Rome: 1565

Pages 170-184

Calendar of State Papers Relating To English Affairs in the Vatican Archives, Volume 1, 1558-1571. Originally published by His Majesty's Stationery Office, London, 1916.

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1565, January–December

Vat. Lib. Barb.
Lat. 5759.
(lxii. 19). f. 157.
318. The Same to [Prospero Publicola] Santacroce, Bishop [of Chissamos, Nuncio in France].
“Bethinking me that I have never answered some points in your letters of the 10th and 12th of Nov., I take this opportunity of letting you know that in regard to the negotiation you were engaged in with the English Ambassador, the Pope says that, if you have any sure hope of thereby achieving aught to the service of God and religion, he does not disapprove your persisting in it, but that otherwise you are to abandon it forthwith, as it is not meet that a servant of the Holy See should hold converse with such persons. But as you are in a position to form a just view as to whether it be worth persisting in or no, his Holiness leaves it to your discretion with the caution aforesaid.”
15 Jan., 1565. Rome. Decipher. Italian. Copy.
f. 192d.
319. The Same to the Same.
“You wrote of late that you had begun some negotiation with the English Ambassador, and then you said no more about it. I must, however, not omit to tell you that, if you see a way open for the reduction of that Queen and her realm to submission, his Holiness, in his zeal for the service of God, would gladly take that road, the more so that it seems that the Queen is reported to give some sign of holding things Catholic in less abhorrence than she did at first, having made a decree that churchmen are to wear their habits in the streets as of yore, and having also censured the preacher that preached against images and the Saints. In fine his Holiness is not disposed to refuse to do anything that is meet to bring her to submission, and to save the souls of her people; but he does not see the way, and would lend a ready ear to one that would show it him.”
21 April, 1565. Rome. Decipher. Italian. Copy.
Vat. Lib. Barb.
Lat. 2125
(xxxi. 10).
f. 193.
320. Pope Pius IV to Mary, Queen of Scotland.
Thanking her for her letter of 20 Oct. acknowledging receipt of the Decrees of Trent and promising to do her best to secure their acceptance and observance throughout her dominions.
1 May, 1565. Rome. Latin. Copy. (fn. 1)
Vat. Lib. Urb.
Lat. 1040.
f. 23d.
321. News Letter.
… “The negotiation for the treaty of commerce between these countries and England is still afoot, but not yet concluded.”
6 May, 1565. Brussels. Italian. Copy.
Vat. Arch.
Arm. xiii. Misc.
vol. xxxviii.
f. 14d.
322. Pope Pius IV to Mary, Queen of Scotland and Henry Stewart, Earl of Ross.
Dispensation from the canonical impediments to matrimony in the second and fourth degrees, according to the stocks, (fn. 2) of consanguinity, authorisation of the marriage publicly and in facie ecclesiae, all Apostolic or conciliar, provincial or synodal, general or special constitutions and ordinances, and all else to the contrary notwithstanding, and legitimation of offspring.
25 May, 1565. St. Mark's, Rome. Latin. Copy.
Vat. Arch. Pio,
vol. cciv. f. 291.
323. [Prospero Publicola] Santacroce, [Cardinal Bishop of Chissamoss Nuncio in France] to [Charles] Borromeo, Cardinal [Archbishop of Milan].
… “Touching the affairs of England, as to which I have on other occasions written to you, I was in hopes that some good might be done, seeing that this ambassador (fn. 3) was disposed to cultivate my friendship; but having since discovered that, were the whole island brought back into the fold, he would be the last to enter, and that such is his obstinacy that he preaches in his house to the Huguenots, and that very frequently, I have resolved to do as you bade me, and make no further attempt to influence him, but wait until God shall give me some better opportunity than I have at present, in which case I shall not fail of my duty.”
6 June, 1565. S. Severo [S. Sever]. Italian. Copy.
Vat. Lib. Urb.
Lat. 1040.
ff. 33d.–34.
324. News Letter.
… “From France by letter of the 30th of last month they write that the King and Queen would depart, and that the Earl of Lennox, kinsman of the Queen of Scotland, was to wed that Queen. The Spaniards say that the French have discovered that the Catholic King was going to the conference [at Bayonne] for two reasons: 1, that he might persuade the King of France to marry the Queen of Portugal; 2, that he might arrange a match between the Queen of Scotland and Don John of Austria, or the Prince of Spain. They also say that the French, being minded to fall in with neither project, discover that the Queen of Scotland is married, and propose that, if the Catholic King would give his sister to France, he should cause the Prince, his son, to wed the sister of their King.”
23 June, 1565. Rome. Italian. Copy.
Vat. Arch. Pio,
vol. cciv. f. 295.
Nunt. Divers.
vol. cvii. f. 414.
325. [Prospero Publicola] Santacroce, [Cardinal Bishop of Chissamos, Nuncio in France] to [Charles] Borromeo, Cardinal [Archbishop of Milan].
“I understand from a good source that the Most Christian Queen, having asked of the Emperor his eldest daughter for the Most Christian King, and met with a chilly response, to wit, that the Emperor was guided in regard to that matter by the Catholic King, would now fain wed the Queen of England to her son, and is in hope she may do so, since she has learned that the said Queen of England has openly proclaimed that she will wed none of her subjects; and as it would seem that no better match could be made than with the King of France, the Most Christian Queen hopes to succeed, and to pique the curiosity of the ambassadors keeps them at a distance, to show that this conference concerns weighty matters, and likewise she puts in circulation these rumours of marriages, which, perhaps, the King of Spain fosters, because he is occupied with the like negotiation for the Prince of Spain; and though the Queen of England is more than thirty years old, this would not preclude the hope that she might have two or three children; and in any case his Most Christian Majesty has two brothers. The fact that the Queen of Scotland is now married to an English nobleman, as you must by this time have learned, inclines people here to be more sanguine as to the result.”
23 June, 1565. Estinghes [Estaing]. Decipher. Italian. Copy.
Vat. Lib. Vat.
Lat. 6436.
ff. 190, 248.
326. News from London.
… “The Queen of Scotland daily evinces more love for Henry d'Harlen [Darnley], Earl of Linois [Lennox], and has just made him Baron of Armach [Ardmanoch], Earl of Rossen [Ross] and Duke of Ambeni [Albany].
“All the nobles of Scotland approve the proposed match between the Queen and the Earl, which will receive the sanction of the Parliament of all the Estates of Scotland, which is to meet on 10 July next, to enable the marriage to be solemnized.
“The Queen of England, misliking the affair, sent last May Nicolas Tromarton [Throckmorton], her councillor, to the Queen of Scotland, to dissuade her from making the said match, offering her instead of the Earl of Linois three of the principal barons of her realm, to wit, the Duke of Monfor [Norfolk], the Earl of Leicester, and (sic) Milord Robert [Dudley], or his brother the Earl of Warwick, promising her at the same time the inheritance of the Crown of England upon her own decease, and during her life such a pension as she should crave of her.
“The Queen of Scotland replied that she thanked the Queen of England for her offers, but that, it being a peculiarity of ladies to choose their husbands when it is in their power, she had chosen the said Earl, and could not now prefer another. Nor would the Queen suffer the English Ambassador to speak to the Earl, or tarry long in the realm, saying facetiously that she knew him to be an adept in intrigue, and would therefore be glad if he would hasten his departure; and while he remained she appointed two of her loyal gentlemen to be ever with him so that intrigue on his part might be impossible either with the Earl or with anyone else.
“Upon the Ambassador's return the Queen of England caused the Earl's mother, who was in England, to be put in prison against the advice of all the grandees and nobles of the realm, and in particular of the Duke of Herfor [Norfolk], the Earl of Pembroke, the Earl of Shrewsbury, the Earl of Derby, the Earl of Leicester, and the Marquis of Winchester, the Grand Treasurer. (fn. 4)
“The Queen of England is much afraid lest some of her principal statesmen should cross the Scottish border, and has therefore issued a proclamation that none dare to go to Scotland without her leave on pain of death and confiscation of property.
“One effect of this new complexion of affairs is that the Queen of England no longer deals harshly with the Catholics of her realm, but allows them the free exercise of their religion, at least within their own houses.
“The Queen of England has recently received Ambassadors from the Emperor, from France, and from King Philip, all of whom offer her marriage. The King of France woos her for himself, the Emperor for his brother Charles, and King Philip for his natural brother, Don John of Austria. (fn. 5) But the Queen inclines rather to the Emperor's brother than to either of the others; and it is said that she is much distressed to find herself constrained to give over the affair with Milord Robert and marry some foreign Prince.
“King Henry VIII of England had two sisters, the one Margaret, the other Mary. The former made a Scottish match, and was the mother of James King [of Scotland], who married Guise's sister, of which union was born Mary the present Queen of Scotland.
“The said Margaret married for her second husband the Scottish Earl of Douglas, (fn. 6) of which union was born Margaret, mother of the present Earl of Linois [Lennox].
“The Queen of Scotland and the Earl of Linois are offspring of brother and sister born of the first and the second marriage of the said Margaret sister of King Henry VIII: they are both of the same age, to wit, 22 years, and exceeding goodly of person.”
23 June, 1565. Endorsed ‘Avvisi di Fiandra.’ Italian. Copies of two slightly variant versions of the same despatch. One version is printed in substance in Papal Negotiations with Mary Queen of Scots, ed. J. H. Pollen, S.J. pp. 192–4.
Vat. Lib. Urb.
Lat. 1040.
f. 58.
327. News Letter.
“A courier from Spain is arrived here to-day with tidings of the arrival at Seville of the fleet from the Continental Indies with a million and a half of gold, partly for his Catholic Majesty and partly for certain merchants, besides which the other, the Cochineal, fleet was expected to arrive on the 15th of August, which fleet would also be very richly laden. The marriage of the Queen of Scotland with the Earl of Lennox is, they say, completely arranged, and the wedding soon to be solemnized.
“The marriage of the Queen of England with the Archduke Ferdinand of Austria is in negotiation.”
18 July, 1565. Brussels. Italian. Copy.
Vat. Lib. Vat.
Lat. 6436.
f. 22d.
328. The Same.
“A courier of the Cardinal of Lorraine has arrived here on pretext of some commissions, but in truth to solicit the dispensation for the marriage between the Queen of Scotland and the Earl of Linvis [Lennox], her near kinsman; and it is thought he will get it.
“His Holiness has granted the dispensation for the marriage of the Queen of Scotland with the Earl of Lennox, and seems to hope that by this means it may be possible to administer condign chastisement to the Queen of England, to whom the Earl is particularly hostile, or at least to make it easier for the Catholics to emancipate themselves in that realm, of which it seems there is now some prospect.”
21 July, 1565. Rome. Italian. Copy.
Vat. Lib. Barb.
Lat. 5759
(lxii. 19). f. 211.
329. [Ptolemy Galli,] Cardinal of Como to [Prospero Publicola] Santacroce, [Cardinal Bishop of Chissamos, Nuncio in France].
… “The Cardinal of Lorraine has written to his Holiness for the dispensation for the marriage of the Queen of Scotland with the Earl of Ross; and will soon receive an answer, which, I hope, will decide the question as they desire, for much is expected of this young man in the interest of religion, although it is said that until now he has found it politic to dissemble. I shall deem it a favour if you will tell me your mind and that of the good people at the Court.”
23 July, 1565. Rome. Italian. Copy.
Vat. Lib. Vat.
Lat. 6436.
f. 48d.
330. News Letter.
… “It is the opinion of persons of weight here that Cardinals Granvelle and Lorraine are soon to come to Rome, the Pope being prompted to effect this by his desire to confer with the Catholic King; and it is thought that the tentative will be made on the departure of Lorraine's secretary Musotto as bearer of the dispensation, sealed in gold, to the Queen; and it is already said that these two lords have had a prolonged conference.”
8 August, 1565. Rome. Italian. Copy.
Ibid. f. 55d. 331. The Same.
… “A Scottish bishop is arrived here, sent by the Cardinal of Lorraine to solicit the dispensation for the Queen of Scotland, which is already dispatched by hand of the Cardinal's secretary Musotto, who awaits but an answer from his patron to take it away.”
15 August, 1565. Rome. Italian. Copy.
Vat. Lib. Urb.
Lat. 1040. f. 74.
332. The Same.
… “The Queen of Scotland has sent hither an ambassador resident, and it is supposed that his coming bodes no good to the Queen of England.”
25 August, 1565. Rome. Italian. Copy.
Lib. MS. 1828
(xxiii. 16).
ff. 513d,
333. Scottish Affairs: the Darnley Match.
… “The Pope announced that the Queen of Scotland had chosen for husband an Englishman, her near kinsman, and therefore craved a dispensation. Of the behaviour and disposition of this noble he heard nothing that was not admirable; but the Queen of England had endeavoured to hinder the match. The nobleman, however, had escaped from England, and gave out that he was next in succession to the throne of England upon the Queen's death. The Queen of Scotland and her [intended] husband promised to defend the Catholic faith. The Pope therefore saw no reason why he should not with all speed release and dispense them from the laws, more especially since it was to be feared that, if their request were refused, they would nevertheless persist in their project and carry it through, and having in this particular spurned the authority of the laws and the Apostolic See, would make bold to do the like in other matters. And so, lest religion should be jeopardized in that country, he had resolved to grant this dispensation. With the bishop whom she had sent thither upon this errand he had conversed at very great length about the affairs of that kingdom, the lapse of which from the faith demanded the utmost care and diligence to prevent, and lest such a thing should happen, he was prepared to give relief to the best of his power.”
1 Sept., 1565. St. Mark's, Rome. In Consistory. Latin. Copy. (fn. 7)
Vat. Lib. Urb.
Lat. 1040.
ff. 95d, 96.
334. News Letter.
… “It is said that the Queen of England is on the point of marrying the Archduke Charles, the Emperor's brother, and that she was sending to the Emperor an ambassador, in company with one of his, who was there, to negotiate or conclude this matter, perchance in a brief while.
“It is also said that the Queen of Scotland craves of the Pope an aid of 300,000 ducats, in case the Queen of England should be minded to do her an evil turn by way of showing her dissatisfaction, which is extreme, at her marriage with the Earl of Lennox. And magnanimous though the Pope be,yet, as his resources are slender, and he must needs be the servant of many, he will perchance not be able to afford the Queen so large a sum of money, albeit it is believed that he will never fail to do what he can.”
15 September, 1565. Rome. Italian. Copy.
Vat. Lib.
Ottob. Lat.
2419 (ii.).
f. 679.
335. [Charles Borromeo, Cardinal Archbishop of Milan] to Mary, Queen of Scotland.
“It is, I doubt not, by God's decree that in the governance of your realm you employ that prudence and piety which, by what I have heard from many before, and now from the Bishop of Dunblane, I readily recognise. For so we see it to be that over those peoples whom God is minded to protect, and retain in the bosom of His Church, or correct for lapses from their duty, He sets most wise kings and princes. And that this in these slippery times should have befallen your realm the more rejoices me, the more plenteous are the fruits that you show me of your virtue and holiness. For while you devote zeal and toil in signal measure to the cause of the Catholic faith, you are no less tried than beloved of his Holiness. And so whatever of opulence, influence or grace may conduce to conserve and augment your dignity and grandeur, he will ever most willingly bestow. For the present, either for regard to your authority, or of his own beneficent disposition towards you, he has most liberally granted you that which you seemed most of all to desire in the matters of the Brechin see and the dispensation for marriage; the other offices of love and tender consideration he will perform in his own time. The bishop I have embraced with all courtesy and ceremony; but this I had rather you learned from his lips than from my letter. As regards you, however, I would have you believe that there is nothing within the compass of my faculties and fortunes that I had as lief see allotted and dedicated to another as to you.
“This I write at Bologna on my way from Rome to Milan, there to hold a Provincial Synod pursuant to the Decrees of the Council of Trent.”
15 September, 1565. Bologna. Latin. Copy.
Vat. Lib. Urb.
Lat. 1040. f. 97.
336. News Letter.
… “A gentleman from the Queen of England has arrived at this Court, and is very well received by his Majesty. It is not as yet known what his errand is; but it is said that he is come to treat of the match between the Archduke Charles and the said Queen.”
16 September, 1565. Vienna. Italian. Copy.
Vat. Lib. Barb.
Lat. 2125
(xxxi. 10).
f. 199.
337. Pope Pius IV to Mary, Queen of Scotland.
Signifying his approval of the proposed match with the Earl of Ross, more especially by reason of the Earl's devotion to the Catholic Church, whereby it is hoped that the Queen will be greatly aided in the repression of heresy and the restoration of the Catholic faith in her kingdom.
Enclosing the necessary dispensation from the canonical impediment of kinship; and announcing that as a slight token of his esteem he has caused provision to be made for the see of Brechin without payment of the usual fees to the officials of the Curia. The Queen and her consort may expect more signal proofs of his regard as occasion may arise; provided they wax, as he doubts not they will, ever more zealous for the Catholic faith and the honour of God, being assured that thereby they will make their reign the more prosperous and glorious. They will learn more of his mind from their ambassador, the Bishop of Dunblane, who departs with his blessing.
25 September, 1565. St. Mark's, Rome. Latin. Copy. (fn. 8)
f. 200.
338. The Same to Charles, Cardinal of Lorraine, Legate.
Signifying his approval of the proposed match between the Queen of Scotland and the Earl of Ross, by whose aid it is to be hoped that, as the Cardinal writes, the Queen will speedily improve the condition of the Catholic religion in her kingdom. The dispensation from the impediment of kinship is accordingly granted, and ordered to be put in due form and dispatched at once. As to the Cardinal's exhortation that the Pope should aid the Queen in the accomplishment of her pious purpose, she may rest assured that the Pope will not fail her when the time is ripe. At present he deems the occasion has not arisen, for reasons which the Bishop of Dunblane will explain to the Cardinal. He is prepared to send, as the Cardinal advises, a legate or nuncio apostolic to Scotland, but only at the request of the King and Queen. As to the Cardinal's proposal that power should be given to the Scottish bishops to absolve recanting heretics and readmit them to communion with the Catholic Church, he will gladly grant the bishops or some of them, as may seem most expedient, such power, if any such heretics should show an unfeigned desire to return to the bosom of the Church.
25 September, 1565. St. Mark's, Rome. Latin. Copy.
Vat. Lib. Barb.
Lat. 2125
(xxxi. 10).
f. 200d.
339. Pope Pius IV to John [Hamilton,] Archbishop of St. Andrews.
Notwithstanding that the constancy of the Archbishop of St. Andrews in defence of the Catholic faith and his sincere loyalty to the Queen were well known to the Pope, it was a great delight to him to hear them extolled by the Queen's ambassador the Bishop of Dunblane, by whom accordingly he sends the archbishop his greeting, exhorting him to persevere in his devotion to God's service and his fidelity to his most excellent and pious Queen, striving to make, as the place he holds demands, his services to the Catholic religion and the Queen signal and splendid in the last degree. Well pleasing as they will be to God and the Queen, they will also be well pleasing to the Pope, who will be prepared not only, so far as he may, to subserve the weal of the realm and the common good, but also to gratify the archbishop in aught that he may desire, so far as it may be lawful.
25 September, 1565. St. Mark's, Rome. Latin. Copy.
Vat. Arch.
Arm. lxviii.
Pii iv. Epp. ad
Princ. vol. ii.
f. 627d.
Vat. Lib. Barb.
Lat. 2125
(xxxi. 10).
f. 201d.
340. The Same to John, Lord of Hume.
Duplicate dated 25 Sept., 1565, of the letter dated 25 Sept., 1563, calendared on p. 149, supra.
Latin. Copies.
Vat. Lib. Barb.
Lat. 5759
(lxii. 19). f 228.
341. [Ptolemy Galli,] Cardinal of Como to [Prospero Publicola] Santacroce, Bishop of Chissamos, [Nuncio in France].
“All the letters that you say you have written are now to hand, though belated, and I kiss your hand for the account which you give me of the matters on which I craved information, as touching the Turkish ambassador and the marriage of the Queen of Scotland, etc. As to the Queen of Scotland, I have to say that the brief which I sent you did not contain the dispensation, but was merely an answer to one of her formal letters, and the dispensation is now being sent by the Bishop of Dunblane, who came hither to crave it. God be praised that this new King is understood on all hands to be a most excellent Catholic, so that this marriage will bring great relief to religion.”
25 September, 1565. Rome. Italian. Copy.
Vat. Arch.
Arm. lxviii.
Pii iv. Epp. ad
Princ. vol. ii.
f. 627.
Vat. Lib. Barb.
Lat. 2125
(xxxi. 10).
f. 200d.
342. Pope Pius IV to Malcolm, earl of Lennox.
Duplicate, dated 27 Sept., 1565, of the letter dated 27 Sept., 1563, calendared on p. 150, supra.
St. Mark's, Rome. Latin Copy.
Vat. Lib. Urb.
Lat. 1040.
f. 109d.
343. News Letter.
“Four days ago there departed a Scottish bishop, who had come for the dispensation for the marriage of the Queen of Scotland with the Earl of Lennox, and to crave, as some say, his Holiness' aid in case the Queen of England or other heretics should do her an evil turn. He has obtained the dispensation, and is charged by his Holiness with many fair words and promises to convey to the Queen.”
6 Oct., 1565. Rome. Italian. Copy.
Lib. 1828
(xx. iii. 16.).
ff. 501d, 502d.
344. Speech of Pope Pius IV in Consistory.
“Our affairs were in a better position than we had hoped, for at Malta we had done excellently well….
“The realm of Scotland was distraught by intestine strife; opposing factions divided the people; the King and Queen, Catholics, were for the Mass, the heretics against it; their chiefs had fled, and had been taken by the Queen of England under her protection. There were also in England many Catholics who sullenly and resentfully endured the rule of the heretics. He had never been desirous of war, nay, he heartily detested it, and yet, since others engaged in it for religion's sake, it behoved him to support the Catholics with counsel, aid and money, wheresoever and by what means soever he might be of service; and other Princes of the Christian Commonwealth should do the like. He therefore exhorted the [cardinals] protectors of princes that were present to admonish their princes, the Emperor, the Most Christian King, and the Catholic King, that it belonged to their office to support the Catholics with all the countenance and aid at their command.”
12 Oct., 1565. Rome. Latin. Copy. (fn. 9)
Vat. Lib. Urb.
Lat. 1040.
ff. 117–118.
345. News Letter.
“The Pope is still somewhat troubled with the gout, and it is believed that he will not leave Rome. Yesterday he held a Consistory, at which he made short work of the audience of the Cardinals, to whom, as soon as the rest were gone, he delivered the customary address as follows: The affairs of Christendom were now by God's grace restored to a far better condition than that of the past few months; for the Island of Malta, so important and so often given up for lost, had been in the end safeguarded; this in God's good providence, and by the help of the Catholic King and his ministers and the valour of the Knights of that Religion, the latter having made a spirited defence and received meanwhile powerful succour from the former, in so much that the Turkish fleet was compelled at length to withdraw from the siege, and he was also in hopes that the Catholic fleet which was in pursuit of it would return victorious, so that they might have cause to congratulate themselves upon the result as well by sea as on land.
“The Pope then went on to deplore the perversity and woeful plight of the island of Bergna [Britain] distraught by most grievous contentions and continual tumultuous outbreaks between Catholics and Huguenots; and adverting to the existence of the like disturbances in many other parts of Christendom, he admonished the cardinals protectors of kingdoms and provinces to exhort their princes to support and countenance the Catholic cause to the best of their ability, from which efforts nought but good was to be expected in England, if the marriage of the Queen with the Archduke Charles should come to pass, which match was now being busily negotiated and with good hope of success, albeit the Queen persisted in trifling with the King of Sweden and another suitor.
“He added, that, though he must needs impose an aid of 400,000 ducats, he was resolved not to exact that sum save in case of more pressing need, that if the Christian Princes had been resolved on some enterprise against the Infidels, he would not have failed of the duty of a good Pope, and that his contribution in such a case would, relatively to his resources, far exceed that of the rest, since one knew not what to hope, seeing that there lacked not even in Christendom, Princes that exulted in the confusion and discord of the world.”
13 Oct., 1565. Rome. Italian. Copy.
Vat. Lib. Barb.
Lat. 2125
(xxxi. 10.).
f. 204.
346. Pope Pius IV to Charles, Cardinal of Lorraine, Legate.
Referring to certain disturbances fomented in Scotland by the heretics. The Pope greatly deplores that the peace of the Queen, the Cardinal's niece, and her realm should be thus broken, but he trusts in God that the authors of the mischief will pay the penalty of their rashness. But though he is persuaded that neither the Queen nor the King will lack either courage or wisdom to compose these disturbances in such a manner as befits their dignity, nor suffer themselves to be brought to consent to any base compromise; yet, having heard that the estates of the realm are to be assembled, and that some will do their utmost to procure such terms of pacification as may be very far from advantageous, nay, actually ruinous to the Catholic religion, he has deemed it his duty to exhort the Cardinal to do his utmost to deter the King and Queen from making such a composition; which would not only be utterly repugnant to the office and dignity of Catholic Princes, but, far from curbing, would reinforce and foster the audacity of abandoned men, and most grievously offend God, the Pope, and all good men. This the Cardinal by his authority, admonitions and exhortations can easily prevent, and the Pope relies on his prudence and wonted zeal for the Catholic religion, and his due respect for the Holy See so to do.
15 Oct., 1565. Rome. Latin. Copy.
Vat. Arch.
Pio, vol. cciv.
f. 304d.
347. [Prospero Publicola] Santacroce, [Cardinal Bishop of Chissamos] to [Charles] Borromeo [Cardinal Archbishop of Milan].
… “We have tidings from Scotland that that kingdom is all upside down by reason of the Queen's recent marriage, and that there is a rising of the Huguenots, who demand of the Queen that she forgo the Mass altogether; and that, finding her Majesty utterly uncompliant, they are all in arms; which the Queen's ambassador, who is here, has, on her Majesty's part, desired me to report to his Holiness. He has also in conference given me clearly to understand that the Queen is likely to be in great need of help, and especially of money, but he has gone no further.”
15 Oct., 1565. Nantes. Italian. Copy. (fn. 10)
Vat. Arch.
Arm. lxiv. vol.
28. ff. 106–7.
348. [Philip II] to [Francis Cardinal Pacecco].
“By your letter of 2nd Sept., I am apprised of what the Pope bade you write to me touching the aid and countenance which the Queen of Scotland had sent to crave of him, his Holiness being desirous that I should be cognisant thereof and give my opinion thereon. And to comply with his Holiness' desire and behest, you will say to him in the first place that I kiss his holy feet, that it has pleased him to have confidence in me, and to communicate the said business to me; which I appreciate as I should, and certainly there is no matter in which he may not confide in me as a son so true and obedient, and one that verily desires to gratify and satisfy his Holiness. You will add that the good intention which he evinces of countenancing and succouring that Princess so Christian and virtuous, and in such need of countenance and succour in the parlous plight in which she finds herself, is very meet and worthy of his most holy zeal, and much in keeping with what was to be expected of his Holiness. And as the said Queen has likewise had recourse to me, and, using the same arguments as to his Holiness, has craved my aid through my Ambassador Resident in England; and as I, who have knowledge of those countries, have carefully pondered the character of this business, you will tell his Holiness that upon consideration of the matter there are found three ways in which the Queen of Scotland may stand in such need: 1, in case she should be embroiled with her subjects alone upon their revolt without foreign support, being minded to reduce them to obedience and safeguard the religion in that realm: 2, in case the Queen of England should resolve openly to countenance the heretics and rebels of Scotland against their Queen, and to that end, and also for her own security against what she apprehends on that account, to make undisguised and open war: 3, in case the Queen of Scotland should assert by force of arms her pretensions to the succession to the English throne.
“In each of these three cases I deem that the Pope will make a demonstration in a manner that well beseems his most holy character, if he lend her countenance and aid; nor will I keep out of the conflict, nay, I purpose to join in aiding the cause with hearty good will. And this may be accomplished in the following manner. 1. As against the Scottish rebels: provided they be not fostered and aided by some foreign Prince, they cannot do much; and so with but little aid from us the Queen will be able to subdue and chastise them, and accomplish the desired result. And this can be done by pecuniary help, and the more secretly it be rendered, the less the noise and the greater the effect. Which being approved by his Holiness, I deem he should forthwith send what he shall be pleased to furnish, as I likewise have already given credit, to Diego de Guzman, my Ambassador in England, in order that thence, with all convenient secrecy and adroitness, he may succour the said Queen, because I am persuaded and assured that on this wise this matter can speedily be arranged and settled. 2. In the second case it will be necessary to furnish the said Queen of Scotland with more supplies, and the supplies being great, this can hardly be done secretly, so that, whether it be done in money or in mercenaries, I would have the aid to be in the name of the Pope, and I would contribute secretly thereto, so that all that should be done should be accounted the Pope's succour and aid, and his alone be the honour and glory thereof.
“3. The third case is a matter of such great difficulty and delicacy, that one must needs consider carefully before entering on such an undertaking, and not do so at an inopportune moment. I am, therefore, of opinion that his Holiness should send to counsel, as I have likewise done, the said Queen of Scotland, that she proceed in the matter with great circumspection and moderation. For to enter upon it rashly would be to run great hazard of miscarrying in that which, if care be taken to undertake it at an opportune moment, cannot fail to turn out well. For in the meantime she must needs be at pains to retain the servants she has gained in England, and also to gain all such others as she can, without letting it be known, or taking any step that may give the Queen of England in any wise to think that what is in treaty is to result in action during her lifetime. And still as ever it will be necessary to keep alive the negotiation with the Queen of England for her designation of the Queen of Scotland as her successor. She must not, however, be pressed to make up her mind, until we see that the business is so forward, and in such a position that we are certain of a happy issue; for otherwise all would be ruined. And when the time comes to throw off the mask and bestir ourselves to such a purpose, the Pope and I will consider the manner in which we may aid and promote the cause of God which the Queen of Scotland upholds, since it is manifest that she is the gate by which religion must enter the realm of England, all others being now closed.
“You will add that I shall not fail ever to apprise his Holiness of all that I purpose in this matter, and to maintain with him such correspondence as the nature and importance of the subject requires, and that so I entreat his Holiness to direct that the like correspondence be had with me on his part, that we may proceed in the business in such concert as it demands, and carry it to the proposed end.”
16 [or 18] Oct., 1565. [The Royal Palace. Wood of Segovia.] Italian. (fn. 11)
Vat. Arch.
Pio, vol. cciv.
ff. 309–12.
349. [Prospero Publicola] Santacroce, Cardinal [Bishop of Chissamos] to [Charles] Borromeo, Cardinal [Archbishop of Milan].
‘I went to Casteaobriant [Châteaubriant], a place belonging to the Constable in Brittany, as I wrote you from Nantes his Majesty had bidden me to do; and when I craved leave to depart thence, his Majesty would have me come to this place, which is on the direct road to Lyon, and here await him, saying that he would be here eight or ten days after my arrival. In the meantime, I resolved to apprise you not only of this, but of the articles which are proposed to the Queen of Scotland. The said Queen's ambassador, who is here, has given them to me for the express purpose that they may be sent to his Holiness: he says that he has since received no other advice, which he interprets as of good omen. And as he has begged me to do my office with his Majesty in aid of their cause, I have not failed to do so to purpose; and his Majesty has already sent a man to England, who is thence to proceed to Scotland, to discover how matters stand, and do his office for the pacification.
“The Scottish ambassador could have wished that his Majesty had shown himself more loyal to the ancient amity and alliance between that realm and this; but for the present there was nothing more to be had. Of the event you will be apprised by the nuncio, (fn. 12) who is excellently well informed as well of this as of all other matters that are in negotiation here….
“I have kept this back until the 9th; and in the meantime we have intelligence that the Queen of Scotland has got the better of her heretic rebels, and that one hundred and twenty of the leaders have fled to England. So I am informed by a gentleman of credit who comes from the Court; but I purpose to write you a more trustworthy and particular account of the matter when his Majesty is in this city, which will be next Saturday (fn. 13) I will then try to get my congé, and seek some nearer place wherein to serve you.”
9 Nov., 1565. Tours. Italian. Copy. (fn. 14)
Vat. Lib.
Urb. Lat
1040. f. 112.
350. News Letter.
… “We have tidings from the Court of France under date 22nd of last month of the arrival of ambassadors from the Queen of Scotland to solicit his Most Christian Majesty's aid against her rebellious subjects, and of the confirmation by the said ambassadors of the report of a recent defeat of one of the rebel chiefs by the Queen's troops. His Majesty, it seemed, was still not quite resolved whether to comply with the request or no.”
13 Nov., 1565. Ferrara. Italian. Copy.
Vat. Arch.
Arm. lxiv. vol.
28. p. 285.
351. English Ecclesiastical Writers.
1. Thomas Harding, S.T.P., author of the first answer to the 27 articles of Jewel, and of a confutation of the Apology for the Anglican Church.
2. Nicholas Saunder, S.T.P., vindicator in 7 books of the Catholic faith touching the Lord's Supper against the calumnies of the heretics.
3. John Rastel, author of 2 opuscula, one against Jewel's Concio, the other against an opusculum by a heretic falsely entitled Veritatis Defensio.
4. John Martial, author of a treatise De Sanctae Crucis Veneratione addressed to Queen Elizabeth.
5. Thomas Dorman, S.T.B., author of four articles against Jewel, at some length, to wit, 1. Pro Auctoritate Romani Pontificis; 2. Pro Veritate Corporis Christi in Eucharistia; 3. Pro Communione, sub una specie; 4. Pro Missa sine aliis communicantibus: also of a confutation of the heretic Nouel. (fn. 15)
6. William Aleyn, author of De Purgatorio et precibus pro defunctis habendis.
7. Alan Cope, author of a work against the Magdeburg Histories. [1566.] Cf. p. 193 infra.


  • 1. Printed in Papal Negotiations with Mary Queen of Scots, ed. J. H. Pollen, S.J. (Scott. Hist. Soc., 1901), pp. 188–9.
  • 2. “Secundo ab uno et quarto consanguinitatis gradibus ab alio stipitibus.”
  • 3. Sir Thomas Smith.
  • 4. Cf. Cal. State Papers, Foreign, 1504 5, pp. 369–7, 410. Cal. State Papers, Scotland, 1563–9, pp. 145–7, 150–2, 157, 161, etsey. Cal. State Papers, Spanish, 1558–67, pp. 434–6.
  • 5. Cf. Cal. State Papers, Foreign, 1564–5, pp. 300, 321, 335–6, 427, 448. Cal. State Papers, Spanish, 1558–67, pp. 409, 463.
  • 6. Sic: in error for Angus, the surname being substituted for the title. Darnley's mother, Lady Margaret Douglas, Countess of Lennox, was daughter of Archibald Douglas, sixth Earl of Angus, by Margaret Tudor, Queen Dowager of Scotland.
  • 7. Printed in Papal Negotiations with Mary Queen of Scots, ed. J. H. Pollen, S.J. (Scott. Hist. Soc.), 1901, p. 210.
  • 8. Printed by Pollen. S.J., ut supra, p. 221.
  • 9. Printed in Papal Negotiations with Mary Queen of Scots, ed. J. H. Pollen, S.J. (Scott. Hist. Soc), 1901, pp. 228–9.
  • 10. Printed by Pollen, S.J., ut supra, pp. 229–30.
  • 11. For the Spanish original see Mignet, Hist. de Marie Stuart, vol. 1. p. 425.
  • 12. i.e. the nuncio appointed in view of Santacroce's approaching return to Rome to receive the hat.
  • 13. Cf. Lettres de Catherine de Médicis (Docc. Inédd. sur l'Hist. de France), vol. ii. pp. 325–6.
  • 14. Printed in part by Pollen, S.J., ut supra, p. 230.
  • 15. i.e., Alexander Nowell, Dean of St. Paul's.