Spain: October 1545, 1-15

Pages 254-268

Calendar of State Papers, Spain, Volume 8, 1545-1546. Originally published by His Majesty's Stationery Office, London, 1904.

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October 1545, 1–15

October ? Paris Arch. Nat. K. 1495. 143. St. Mauris to the King of the Romans.
I send enclosed copies of the joint letters of M. Noirthoudt and myself to the Emperor and the Queen of Hungary, giving reports of all that he and I have been able to do in the matter of a peace between England and France. To this I can only add that I have heard from M. D'Albret that the King of France is endeavouring to bring about the peace, by mean's of a marriage between M. de Vendome (fn. 1) and the Princess of England; but he always sticks to the point of Boulogne, which the King of England insists upon retaining; or, at least, that it shall remain to his daughter on her marriage; which the French will not hear of. They are, however, very desirous of arranging a truce, and are putting it forward by various intermediaries and indirect means, whilst, at the same time, they publicly declare that they do not want it, and if the English seek it they (the French) will not grant it. The truth is, that pure necessity is driving them to it. They are very short of money, the sinew of war, and their people are so weak that if the war goes on and they have to contribute for another year, certainly half of them will abandon their property altogether. I may add that the day after the death of the Duke of Orleans, the Admiral went to the camp before Boulogne, it was said to discuss terms of peace with the English; or, at least, to agree upon a truce, which the French were willing to grant, so long as their fort before Boulogne remained in a state of defence. By means of it, and the war material they will introduce into it, they say they will be able to prevent the English from penetrating further into France; and Boulogne will therefore be useless to them (the English). They think that by concluding such a truce only the township of Boulogne will remain to the English, whilst the French will hold all the rest of the Boulognais. But, Sire, in this they are counting without their host.
I am enclosing with the present a copy of the medical report of the illness of the Duke of Orleans, who is greatly mourned here. The truth is that he died of pleurisy caught by drinking cold water whilst he was heated. God rest his soul. I think also the copy of my negotiation with the King (of France), with regard to the aid to the King of England, will also go enclosed.
I will summarise my other news of events here, so as not to weary your Majesty.
About a fortnight since the English with about 40 armed ships attacked Tréport in Normandy, burning the town and killing all the men and women they could catch. The King of France sent M. de Nevers, M. D'Aumale, and M. de Boissy, but the enemy had retired to sea when they arrived. The English now dominate the sea, as the French fleet is broken up. They talk of commissioning at once 40 armed ships to protect the (French) coast until a truce or a peace be concluded. As to the galleys, the season condemns them to stay in the corner of a harbour to serve as food for rats.
Sire, these people (the French) have no good news as to the success of their army in Scotland. The Scots are said to be blaming them for not sending money. Two days since an ambassador from Scotland arrived here, to arrange, for the defence of Scotland, as they fear that during the winter the English will send a force against them, as they (the English) have men and ships ready.
The Jacobin friar who busied himself about the peace, was sent a few days since by the King of France to the Emperor, to inform him that the protestants have offered the King the restitution of Boulogne, if he (the King of France) will join with them against the Emperor in the matter of the Council (of Trent). The King of France rejected such a proposal, and would much rather obtain Boulogne by the intervention of his Majesty than otherwise. The friar is also to say that the King is sending to request the Pope to declare the King of England schismatic, and to exhort all Christian princes to attack him.
The French some time ago took the Marshal of Calais prisoner near that town, whilst he was out rabbit hunting. He is being detained here, and they expect to get a great ransom from him. (fn. 2) On the 20 August Count William (Furstenberg) paid his ransom of 30,000 ducats. I think he was brought to it by the persuasions of the Secretary, Jean Jaques, a German, in the hope that the King of France would freely deliver him after the ransom was paid, which the King has firmly refused to do; saying that the Count must not leave the city of Paris until the Prince of Roche sur Yonne is put to ransom. Count William is so desperate at this that he has fallen into a frenzy. If he had followed the advice of the Emperor he would have been in very different case.
Ten days ago, in the presence of the King, Paulin and the Strozzis had a dispute arising out of Paulin having said that the Strozzis had charged him with neglect of his duty against the English at sea, on the occasion that the Admiral was present with the (French) fleet. The Strozzis declared that thay had not imputed the blame especially to Paulin, but they said that several good opportunities had been missed during the voyage of effecting notable exploits against the enemy. In support of their assertion they drew up a written statement of the events of the voyage, describing in detail the opportunities that had presented themselves. The King finally told them, however, that he wished them (i.e., the Strozzis and Paulin) to remain friends as he held them all as good servants of his own, and everything that had been done in the voyage had been by his own special orders, given for sundry reasons. Thus, Sire, the Admiral of France was exonerated from the fault imputed to him by everybody, namely that he had conducted the expedition extremely badly, which has made him very unpopular with the French.
The Emperor had requested the King to allow Cardinal Carpi to resign an abbacy he holds in France, in favour of a Frenchman; but the King refused, solely in consequence of the Cardinal having done many good offices for the Emperor against France, as is openly declared here: though the Frenchman who was to have succeeded to the preferment was agreeable to the King. This reply was given to the Ambassador before the death of the Duke of Orleans.
† Paulin Baron de la Garde on the occasion in question (15 August), in command of the galleys, begun the action by manuvring for the wind with the English oared boats. The wind, however, was very light, and Hannebault, with the French great ships, could not come up for some hours; and by that time the breeze had shifted in favour of the English, but was still too light for the great ships to be used advantageously against the French galleys. The fleet consequently anchored some distance apart as evening fell: and for some reason, not quite clear, the French sheered off in the night.
The Pope has contributed nothing hitherto to aid the war against England because he wished to stipulate that he should pay the money only on the condition that the King of France should not treat with the English without including the Holy See in the arrangement. This the King flatly refused, as he said he declined to pledge himself to an impossible condition.
The King of France is very much displeased that the Pope should have transferred Parma and Plasencia (Piacenza) to his son for the Duke of Camerino. The King of France says, as he did, indeed, whilst the Duke of Orleans was living, that this could not be done, to the prejudice of the Duke of Milan. (fn. 3) He (the King of France) alleges that the right had previously been acquired by him. Since the death of the Duke of Orleans they add that, even if the Emperor, as Duke of Milan, consented to the transfer, the latter could only be effected subject to existing rights.
The prior of Capua (fn. 4) and his brother have made many captures at sea from the Emperor's subjects, and have put some Spaniards into the galleys: going so far as to say that it was the Spaniards they were after. The Ambassadors of Venice and Ferrara were recently in a village through which at the same time were passing about 50 footmen who had been dismissed from the fleet. The soldiers attacked the lodgings of the Ambassadors with the intention of sacking and pillaging, as they would have done if the village-folk had not come to the rescue. It is not known whether the act was prompted or not. The matter is being investigated, and the troops are in prison.
Several Spaniards who had taken the field with many Normans have been captured in Normandy; amongst them two Spanish captains in the pay of the King (of France). They have asked me to beg the King to pardon them, but I have not ventured to do so without the Emperor's orders.
The French are deeply grieved that the Emperor has not surrendered Busque in Piedmont, as they now despair of getting it, the Duke of Orleans being dead. (fn. 5) The King made great demands of money on the people of Paris two months ago. They begged to be excused on the ground that they had already furnished large sums. They remained obstinate for some time, and the King was exceedingly angry with them; but they have at last consented to lend six score thousand francs, and the King has granted them an impost to raise the amount. By this means he will be quit of the obligation to pay them back, and they will be not much out of pocket by the contribution.
Since the death of the Duke of Orleans I have done nothing in connection with the fulfilment of the treaty of peace (i.e. of Crépy) and I have therefore been unable to report to your Majesty whether these people look upon the treaty as at an end or not. I have been long plagued with fever and all my people have been ill, or I would have sent your Majesty the above information earlier. I will be more punctual in future.
5 Oct. Simancas. E. V. 1318. 144. Diego Hurtado de Mendoza (Imperial Ambassador in Venice) to the Emperor.
News from Constantinople enclosed. I have in my company Dr. Zorilla, a man of sufficient learning and good life, whom I left at Trent, in order that he might report to me as need might arise. By the enclosed relation, your Majesty will see what has occurred there up to the present. M. de Clairmont, one of the French bishops, is here, and wishes to go and see Rome and Naples. The Council will not suffer much from his absence.
The portraits are sent with the present letter, the small one I have specially ordered to be carried with care. Titian is old, and works slowly. He has done his best; and I have told him as much as I could recollect. He says that your Majesty ordered him to be given other particulars, to enable him to do the work more perfectly: but he wishes that no other hand should touch it, or it will be spoiled. He has painted another picture of fancy for your Majesty, which is said to be his best work. Your Majesty granted him many years ago 300 loads of timber in Naples, and they now ask him three ducats a cartload for cutting; so that it produces no profit to him. I pray your Majesty make him another grant, that may bring him some advantage, or else order that the 300 carts shall be paid to him as your Majesty granted them.
The new Duke of Plasencia (Piacenza) has sent an envoy hither to thank the Seigniory for sending to greet him. The same person came to me to place the life and states of the Duke at your Majesty's disposal I have thanked him.
Venice, 5 October, 1545.
5 Oct. Simancas. E. V. 1318. 145. Titian to the Emperor.
Don Diego Hurtado de Mendoza has forwarded the two portraits of the Empress, upon which I have exercised all the skill (diligentia) that I possessed. I should have wished to carry them myself, if the length of the journey and my advanced age had not made it impossible. I pray your Majesty to have your opinions and commands sent to me, and return the portraits that I may amend them, in accordance with your Majesty's desires. But pray your Majesty, do not allow another hand to touch them. With regard to all else touching my affairs I refer your Majesty to Don Diego's letter, and humbly prostrate myself at your Majesty's feet.
Venice, 5 October, 1545. Signed Titiano.
6 Oct. Vienna Imp. Arch. 146. The Emperor to Scepperus and Van der Delft.
We received yesterday letters from our ambassador in France, in reply to that which we wrote to him about your (Scepperus) action in England, your journey hither, and your return mission: touching also the suggestion of a cessation of hostilities for six weeks and the holding of a conference of English and French plenipotentiaries to endeavour to come to terms. After a good deal of discussion between our ambassador and the King of France the latter has consented to this suspension of hostilities for six weeks, during which he will send duly authorised representatives to us, in order that the terms of peace may be discussed. But he lays down the condition that the negotiation is to take place in our territory, and not otherwise. In order to demonstrate his respect for us he will send the most confidential and dignified personages in his realm to represent him at the conference, mentioning expressly Cardinal Tournon or the Admiral. We have since heard from the French ambassadors here that the Admiral was shortly to leave on his journey hither; the King being under the impression that you will already have obtained from the other side a similar agreement for a suspension of hostilities and the meeting of plenipotentiaries. We are sending you this by special courier, in order that you may take steps accordingly to obtain from the King of England his acquiescence in this, and his consent to send amply instructed representatives as soon as possible. Advise us also by this courier in case your continued presence there is necessary, what action you have taken upon this and other points of your mission. Our ambassador in France also reports that during his communication with Cardinal Tournon and the Admiral on the subject of the suspension of hostilities and the meeting of the conference, the Cardinal remarked that the suspension would be greatly to the disadvantage of the French, as both their land and sea forces were ready; and besides this, to hold the conference without absolutely knowing whether the King of England would give up Boulogne or not, would be incurring a vast expense without the slightest hope of result, as his master the King of France was quite determined to make no terms unless Boulogne were restored. You will therefore sound the King of England on this point of the restitution; but you need not press it; your first effort will be to request him to send his representatives amply instructed with the object of concluding peace on reasonable conditions.
Brussels, 6 October, 1545.
8 Oct. Vienna Imp. Arch 147. Reply of the King of England to the Representations of the Emperor's Commissioners on the 4th October, 1545.
First the King thanks the Emperor and the Queen Dowager for their kind greetings, etc., etc.
Whereas the Emperor has communicated to the French Ambassadors resident at his court the King of England's reply respecting the three points proposed by the King of France, and the said ambassadors expressed a wish that the King of England himself had made proposals, the King recognising the obstinacy of his adversaries refers them to his former reply, to which he declines to add anything.
The King thanks the Emperor for communicating to him a certain letter revealing an intrigue to his detriment. He is convinced that the Emperor's action in this matter arises from his fraternal affection which the King will not fail to reciprocate.
The King is also gratified at the Emperor's expressed desire that an interview should take place between them, notwithstanding the Emperor's approaching departure for Germany; and he thanks him also for the solicitude shown for his safety, and his consideration with regard to the sea passage.
With regard to the final decision of the King as to the interview. The King desires of all things that it should take place if it can be done without giving too much trouble to the Emperor.
But, inasmuch as the Emperor informs him that he is willing to undertake it, if it can take place during the month of October; as the Emperor cannot well remain in Flanders beyond that time, owing to the assembly of the States of the Empire at Regensburg and the long voyage he has to make through Utrecht and Gueldres; the King replies that he cannot possibly cross the sea in October. Since the proposed interview spoken of by the Commissioners does not appear to have been finally determined upon by the Emperor, but is made conditional on the establishment of a truce, which the Emperor is urging through his Ambassador in France; and that if the truce is not made the interview cannot take place; and furthermore bearing in mind the short interval between now and the end of the month of October, the King finds it impossible to make the voyage so soon. But provided that the truce be effected and the Emperor be willing to defer for a few days his voyage to Germany (the King being informed that it is not absolutely necessary to appear at Regensburg on the exact day fixed) the King hopes with God's help to be able to be at Calais within one month after he learns that the truce is effected.
The King desires that the truce should extend to land and sea during six months; the places in the Boulognais not to be fortified by either side in that time, although they may be revictualled. The truce shall be proclaimed on the English side at Calais, Guisnes, Boulogne, London, Dover, Rye, Southampton, and Plymouth; and on the French side at Ardres, Montreuil, Abbeville, Paris, Amiens, Dieppe, Rouen, Brest, La Rochelle, and Bordeaux, and within ten days thereafter, at most, all hostilities shall cease by land and sea. Any warlike acts that may be committed after the expiration of that time shall be considered illegal; and restitution and reparation shall be made for them on either side. To conclude this the King will send powers to his Ambassador the bishop of Westminster.
The King out of consideration for the Emperor intends (in the event of the truce being effected) to send representatives, or to give powers to those already in Flanders, to enter into communication with the French commissioners, if they are of the same mind, for the purpose of arranging terms of peace in accordance with the instructions which the King will give to his Commissioners. With regard to an appropriate place for the interview between the Emperor and the King, the former has proposed several for the King's choice and, in order to please the Emperor and not to take him too far away from his road to Germany, the King would be very glad to meet him in one of those places: but unfortunately he finds it will be difficult or impossible for him to do so, in consequence of lack of horses for his train, which at this time of the year cannot be Bent across the sea soon enough; nor can adequate preparation of fodder be made. The King therefore begs the Emperor to come as far as Calais, which town he promises to make so clean and fit that their two Majesties may stay there at their pleasure without fear of sickness or infection.
The Emperor has very prudently suggested that before the meeting takes place the principal points and articles which are to be the subjects of the interview should be mutually discussed and settled; in the first place because the time they can be together is very short, and secondly in order that there should be no question between them but of good cheer and kindly greeting, as is usual when princes meet. The King highly approves of this suggestion and, in order to carry it into effect has requested Scepperus to go to the Emperor, and, in addition to the above, to tell him that the object of the proposed interview is not in the least to importune the Emperor; but the proposal is principally prompted by the great affection and desire felt by the King to see the Emperor once again before his departure, as peradventure so appropriate an opportunity may not occur in future.
Another reason is, that it may be made manifest that, in spite of some suspicion and jealousy between them set afloat by the lying reports of certain ill-disposed people, the King and the Emperor are, and intend to remain for the future, perfect friends, allies and confederates, both in their own persons and in those of their children, heirs and successors to their realms and subjects, in accordance with the treaty of alliance: which the King holds to be inviolable, so far as he is concerned, and trusts that the Emperor also will regard it in the same way.
Since their Majesties entered jointly into the war with France, however, certain questions have arisen with regard to the substance of the treaty, and the King considers it highly advisable for the repose of the Emperor and himself, and the welfare of their respective countries, that these questions should be amicably settled. In any case, he has thought well to make the proposal to the Emperor, to obtain his Majesty's decision, in order that he, the King, may proceed accordingly, as his interests require.
To particularise the questions referred to: the 6th clause of the Treaty provides that the Emperor should hold as his enemy anyone who assails or supports the invasion of the lands and provinces of the King as set forth in the treaty, and should forbid his subjects to associate or trade with the subjects of the invader. The King of France has on three occasions openly and notoriously invaded the territories of the King, and the latter desires to learn from the Emperor how he proposes to deal with the said article of the treaty in these circumstances; and also with article VII. since the invasion has been made with the number of troops specified in the Treaty; and the Emperor's allegation that all this has been done for the recovery of Boulogne is not considered by the King to be either satisfactory nor sufficient. On similar grounds the King of France might cover any future invasion of the Emperor's territory by alleging that the object was the recovery of Milan, Naples, Sicily, or any other land to which the King of France might lay claim. By that rule the King of England might consider himself absolved from complying with the clause in question, which he thinks would redound more greatly to the disadvantage of the Emperor's countries than to his own. The articles are, moreover, unconditional in their tenour, and no mention is made of the reasons that may be alleged for an invasion. With regard to the King's alleged consent to the Emperor's treaty with France, reported by the bishop of Arras, the King rebuts and denies it as a thing utterly untrue. But in any case, even if he had consented, it would not override clauses 6 and 7 about the invasion, which provide for the declaration of the invader as a common enemy and the furnishing of a specified aid to the invaded. The fourth clause, moreover, specially provides that neither prince shall treat with the King of France or any other, to the prejudice of the terms of the Treaty, so that whatever subsequent Treaty might be made, it could not be to the detriment of this one. The King maintains that the treaty made by the Emperor with France can in no way derogate from that previously made between the Emperor and himself, even though the King had consented as is pretended by the bishop of Arras. The King wishes also that clause 24 which lays down that whenever he wished to convey troops through the Emperor's country to go against France, he should be assisted by the Emperor with waggons, boats, victuals, munitions of war and other requisites against payment, should be better observed in future than it has been in the past.
Finally, for better assurance, and in the interests of the maintenance without further scruple of the friendly alliance, the King desires the Emperor to make a special declaration binding upon himself and his successors that he and they shall never seek absolution from the oath he has taken to observe the treaty: and the King on his side, immediately after these points have been settled will bind himself and his successors to fulfil the treaty exactly, and not to enter into any treaty or alliance with any other prince or potentate without the consent of the Emperor, to the prejudice of the terms of this treaty as is laid down in clause 14. Such consent must bear the hand seal of the consenting prince. (fn. 6)
Windsor, 8 October, 1545.
8 Oct. Vienna Hof. Cor. 148. Henry VIII. to the Emperor.
M. D'Eick is now returning and it is therefore unnecessary to write at length. Bespeaks the Emperor's sympathetic consideration of M. D'Eick's communication; and he (Henry) has likewise instructed the bishop of Westminster to lay before the Emperor what we have thought desirable in order to bring about the realisation of our mutual affair (i.e., the proposed interview).
Windsor, 8 October, 1545.
9 Oct. Vienna Imp. Arch. 149. Van der Delft to the Emperor.
On the return hither a few days ago of M. D'Eick we communicated together touching the powers and instructions your Majesty deigned to send us; and in accordance therewith, we used every effort both with the King himself and with the principal members of his Council. As M. D'Eick is returning to your Majesty at once he will convey verbally and fully the result of our action, and I need not therefore trouble your Majesty with a long letter. I will however add, on the subject of the gold seized by Renegat, that the Lords of the Council have conceded my demand and assure me of its restitution as soon as Renegat, who is still at sea, shall return. When he arrives I will not fail to press diligently for its delivery to me in accordance with your Majesty's pleasure. In the matter of the demands preferred by private citizens I have done and will do everything in my power, hoping that in time things may right themselves and the claimants receive justice, as, indeed, some of them have already done. On this point, on Scottish affairs and upon occurrences here M. D'Eick will also report.
Windsor, 9 October, 1845.
9 Oct. Vienna Imp. Arch. 150. Van der Delft to the Queen Dowager of Hungary.
I have received your Majesty's letters, referring to the seizure of this King's money in Antwerp, and, in accordance with your instructions, I have repeated both to the King and his Councillors the excuses contained in the letters, whereupon they showed no very great annoyance. Touching the various other special letters your Majesty has written to me on the subject of the restitution of the property taken from certain subjects of the Emperor by the English, I may say that I have done my best with these Councillors to obtain redress for the complainants. The Councillors have promised me to do strict justice; and have already taken the matter in hand. M. D'Eick who is going to Flanders will report on this and all else. I will not slacken in my efforts in favour of the claims referred to.
Windsor, 9 October, 1545.
10 Oct. Vienna Imp. Arch. 151. The Emperor to Scepperus and Van der Delft.
This is to inform you that the troops retained for the service of our good friend, cousin and perpetual ally the King of England and raised in the neighbourhood of Confluence and Treves, have done inestimable damage there; and afterwards came towards the city of Aix, passing thence through our territories on the other side of the Meuse doing very great damage in them. They then came before the town of Wesel on the Meuse belonging to our cousin the bishop of Liege, where the burgesses closed the gates against them. But nevertheless they forced their way over the walls, which were more ruinous than they ought to have been, and broke down the gates; their intention being to cross the Meuse there, and penetrate into our dominions in violation of the promise given to you by the King, and also of the assurance of his resident ambassador here. We do not know what to think of this, seeing that the agents and commissioners of the King are with these troops. Although they say they have orders not to pass though our territories, except one corner of them, they undisguidedly act in violation of the assurance so frequently given to us by the King. If they continue their course as it is rumoured amongst them that they will do, by the main road (Chausée) they will, in addition to passing, as they have done, through our country on the other side of the Meuse, traverse our territories of Brabant and Hainault, in which case you may well consider how it will please our subjects and the damage and loss that will be suffered by the latter. (fn. 7) Even though the troops say they will pay what they have, if they pay at all they do so at their own discretion and not in accordance with the expense they really incur, and they pay nothing to the horsemen for fodder. We have caused this to be represented to the King of England's ambassador here, but he was only able to reply that he would convey the remonstrance to his master. But in the meanwhile our subjects and those of the bishop of Liege will suffer injury and we are anything but contented thereat. You. will jointly lay this matter before the King, if Scepperus be still there; and if, as we suppose, that the assurances given to us on the subject have come from the King. You will point out, in such case, that his agents have exceeded their authority, and should be severely chastised in order to prevent others from thus perturbing the good relations that we wish to maintain with the King; and you will intimate to the King's ministers that the French are rejoiced at this sort of proceeding. They are spreading the rumour that the understanding between us and the King of England is not cordial.
We have also received a reply from the Sieur de Noirthoudt on the latest instruction we sent him at the time that you, Scepperus, left here. It is to the effect that the King of France is willing to appoint the Commissioners on his side to treat for peace and with that object will consent to a suspension of hostilities for six weeks. We now only await your report to effect the suspension and then to determine about our voyage (i.e. to Germany) in accordance with the result of your action with the King respecting the last mission entrusted to you. Time is passing quickly and the season is already advanced. Report as speedily as possible.
Brussels, 10 October, 1545.
14 Oct. Vienna Imp. Arch. 152. Van der Delft to the Emperor.
Since the departure of M. D'Eick from here the courier with your Majesty's letters of the 6th inst. arrived on the morning of the 12th, having, as he says been so long on the road owing to the storm delaying him in Calais. I received the letters in London, whither I had gone to inspect a house belonging to the King, formerly occupied by the ambassadors of France but which his Majesty has now given to me, as he knew I was badly lodged. I immediately came hither to the King and informed him that on the penultimate dispatch of M. D'Eick your Majesty had received news from your ambassador in France that the Christian King had, out of considera- tion for your Majesty, accorded a suspension of hostilities of six weeks, and also had agreed to the sending of plenipotentiaries in the meanwhile to treat for peace, etc. He replied that touching these points, he referred them to his ambassador with your Majesty, who had power to deal with them and also to the mission with which he had entrusted M. D'Eick. The truce or suspension for 6 weeks only would be a great disadvantage to him, as he had in his service so large a number of Germans to whom he had promised three months' pay. Your Majesty, he said, would understand that notwithstanding the great expense of these Germans, they would be unable to do much service after the first six weeks had been wasted. I replied that the King of France had agreed to this truce and the peace conference out of consideration for your Majesty and that some of the French ministers considered that it would be a disadvantage to their side as they were well prepared now by land and sea. He (Henry) replied that the case was quite otherwise. He knew very well that the plague was raging amongst them and they were in great want of victuals and money. The great ships had retired to Brest in Brittany; and he said he would not hide from me, and I could secretly report to your Majesty alone, that he hoped in a few days to perform a notable exploit in the Boulagnais, even to capture their fort and raze the rest of their fortresses. All the talk about the truce, he said, was simply with the object of attaining the end known to your Majesty. For that reason he would listen to a truce for six months; and if before that time the thing known to your Majesty could not take place (i.e. the interview) he did not want a truce at all. With regard to a peace conference, if the power that was now on the road for his ambassador was not sufficient, he would grant one according to your Majesty's wishes, and he instructed me to say that he referred the point to your Majesty's decision.
I then left the King, but bearing in mind that in any case politeness demanded that the English should send a fit personage of quality, since even the Admiral of France was designated to go to your Majesty on this peace question, I saw the bishop of Winchester and Secretary Paget, the King's most influential ministers, and told them what I thought it was incumbent for them to do on their side as regarded the envoy. They approved of what I said and undertook to speak to the King about it again. They brought me a reply that the King trusting to what I had said of the coming of the Admiral of France to your Majesty, had decided to reciprocate by sending to your Majesty shortly the bishop of Winchester, who would treat of the question of peace.
In speaking of the German troops the King complained bitterly of them, saying that they were ungovernable hot heads. He had sent letters and orders for them not to injure or offend in any way the subjects or territories of your Majesty. He seemed greatly annoyed that they had caused your Majesty any trouble, which he said he had heard from his ambassador that they had done, though I was quite ignorant of the matter.
I hear from a secret source that the ambassadors from the Protestants who left here two days ago obtained no other decision but that a certain deputy would be sent from here to them; the real object being to keep the matter in suspense until they see how they will get on with your Majesty.
Windsor, 14 October, 1545.
15 Oct. Vienna Imp. Arch. 153. Secretary de Granvelle to Van der Delft.,
M. D'Eick on his return hither from England duly reported to the Emperor everything that you and he jointly had arranged with the King of England. His Majesty (the Emperor) had some time ago decided to depart to-day and we were all ready to follow him, but recognising the pressing importance of the matter dealt with in this letter, he has ordered that the President (i.e. Lois Scors, president of the Flemish Council), M. D'Eick (i.e. Scepperus) and ourselves should remain here for this day, in order that we may communicate with the English ambassador. (fn. 8) I will not waste time by repeating here in detail the mission entrusted to M. D'Eick touching the truce and settlement between England and France, and the question between the King of England and the Emperor, but will limit myself to saying that after his Majesty had heard the report of M. D'Eick he decided that the most necessary point was to arrange a cessation of hostilities between the French and English. We therefore proposed this to the English ambassador, saying that the Emperor had received a reply from his resident ambassador in France, that the Christian King was willing out of consideration for his Majesty the Emperor to accept the proffered intervention of the latter for the conclusion of peace and the arrangement of a truce; the negotiation having been so far conducted by us with due consideration for the dignity of the King of, England. The English ambassador finally asserted that he had no authority to consent to a truce, unless he was certain that the interview between the Emperor and the King of England would take place. It was pointed out to him that the Emperor having intervened in the interests of peace between the two Kings, by means of the envoys sent by the Queen Dowager of Hungary to France and England respectively, and his Majesty, having as usual, proceeded in perfectly good faith, he could not avoid persisting in his efforts to secure peace by every means in his power. If he succeeded it would be for the benefit of both sides; but he nevertheless did not intend to neglect the elucidation of the points concerning the treaty of alliance between him and the King of England, as well as the consideration of the various other matters confidentially entrusted by the King of England to M. D'Eick. In any case it appeared to his Majesty that, for the purpose of carrying out his good offices between the two Kings, and also for the other objects mentioned, the first necessary step was to agree upon the cessation of hostilities, as M. D'Eick had understood was the King of England's intention. His Majesty was of opinion that the sooner such a truce could be settled the better, and he had authorised us to press the English ambassador, and to urge similarly the ambassador of France, to avoid the evils and inconveniences produced by the continuance of war, of which the issue is always doubtful; and especially as an agreement might be rendered more difficult, and perhaps the private settlement between the Emperor and the King of England rendered impossible, by the gaining of a signal advantage by one side over the other at the present time. The Emperor was expecting letters from the King of the Romans, and from his ministers in Germany in a few days and on their receipt he would be able to give a more decided answer with regard to the best means of settling the private matter between the King of England and himself; and especially whether it will be possible for his Majesty to defer his departure; and if an interview can be arranged. No time will be lost by his Majesty in deciding these points; but still he is strongly of opinion that the first and most necessary thing to be done is to agree to the truce, and the rest can then be more advantageously dealt with. As the English ambassador persisted in his statement that he could not alter his previous reply, we decided in agreement with him that he shall send a special courier to his master, and that we would speak to the French ambassador here in order that he may obtain powers to settle the truce, and final instructions from his master with regard to the conditions demanded by the King of England; namely that the truce should be operative on land and sea for six months, during which period neither party may fortify any place in the Boulognais, though places may be revictualled: the truce to be proclaimed within a certain number of days in the neighbouring cities; and after the expiration of 10 days from the proclamation that all captures and acts of war shall be redressed and restored. As this is a matter of so much importance, it will be advisable for you to use your best efforts both with the King and his Council to induce the former to send his final decision with regard to it, and as soon thereafter as possible you shall have instructions on the other affairs. I am writing this hastily, as you may imagine since we only arrived here yesterday, so I will only add that I have received your letters sent by M. D'Eick; and I fully reciprocate your kind messages.
Brussels, 15th October, 1545.
15 Oct. Vienna Hof. Cor. 154. Henry VIII. to the Emperor.
The writer has been informed by the imperial ambassador in England that the King of France intends to send his Admiral to the Emperor, with the object of treating for a peace or truce with England. As the Emperor thinks it desirable that he (Henry) should also send envoys for a similar purpose he has decided to entrust the bearer, the bishop of Winchester, with the mission; and he bespeaks for him the Emperor's credence and consideration.
Windsor, 15 October, 1545.
15 Oct. Vienna Hof. Cor. 155. to the Queen Dowager of Hungary.
The bishop of Winchester is being despatched on a mission to the Emperor; and through him to communicate with the French envoys. Begs the Queen to aid and favour him.
Windsor, 15 October, 1545.


  • 1. This was Antoine de Bourbon, father of Henry IV.
  • 2. This was Sir Thomas Palmer, Knight-Porter of Calais. He was beheaded for complicity in the Duke of Northumberland's treason.
  • 3. That is to say the Duke of Orleans who was to receive Milan as a dowry with his Austrian wife, Milan being a fief of the Empire, with certain alleged rights over Parma and Piacenza.
  • 4. This was Pietro Strozzi.
  • 5. The Piedmont settlement arranged in the treaty of Crépy was only to take effect after the Duchy of Milan had been handed over to the Duke of Orleans.
  • 6. It is obvious now that, with the Emperor's great plot against the protestants in contemplation, to which every other consideration for the time was subordinated, nothing was further from Charles' intention than to allow himself to be bound down anew to the letter of his treaty with Henry.
  • 7. The German mercenaries had intended to pass into French territory over the borders of Champagne, but were checked and delayed by a French army at Mezires. The time thus lost, and the difficulty in passing through the imperial territory against orders, rendered another month's payment to them due. When this was not immediately forthcoming they mutinied, refused to advance, and subsequently riotously returned to Germany. Henry was almost invariably cheated and ill served by his German mercenaries; and this explains his eagerness to obtain, and his high opinion of, the Spanish and Italian infantry in his service.
  • 8. Vandenesse (Itinerary) says that on the “15th October the Emperor went from Brussels to Vaure, remaining at Mechlin from the 17th to the 22nd, and thence to Termonde till the 28th when he went to Ghent, remaining there till the 2nd November. On the 3rd 'November he was at Bruges, where he reoeived Dr. Thirlby bishop of Westminster, who came to treat with the French plenipotentiaries under the auspices of the Emperor. The admiral and the chancellor of France having arrived on the 7th November negotiations were carried on daily in presence of de Granvelle, de Praet and President Scors till the 16th when his Majesty went to Alost, on the 17th to Vanlo and on the 18th to Antwerp. The Ministers . . . followed his Majesty until the 24th, when the French Commissioners took leave of his Majesty and returned home without having been able to come to any agreement.”