No. 155, p. 253). That it was put into the King's hands by Framozelles, the agent of king Francis and bearer also of his holograph letter, seems probable, but whether it was delivered at Calais, soon after Henry's landing there, or at Boulogne, in September, it is difficult to say.
  • 8. The Duke's letter is not in the Imperial Archives, but Queen Mary's answer, dated the 8th, may be seen under No. 147, p. 239.
  • 9. “Pour la discoulpe et descharge du dict Octavian.”