Rome: 1570, October-December

Pages 355-372

Calendar of State Papers Relating To English Affairs in the Vatican Archives, Volume 1, 1558-1571. Originally published by His Majesty's Stationery Office, London, 1916.

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1570, October–December

Vat. Arch.
Misc. Arm. ii.
vol. 67.
(Polit. 66.)
ff. 276–78,
709. Articles presented to the Queen of Scotland by Sir William Cecil, Knight, Secretary, and Sir walter Mildemay, Councillors, Commissioners for the Queen of England.
“1. That there shall be perfect amity between them, as in time past there has been between them or their ancestors, and that all the treaties and accords, whensoever by their commissioners and servants whomsoever, from the beginning of the reign of the Queen of England to the time of the son of the Queen of Scotland, made touching the maintenance of order on the borders and confines of the two kingdoms, be anew confirmed.
“2. That besides the general treaties of amity the Queen of Scotland shall by express words confirm the clause in the Treaty of Edinburgh of July, 1560, or the true sense and intent thereof, renouncing all titles and pretensions to the crown of England during the life of the Queen of England or her heirs, (fn. 1) provided that the Queen of Scotland be not thereby deprived and foreclosed of her or her heirs' title or pretensions, if God should not grant her Majesty of England heirs of her body to continue her line.
“3. That the Queen of Scotland shall neither renew nor confirm nor adhere to any league, nor enter into any new league, with any Prince or country for concerted offensive action against the Queen of England or any part of her dominions, nor permit any of her vassals and subjects to serve by land or sea against the realm of England; nay, rather, if any of her subjects shall presume (without just cause given by England) to molest and damnify the realm of England, then, at the request of the Queen of England, the Queen of Scotland shall be bound to aid the Queen of England by sea with a sufficient number of ships and mariners or by land with soldiers, as well as cavalry as infantry, albeit at the Queen of England's own cost. And further that the Queen of Scotland shall permit and allow as many of her subjects to serve the crown of England by land or sea as shall be ready and willing to do so; and the like obligation shall be observed by the Queen of England at the request of [the Queen of] Scotland.
“4. That no foreigner following the profession of arms shall be permitted to enter the realm of Scotland, or to reside or abide in any castle or house of importance in that realm; and if peradventure there shall be found any such there now, that within a month from the date of this treaty he be ousted thence, and expelled the realm.
“5. That the Queen of Scotland shall neither directly nor indirectly receive any advices or intelligence from any subject of England without the Queen's permission, or without apprising the said Queen thereof without delay.
“6. That the Queen of Scotland shall surrender the Earl of Northumberland and all other English rebels that any of her subjects harbour; and that all other English rebels, that are at present in, or shall hereafter come to Scotland, shall be taken and surrendered.
“7. That the Queen of Scotland cause to be made to the English subjects upon the borders restitution and recompense of and for the depredations and devastations by fire perpetrated upon them by the men of Tiudale [Teviotdale] and other borders of Scotland, since the last incursion of the Earl of Westmorland into Scotland, or shall cause the principal delinquents to be taken and delivered into custody of the Wardens of England according to the border laws.
“8. That the Queen of Scotland shall cause speedy and thorough investigation and prosecution to be made touching the murder of the Lord Darnley, her late husband, seeing that he was of the blood royal of England and near akin to the Queen; and shall proceed against any of her subjects in Scotland that shall be accused or in any wise suspected thereof; and shall aid and support all the fautors and kinsmen of the said lord her husband; and shall countenance their commissioners and proctors that shall accuse and prosecute Scottish subjects suspected of the said murder; and shall do the like in avengement of the murder of the Earl of Murray.
“9. For the greater security of the person of the young King against the enemies that assassinated his father, or were consenting to that deed, from whose secret malice it will be difficult to preserve him, and also in consideration that he will be a hostage for the Queen his mother, the Queen of Scotland, before she shall be set at liberty, shall cause the said young King, her son, to be brought to England to dwell in some meet and honourable place under the governance of those barons and gentlemen of Scotland who shall be nominated by his grandfather Lord Lennox in conjunction with the Earl of Mar, the King's present governor, or one of them, with the Queen's consent, the said King to remain in this realm during the pleasure of the Queen, it being incumbent upon the Queen of England to bind herself as best may be, that the King shall be well and honourably treated and entertained in all respects as her Majesty's near kinsman; and also it shall be lawful for the Queen his mother to send visitors to her son at all times, so, nevertheless, that the messengers be bound to present themselves before the Wardens of England, and show their safe conducts. And when it shall please God to call the said Queen Mother to His mercy, or if, when her son shall be of mature age, she shall be pleased to resign to him the governance of the realm; then the young Prince shall by the Queen of England be put in possession of the realm of Scotland, and established therein as best may be with plenary jurisdiction as if he had never come to England.
“10. That the Queen of Scotland shall neither enter into any marriage treaty with any person on her own account without the Queen of England's knowledge, nor arrange any marriage whatever without the consent of her Majesty or of the more part of the nobility of Scotland, especially those that are now barons of Parliament, such assent to be evidenced by letters testimonial, subscribed with their hands and sealed with their proper seals, to the effect that the said marriage is suitable, needful, and expedient for the realm of Scotland, and not prejudicial to the amity existing between the two realms of England and Scotland.
“11. That the Queen of Scotland suffer not passage on the part of her vassals to Ireland without safe conduct from her Majesty in another form than that which is customary for passage into England.
“12. That the Queen of Scotland forthwith deliver those testimonies which she has in letters and writings received from the King of France, M. d'Anjou and the Cardinal of Lorraine, totally denying and discrediting a pretended marriage between her and the said M. d'Anjou.
“By way of assurance of the premises:—1. That the contracts touching all the matters aforesaid be drawn out in writing and subscribed with the hands and seals of both Queens, or by their commissioners for that purpose duly authorized in manner customary among Princes.
“2. That there shall be six hostages to be nominated by the Queen of England from the nobles of Scotland, three of the rank of earls, and three of the rank of barons of the Parliament of Scotland, or of such condition as the Queen shall indicate. The said hostages shall remain in England in places assigned them and suitable to their rank, as other hostages have in time past been wont, as sureties for the Queen of Scotland, that she will uphold and fulfil all the pacts and conventions which cannot take effect until her return to Scotland. They shall abide in England for the space of three years; and if any of them should desire to go home, it shall be lawful for him so to do at his request, provided that another of like quality be sent in his place by the Queen of Scotland with the concurrence of the Queen of England.
“3. Among other assurances the Queen of Scotland shall pledge herself that if she attempt aught to the prejudice of the title and interest of the Queen of England in respect of the crown of England, and it appear that she is endeavouring to impugn and annul the said Queen's indubitable right to the crown; or if she shall actually aid and abet rebellion against and deposition of the Queen of England, or her deprivation of part of the dominions of which she is at present in peaceful possession; or if she shall support and foster any notorious traitor or rebel, whether within or without the realm of England: in such case the Queen of Scotland, immediately upon the publication of such conspiracy, aidance or abetment by proclamation of the Queen of England upon the borders, shall ipso facto by process of law be adjudged, reputed, and sentenced as prisoner for the rest of her life, and as deprived with her own consent of all hope of being able to vindicate or claim title, right or interest in the inheritance of the crown of England, no matter under what pretext, colour or right she might otherwise have claimed it. And furthermore the Queen of Scotland shall agree that it shall be lawful for the Queen of England in just retaliation for her breach of oath and faith, and by reason that she has incurred the penalty of her errors, to put the young King in actual possession of the crown of Scotland, to be accepted and obeyed as the natural sovereign of the land in law and in fact.
“4. For further assurance of the treaty we would have it all confirmed by Acts of Parliament in Scotland, which Parliament shall be summoned and held, as soon as according to the ordinances and customs of that country may be, after her [the Queen of Scotland's] departure from England; which Acts shall all be exemplified and authenticated under the great seal of Scotland, and the seals of the barons and others of the Parliament of Scotland.
“5. Pending capture and delivery of the rebels that were maintained in the castle of Hume, and restitution of the losses and spoils perpetrated in England by such rebels kept and harboured by Lord Hume in his castles of Hume and Fas, the said castle of Hume shall remain in the Queen of England's possession, and the revenues thereof shall be applied in payment of the soldiers who garrison the said castle; provided nevertheless that if restitution be made, and the rebels cannot be captured within the term of three years, then at the end of the said three years the castle shall be restored in the same state in which it was found on surrender.
“6. For better assurance that the Scots and Scoto-Irish go not so often to Ireland as they have been wont to the most grievous prejudice and damnification of the Queen of England, it shall be provided and agreed that the said Queen have such castle or fortress as she may choose in the Province of Galloway or that of Cantyre in Scotland for the space of three years, promising and binding herself to restore it at the end of the said three years.”
3 Oct., 1570. Italian and French. Copies.
Cf. Burghley State Papers
, ed. Haynes, pp. 608 et seq.
Vat. Lib.
Urb. Lat.
1041. f. 356.
710. News Letter.
“On the 26th of last month the Queen [of Spain] departed from Zealand with about 170 ships, of which 30 were armed, the rest being merchantmen with 3,000 Walloons aboard. Since then the weather has been very fine, and it is believed that she has by this time reached Spain. Twelve of the Queen of England's ships sailed from her ports to salute the Queen of Spain's fleet and accompany it some distance.
“The Court is still here, and there is little apparent hope of an accord between these States and England.”
4 Oct., 1570. Antwerp. Italian. Copy.
Vat. Arch.
Nunt. Germ.
vol. lxvii.
f. 179.
711. Protonotary Biglia, Nuncio in Germany to [Jerome] Rusticucci, Cardinal [Bishop of Sinigaglia].
… “It is discovered that this English ambassador has come hither for the purpose also of learning from his Majesty and the Archduke Charles, if they approve of going on with the marriage treaty, as the Queen does not know that it is given up; nay, now that the hardness of the terms has been proved, she evinces hope that they will admit of more ready solution and arrangement. The courier of his Highness [the Archduke Charles], who, as I have said, brought tidings of the victory of the Venetian fleet, was sent to his Majesty upon this errand; but it is not yet known with what he is charged; however, it is generally supposed that the Queen desires the conclusion of the treaty, and is only prevented from renewing it by some apprehension, and that by consequence she is disposed to abate her terms, and be compliant where formerly she showed herself obstinate.”
5 Oct., 1570. Speyer. Italian.
f. 355d.
712. News Letter.
“It seems that this English ambassador desires to renew the negotiation for the match between his Queen and the Archduke Charles.
“The Flanders secretary has returned bringing confirmation of the departure of the Queen [of Spain] on the 26th of last month.”
6 Oct., 1570. Speyer. Italian. Copy.
Vat. Arch.
Nunt. Germ.
vol. lxviii.
ff. 30d–31.
713. Protonotary Bigila, Nunico in Germany to [Jerome] Rusticucci, Cardinal [Bishop of Sinigaglia].
…”I learn from a good source that the Archduke Charles is sending Chidentole (sic), his first chamberlain, to apprise his Majesty that he purposes to go no further with the marriage treaty with the Queen of England; and that his Highness has taken a wife after his own heart, and not such as matched with his rank, whereat his Majesty is ill pleased and marvels that his Highness should have made such a choice without consulting him. The person from whom I have this intelligence adds that the young Catholic lady says that she understands that she has no occasion for anxiety. That is all he knows. I will ascertain exactly how it is, and certify you thereof.
“I wrote last night in great haste, and added the last paragraph touching the said Archduke this morning, the 7th of October, '70. I beg you to excuse the errors I may have made.”
7 Oct., 1570. Speyer. Decipher. Italian.
Vat. Arch.
Nunt. Germ.
vol. lxvii. f. 183.
714. The Same to the Same.
… “As to the English marriage treaty I am further informed that the Archduke Charles, notwithstanding that he sent a courier within the last few days, will now send one of his chief counsellors, whose business (albeit some will have it he comes not for this alone) will be to make the Emperor better acquainted with his mind; and as far as I can judge, it may well be that his Highness is now out of it.”
7 Oct., 1570. Speyer. Italian.
Vat. Arch.
Nunt. di
vol. xiii. f. 231.
Borgh. I.
vol. 607.
f. 281–281d.
715. [John Baptista Castagna,] Archbishop of Rossano, Nuncio in Spain to [JEROME] Rusticucci, Cardinal [Bishop of Sinigaglia].
… “The Queen landed in Spain on the 3rd inst., having made a fair and prosperous passage convoyed by 180 sail; whereat his Majesty and all the Court and all the people are immensely delighted. Her intention is now to go to Segobia, where she will be received by the King; and there the nuptials will be solemnized, and then, after no long tarrying, they will betake them hither for the festivities.
“The Queen is accompanied by the two youngest sons of the Emperor: in whose stead the two eldest, who are here, are to return.
“Mgr. de Torres says he purposes to depart in the course of ten days.”
9 Oct., 1570. Madrid. Italian.
Vat. Arch.
Nunt. di
vol. viii. f. 65d.
716. [Jerome] Rusticucci, Cardinal [Bishop of Sini|gaglia] to [John Antony Facchinetti,] Bishop of Nicastro, Legate at Venice.
“The Pope would have you do your best endeavour to get information as to a certain Englishman going by the name of Henry Genei, who has newly arrived from England. For enlightenment you can judiciously sound Frederic Cusano, merchant, or Alfonso Strozzi, whether in their banks they have in the last few days paid him remittances from London in accordance with our advices of the 1st of last month just received thence. And as there is no hope of procuring his detention at Venice, you must, having succeeded so far, do your endeavour again to get tidings of him, i.e., you must apprise the Inquisitors of the towns of the Ecclesiastical State through which he must pass on his way to Rome, that it is their duty to detain him on the Pope's service; and you must furnish them with the indicia of personal identity which he may then bear upon him; and if occasion shall serve, you must inform me at once thereof, that it may be possible here also to take the same measures for his capture in those places through which he must needs pass.”
11 Oct., 1570. Rome. Italian. Copy.
Vat. Arch.
Nunt. di
vol. viii. f. 67.
717. The Same to the Same.
… To the same effect.
14 Oct., 1570. Rome. Italian. Copy.
Vat. Arch.
Nunt. di
vol. x. f. 125.
718. [John Antony Facchinetti, Bishop of Nicastro,] Legate at Venice to [Jerome] Rusticucci, Cardinal [Bishop of Sinigaglia].
“I have received your letter of the 11th inst. I have discovered that Frederic Cusani has mandate from London to pay Henry Genei certain moneys, but he has not as yet presented himself. I will sound Cusani under the pretext that someone has business to do with the said Henry, whom I desire to apprise of the time when he will go to receive payment. And if Cusani serves the turn, as I hope he will, I will then keep the said Henry so cunningly in espial that on his arrival in any city within the Apostolic See, he will be forthwith taken.
“As to his detention I must not omit to tell you that it would, I think, be feasible here also, if his Holiness so desire, although it would not be possible to get him then sent to Rome without the difficulty of which his Holiness is aware.”
18 Oct., 1570. Venice. Italian.
Vat. Arch.
Nunt. Germ.
vol. lxvii. f. 145.
719. Protonotary Biglia, Nuncio in Germany to [Jerome] Rusticucci, Cardinal [Bishop of Sinigaglia].
“I had already despatched my packet of letters for you to the post when his Majesty sent to summon me to the audience from which I have but just returned. I found his Majesty more incensed than I have ever known him, as he told me that he had letters in the Catholic King's own hand evincing his extreme displeasure that the Pope should have conferred the title and crown of Grand Duke of Tuscany on the Duke of Florence, and his yet greater than his Majesty's wrath and indignation at the wrong that is being done him. I see thereby that his Majesty is minded to manifest his resentment in some way, and I also perceive that the importance of the matter requires me to send an express courier, whom I will despatch to-morrow, and apprise you more fully of the allegation, and of what I have elicited from his Majesty: meanwhile in view of whatever may betide, I have thought it best to write you these few lines.”
19 Oct., 1570. Speyer. Decipher. Italian.
—“By courier sent by the Duke of Alva we have intelligence of the arrival of the Queen safe and sound in Spain, and that the King is in Segovia eagerly awaiting her.”
Vat. Arch.
Nunt. di
vol. vi.
f. 442.
720. [Jerome] Rusticucci, Cardinal [Bishop of Sinigaglia] to [John Baptista Castagna,] Archbishop of Rossano, Nuncio in Spain.
“Though the articles of the League are not as yet arranged between the Princes, yet it is meet to forecast the person that may be suitable for the office of Captain General of land (fn. 2) [forces]; and after pondering the qualities of the Duke of Savoy, and his merits and valour, the Pope is of opinion, if his Majesty should likewise so judge, that the purpose of the enterprise would be very well served by his Highness: wherefore you must take some convenient opportunity of speaking with his Majesty thereof, to learn his mind, and also of doing your office in favour of the said lord in such wise as you shall deem meet for the business, making use of the enclosed discourse on the affairs of Savoy to facilitate the business.
“You must also speak to his Majesty in the Pope's name on behalf of the Grand Duke of Tuscany, telling him that his Highness shows himself very devoted to the service of his royal person; and that his Holiness can certify him thereof, and assure him that he will never fail to find him ready on all occasions to adventure his substance and his States in his Majesty's service; and so he deems him worthy of his Majesty's favour.”
21 Oct., 1570. Rome. Italian.
Enclosure missing.
f. 448.
721. The Same to The Same.
“To the office that you are to do in the name of his Holiness on behalf of the Duke of Savoy you must add that, if the King is minded to act in concert with his Holiness in the election of the Captain General of land (fn. 2) [forces], it will then be an easy matter to sway the opinion of the other Princes with the adroitness which he will know how to employ with secrecy. You must try to discover if M. de Torres has ever done any office in that Court against the Grand Duke of Tuscany, and then take the first opportunity of apprising me thereof by letter.
“Ten thousand ducats have been remitted to the Duke of Alba on account of the Catholic insurgents in England, that he may aid and support them as best he may for the present by means of this trifling pecuniary subsidy; his Holiness having been apprised of the plight of those people, as you will gather from the enclosed copy of advices.”
[21 Oct.,] 1570. Rome. Decipher. Italian.
Enclosure missing.
Vat. Arch.
Nunt. di
vol. x. f. 127.
722. [John Antony Facchinetti, Bishop of Nicastro,] Nuncio at Venice to [Jerome] Rusticucci, Cardinal [Bishop of Sinigaglia].
“Your letter of the 14th to hand. Cusani yesterday told the gentleman whom I employ to get tidings of the arrival here of Henry Genei, that by the last advices from London he was informed that the said Henry would, it was supposed, give up going to Italy and tarry at Paris, though, to be prepared against any event, there would be no revocation of the mandate for the payment of moneys. I shall be on the alert; and if he arrive, I will take care that all your commands are carried into effect.”
21 Oct., 1570. Venice. Italian.
Vat. Arch.
Nunt. di
vol. iv. f. 65d.
723. [Fabius Mirto,] Bishop of Caiazzo, Nuncio in France to [Jerome] Rusticucci, Cardinal [Bishop of Sinigaglia].
… “From England and Scotland since the departure of the Secretary [Cecil], accompanied by one of the councillors of the Queen of England and the [Bishop] Elect of Ross, as envoys to the Queen of Scotland to treat of certain terms of accord with the said Queen and her release thereon, nothing more has transpired touching this negotiation, nor whether they have as yet returned, save that by a man that quitted England on the 8th inst. the ambassador of the Most Christian Queen resident in England has verbally given the Scottish ambassador here to understand that he was in hopes of a happy termination of the Queen of Scotland's business.
“A great inundation is reported in that island, the sea having made an inroad on a part of the east coast between two rivers in Merseland, and overflowed and submerged many towns and much country, which to-day is under water as far as twenty miles from London, which the map shows to be a great extent of land.
“The Queen of England is reported to have sent a gentleman to the Imperial Court, and it is said with a commission to treat of marriage between herself and the Archduke Charles.”
22 Oct., 1570. Paris. Italian.
Vat. Arch.
Nunt. di
vol. viii. f. 75.
724. [Jerome] Rusticucci, Cardinal [Bishop of Sinigaglia] to [John Antony Facchinetti, Bishop of Nicastro,] Nuncio at Venice.
“I remind you that you are to be on the alert to get intelligence of the arrival of that Henry [Genei], and to send me the distinctive marks of his person and dress, that I may have sure cognizance of him; and on the other hand you must spare no diligence in regard to the places through which he must travel, writing on behalf of the Pope to the Inquisitors to have him detained, as I have already bidden you to do.”
25 Oct., 1570. Rome. Italian. Copy.
Vat. Arch.
Nunt. di
vol. iv. ff. 68–69d.
725. [Fabius Mirto,] Bishop of Caiazzo, Nuncio in France to [Jerome Rusticucci, Cardinal Bishop of Sinigaglia].
… “I then spoke to the King about English and Scottish affairs, communicating to him the advices that I had received and certain most iniquitous terms offered by the Queen of England to the Queen of Scotland, of which advices, as also of the said terms, copies are enclosed herewith; and as the succour of 2,000 arquebusiers, and a quantity of arms, which the Scots crave, proved to be out of the question, his Majesty deeming that by this armed intervention he might not only bring upon himself a foreign war at an inopportune moment, as he had not as yet settled affairs in his own kingdom upon a firm basis, but might also give occasion of jealousy to some Christian Prince, who might perchance put a false construction upon the matter, I submitted to his Majesty the alternative that is suggested, to wit, to lay an interdict upon the commerce of that realm with his States, particularly in case the Catholic King should be minded to do the like. I had some little argument with this youth to make him understand that this would neither be to make war nor to bring it upon him, but a mere prohibition which would have the same effect (being by express convention as they of that country propose) of concentrating upon that wicked woman the hostility of all those peoples, who, finding themselves deprived of the commerce and trade without which they would not be able to live, would constrain the tyrant to set the Queen of Scotland at liberty, and re-establish religion on such wise that she should be relieved of the excommunication and they of the prohibition of commerce. I also exerted myself to make it plain to him that this also would be an easy and sure method of vanquishing that foreign enemy and weakening his rebellious subjects, who have been aided and fostered by her throughout the rebellion; and that, if so good an opportunity as this should be let slip, his Majesty might repent that he had suffered so impious a foe of God and himself to regain strength.
“Methought this youth was pretty well convinced in his own mind; but before committing himself he said he would consult the Queen Mother, and that I also ought to discuss the matter with her, which I will do on the first opportunity; but as the Council must needs have a share in the settling of this matter, I cannot anticipate any good result, so full is the Council of illaffected men.
“I have communicated with the Cardinals of Pellevé and Lorraine, soliciting their aid at least in that blessed Council, but the Cardinal of Lorraine declines on the score that he may seem an interested party, uncle as he is of that Queen [of Scotland]. I will continue to push the business forward as best I can with whatever assistance can be gotten in any quarter, and will report progress day by day.
“I have deemed it right to communicate this matter to the Queen of Scotland's ambasador here: he is a worthy prelate, and will do what he may to promote it, and at any rate he will be able to keep the Queen and the nobles of Scotland in good heart, apprising them of the Pope's good intentions and the good offices that are being done on behalf of that realm.”
28 Oct., 1570. Paris. Italian.
Vat. Arch.
Nunt. Germ.
vol. lxvii.
f. 208.
726. Protonotary Biglia, Nuncio in Germany to [Jerome Rusticucci, Cardinal Bishop of Sinigaglia].
“While I was writing, the most illustrious Soranzi paid me a visit accompanied by the ambassador of the Grand Duke of Tuscany (fn. 3), for whom he had sent. Soranzi told us that he had been with his Majesty, and at the instance of the Signory, and in their name, had again done his office to dissuade him from the purpose that he seems to entertain of publishing some manifesto or declaration against the Pope or the Grand Duke; and Soranzi says that he told him frankly that nothing could be more displeasing to the Signory, since the inevitable consequence would be the signal ruin of all Christendom by reason of the confusion that would be introduced into the engagements of the League by a quarrel between its two most eminent chiefs; assuring him afresh that he is in error if he thinks that without the Pope's authority any durable league and union can be formed between the Princes of Christendom; and beseeching him to think the matter over and draw back and refrain from so disappointing his Holiness and displeasing the Signory, who undertake this office in the cause of the common weal, and in the particular interest of his Majesty.
“Soranzi says that his Majesty replied that since he has been Emperor his sole purpose has been to do what he may to keep Christendom in peace: that this above all else has ever been his aim; and this he will ever ponder and ever pursue; to which he added that the Catholic King was mightily displeased that this title should be given to the said Duke, and that he will not acquiesce in it nor brook it; that the matter shall be perpended and had in due consideration, and that he will let the world see that he has no mind to make discord or war, but to secure peace and quiet for Christendom: and so he concluded by graciously thanking the Venetian Signory for the kind office which they had done.
“Such was the communication made to me by the most illustrious Soranzi in the presence, as I have said, of the Grand Duke's ambassador, who joined with me in thanking him for it.
“As to the League, the said Soranzi says that no binding formula is possible, only general terms; he also says that he knows that the Emperor hesitates to make up his mind because of the impossibility which confronts him: as I told him when first he came and have ever written to you, his Majesty has no means or power of making war alone, and without an ally, against the Turk; and from these German Princes little aid is to be hoped, and God grant they do him no hurt. This Diet has proved to him how little he can rely on them, and I think that he will leave it none too well satisfied. So I understand, and I will not conceal it from you, knowing as I do that you will keep it close from all but his Holiness.
“No worse news can his Majesty have than this of the match arranged, or, as it is believed for certain, about to be arranged between the Archduke Charles and the daughter of the Duke of Bavaria; nor, considering all that is to be said in its favour can he oppose it; rather he must needs do his office in their favour; and it is said that Farach and Chefiniodi are sent to Munich for this purpose, the one on his Majesty's, the other on the Archduke's behalf.
“It is also said that his Majesty will write or send someone to the Pope, to crave of his Holiness the dispensation; and a person of authority has told me that it is doubted whether his Holiness will not refuse the dispensation, as there is no lawful cause; which would be the better for his Majesty. I am also informed by the same person that when his Majesty learns that the Queen of England is really disposed to marry, he will offer her his second son, who is of the same age as the brother of the Most Christian King, to whom he is intimating his purpose in the event of the affair with the Archduke Charles not being arranged.”
28 Oct., 1570. [Speyer.] Italian. Decipher.
Vat. Arch.
Nunt. di
vol. xiii.
f. 292.
727. [Jerome Rusticucci, Cardinal Bishop of Sinigaglia] to [John Baptista Castagna Archbishop of Rossano] Nuncio in Spain.
… “The absolution craved by that Irish gentleman [Thomas Stucley] has been considered by the Pope, and definitively it is decided that it ought not be to granted.”
31 Oct., 1570. Rome. Draft.
Vat. Lib.
Barb. Lat.
2097 (xxx. 170).
f. 35.
728. Mary, Queen of Scotland to Cardinals Savelli, Moroni and Farnese.
Gratefully acknowledging their zealous labours in her cause, and apprising them that she has appointed [William Chisholm,] Bishop of Dunblane, as her ambassador at Rome, with instructions to discuss all matters concerning her interests “domestice familiariterque” with each of them.
31 Oct., 1570. Chatsworth. Latin. Copy.
Vat. Lib.
Urb. Lat.
f. 363d.
729. News Letter.
… “There is good hope that in the course of a few days the accord as to the traffic between these countries and England may come about; and the Duke of Alva desires that the honour of arranging this matter may be his before his departure, and that the general pardon may have full effect.
“It is understood that five English ships laden with drapery stuffs, and some other laden with groceries have arrived at Hamburg.”
31 Oct., 1570. Antwerp. Italian. Copy.
Vat. Arch.
Nunt. di
vol. x. f. 145.
730. [John Antony Facchinetti,] Bishop of Nicastro, Nuncio at Venice to [Jerome] Rusticucci, Cardinal Bishop of Sinigaglia.
… “The Cusani say that they have received no further advice as to that Henry [Genei], the Englishman, promising me at the same time to let me know if he present himself; and if it should so befall, I will not fail to send you the distinctive marks of his person and dress, and to do my diligence with the Inquisitors in the places through which he must pass, as you bid me.”
1 Nov., 1570. Venice. Italian.
Vat. Arch.
Nunt. di
vol. xiii.
f. 250.
731. [William Chisholm,] Bishop of Dunblane, Scottish Ambassador to the Pope.
“Your devout suppliant the Bishop of Dunblane humbly implores your Holiness to deign to write to the Catholic King and the Duke of Alba, requesting them to be pleased to give the said bishop an abbey or a pension of 6 or 7,000 florins in some part of his Majesty's dominions in Lower Germany, to supply in some measure the needs of the said bishop and some of his diocesans and kinsmen, who, being minded to abide unswervingly in the Roman Catholic religion, have chosen rather to abandon their native country and all their goods and substance than to be constrained by force to live under the accursed laws introduced into the kingdom of Scotland, being apprised that the heretics have forbidden the use of the true and ancient religion throughout the realm. And being otherwise unable to escape the abominable preachments, communions and tyranny of the heretics, not a few of them have already crossed to France and Flanders; and the rest have resolved to go to Flanders to be under the protection of his Majesty during the time of their exile, that country being nearer to Scotland, and that Prince so Christian and Catholic that he upholds the Christian religion with many good ordinances throughout his dominions.
“It is also necessary to instruct your Holiness' nuncio in Spain to lay the Bishop's letters before his Majesty, and warmly to solicit that this business be entered on speedily, that a report and reply may be had as soon as possible.
“It seems that it would greatly facilitate matters if Cardinals Pacecco and Granvelle and the ambassador were to write warmly to his Catholic Majesty and the Duke.
“The Bishop, being by the help of the good God provided with this opening and opportunity, would study to promote so just a work and do a service well pleasing to God and his Holiness and this Holy See and his Catholic Majesty, the said Bishop having passed much of his youth in Flanders. In craving this of your Holiness he is actuated partly by love and pastoral duty, whereby he is moved to compassion of his diocesans and kinsfolk, and partly by their petitions, for they have both written and now sent the bishop's own brother to second their efforts to secure your Holiness' aid.
“The Bishop desires nothing more than to be able to do what belongs to his office and position for the weal of those souls, and to spare your Holiness further vexation.”
1 Nov., 1570. Rome, Italian. Draft.
Vat. Arch.
Nunt. di
vol. xiii.
f. 245.
732. [Jerome Rusticucci, Cardinal Bishop of Sinigaglia] to [John Baptista Castagna, Archbishop of Rossano,] Nuncio in Spain.
“The Bishop of Dunblane, a Scotsman, has been here received by the Pope as befits a Catholic and an enemy of the sectaries of his country, and accorded honourable entertainment meet for his profession; but yet his Holiness deems him so deserving of his Majesty's favour by reason of his goodness and the hourly increasing load of care laid upon him by the many, as well kinsmen as friends, that flock hither from that island, that his Holiness has bidden me to instruct you to take a favourable opportunity of speaking to the King on his behalf, praying him to be pleased to see that the said bishop be provided with some bit of benefice or pension in his states of Lower Germany nearest to Scotland, whereby he will do a work right worthy of him and very charitable; and indeed this which he now craves his Majesty to do is just such a thing as his Holiness himself would have done had his means of showing beneficence to persons of this good bishop's qualities and merits been greater than they are.
“This will serve you to plead the bishop's cause, and then you will let me know what hope there is of success.”
1 Nov., 1570. Rome. Italian. Draft.
Vat. Lib.
Urb. Lat.
1041. f. 524.
733. News Letter.
… “From England there is news that twenty days ago there befell so great and severe a tempest as to cause the death of many beasts, and that one man alone was drowned with 8,000 head of sheep and cattle.
“As to the differences between Scotland and England it is said that they are in a fair way to be arranged, and likewise as to those between England and this country.”
11 Nov., 1570. Antwerp. Italian. Copy.
f. 544.
734. News Letter.
… “The King of Denmark's brother, Magnus by name, suborned by the Moscovite, has gone to lay siege to Rescel [sic Reval], a city in Livonia belonging to the King of Scotland [sic Sweden]. And by consequence Lübeck, an Imperial city, and the Duke of Pomerania, being doubtful of their own safety, have had recourse to the states and jurisdictions of the Empire. The gentlemen of the Diet were disposed to resolve that ambassadors should be sent to the said Magnus, the one-eyed, but by reason of opposition no decision has as yet been come to.”
13 Nov., 1570. Speyer. Italian. Copy.
Vat. Arch.
Nunt. Germ.
vol. lxvii. f. 230.
735. [Jerome Rusticucci, Cardinal Bishop of Sinigaglia] to Protonotary Biglia, Nuncio in Germany.
… “I send you a communication from England addressed to a Prelate at this Court, that you may make use of it in the business at present being negotiated, adroitly choosing the proper opportunity.”
18 Nov., 1570. Italian. Copy.
Enclosure wanting.
Vat. Lib.
Urb. Lat.
1041. f. 374.
736. News Letter.
… “They say that intelligence has been received here from England that the Queen, being urged by her subjects to nominate her successor, has nominated the son of the Queen of Scotland.”
22 Nov., 1570. Rome. Italian. Copy.
ff. 374d–76.
737. News Letter.
“Yesterday evening the Queen Consort entered this place, attended by the Archbishop of Trier and the Bishop of Strassburg and the Marquis of Baden, with fourteen counts and 3,000 horse, having been met the day before at Sedan, five leagues hence, by the King's brothers, M. d'Anjou, and the Duke of Alençon, who with many gentlemen most richly arrayed went to receive her in the said town of Sedan….
“This morning the Archbishop of Trier, with letters from the Emperor, presented the Queen Consort to the King in his chamber, saying much in testimony of their Imperial Majesties' gratification in giving the King a daughter bred and nurtured in the Catholic religion; in answer whereto he received the like assurance of the infinite satisfaction felt by his Most Christian Majesty in that this holy union of houses was now accomplished, which he hoped would redound to the glory of God, and be of much service to both sides.
“The King, having received his fair and dear consort, presented her to the Queen Mother, who very joyfully embraced her, and retired to her chamber to array her royally, which done they repaired to the parish church, the Queen Consort being between the two brothers-in-law who supported her by the arms.
“Cardinal de Bourbon said Mass and blessed the husband and wife, who wore jewels—those in the crown on her head, and others upon her breast and in her girdle, all included—to the value of a million of gold. And this nobility of France, princesses and princes and lords and ladies, were so numerous and so brave and richly attired in silks, brocades, embroideries, gems and pearls, that I have not words at my command adequate to describe this marvellous pomp. The ceremony in church ended, they went straight to house, where in a great saloon his Majesty dined, being seated at the middle of a great table, having on his right hand the Queen Consort, and beside her one after another, M. d'Anjou, the Duke of Alençon, the wife of M. de Montpensier, Cardinal de Bourbon, the Princess of Roche-sur-Yon, the Cardinal of Lorraine, Mme. de Nemours, (fn. 4) sister of the Duke of Ferrara, the Cardinal of Guise, and Mme. de Montmorency. On his left hand were the Queen Mother and beside her the Archbishop of Trier, Mme. de Lorraine, Madam Margaret, the Duke of Lorraine and Madam the Constable. Almost opposite to the Queen Mother at the King's table sat the nuncio and the rest of the ambassadors to wit, those of Spain, Scotland and Venice. But the English ambassador, although invited, would not be present at this ceremony, being minded, like the heretic that he is, to be seen neither in the church nor at the banquet.
“The banquet ended, the King and Queen and the other gentlemen and ladies danced; and this evening after supper there will be some diversion, which, I pray God, may be blessed to His glory and the lasting felicity of this crown, the weal of this realm, and the profit of the Christian commonwealth.”
26 Nov., 1570. Masieres [Mézières]. Italian. Copy.
Vat. Arch.
Nunt. Germ.
vol. lxvii. f. 252.
738. [Protonotary Biglia,] Nuncio in Germany to [Jerome] Rusticucci, Cardinal [Bishop of Sinigaglia].
“I will look at the communication from England, and will make opportune use thereof as you bid me.”
9 Dec., 1570. Italian. Copy.
Vat. Arch.
Nunt. di
vol. xiii.
ff. 299d-300.
Borgh. I
vol. 607.
ff. 300d–302.
739. [John Baptista Castagna,] Archbishop of Rossano, Nuncio in Spain to The Same.
… “I have given the King the two writings relating to the affairs of England; and his Majesty has read them and others that have been sent him, among which there is one in Latin, so similar in style and matter to that which I have given him, that it is presumably by the same author. In regard to this matter, his Majesty says that he thanks his Holiness for the news that he sends him, and that the affairs of that kingdom weigh on his mind more than is supposed, nor is he without the means of securing information thence, and he is much concerned to know all that it may be possible to do, and the time and manner, and all else. But as it is a matter of such great weight and moment that one must needs ponder it well and walk very warily, he bids his Holiness quiet his mind, and trust him that when he shall see when and how that which is to be begun may be accomplished, he will not let the opportunity slip, nor in this matter also fail to content and satisfy his Holiness, &c.
“This business demands much reflection and time. I will neglect no good opportunity of rehandling and keeping it alive, and therefore it will be well to continue to send me the advices that are received thence, whenever they are of any importance….
“As to the affair of the tenths, I cannot get the arrangment I could wish. Till now I have failed to obtain any definite answer from the King, much as I have solicited it. I have, however, learned by a different channel that the resistance is on two grounds: 1, that his Majesty is not disposed so absolutely to relinquish all his share, but would rather learn what the amount of the moneys will be; 2, that he desires to retain his possession, which they say is ancient, so that the money enter, as it was wont, the Royal Chamber, and issue thence to the effect craved by his Holiness.”
24 Dec., 1570. Madrid. Italian.
Vat. Lib.
Urb. Lat.
1042. f. 4.
740. News Letter.
… “We learn from France that some corsairs were designing to sack a castle in Holland, and that many of them have been taken by the Spaniards, and will be in a woeful plight: also that once more some deputies had gone to England, and others had come from England to Flanders, to see if yet they might adjust the trade with those two provinces, the Duke of Alva being very desirous thereof.”
31 Dec., 1570. Nürnberg. Italian. Copy.
Vat. Lib.
Urb. Lat.
1042. f. 6.
741. News Letter.
… “The business of the accord with England makes but slow progress, which is due to the Court and the Queen's council.”
31 Dec., 1570. Antwerp. Italian. Copy.
Vat. Arch.
Misc. Arm. ii.
vol. 84.
(Polit. 83.)
f. 32.
742. Discourse on England in 1570.
“As from time to time I ponder over the present state of this our island of England, and likewise the position in which the Queen of Scotland now finds herself, I am yet more confirmed in my long preconceived opinion, and hold the reduction of this realm and the concurrent liberation of the said Queen to be almost hopeless; not indeed that it is not evident that there is a notable number of Catholics both within and without the realm, but because I see that they lack the support and countenance of those Most Christian Princes, without whose aid and guidance neither of the enterprises could be brought to the desired end. And truly appalling is it to every one to think that God should have permitted even to this hour the supineness with which the remedy is regarded by those who in so many ways have been urged, nay, have even pledged themselves to have at heart the reduction of this realm and the deliverance of the said Queen of Scotland. As to which matters, how fraught they are with consequences of importance to the States of Christian Princes, and how unduly they have been neglected hitherto by all, I will now tell you briefly what I think, to wit; that the intrigues, which from time to time have been discovered in all parts, seem to me to make it but too clear and manifest how ruinous this schism has been, not only to the Apostolic See, which is here ever the main occasion of strife, but also to all the other states and principalities that either by proximity of frontiers or by commerce and trade are connected with this realm. Which being so patent as it is to all, who would, ever have thought that that could come to pass which yet by too bitter experience we know has come to pass; to wit, that all those princes concerned as aforesaid should, as it were, conspire together to suffer for ten or twelve years any evil rather than unite for their common protection against such calamities and losses as their countries and states continually suffer? And furthermore who would ever have believed that so little account would have been made in the Court of Rome of the reduction of this island, always so devout in the past, and now in a more compliant and amenable frame than ever, to the obedience of that Holy See? I mean that on none of the nobles of our nation, that have quitted their native land for religion's sake, as in his time did Reginald Pole, who was most wisely made a Cardinal by Paul III of holy memory, has there ever been conferred such degree of dignity as might qualify him to treat with the Pope authoritatively as to the remedial measures to be applied to his country in the common interest.
“However, for the partial exculpation of these Princes in this case, one should take note of the great providence of God, who is minded by these means to suffer vengeance and desolation to fall on this hapless realm, together, perchance, with the general perturbation of the States of the other Christian Princes, with, for result, total desolation, and that the more surely if the Queen of Scotland, from whom as proximate cause the reform and pacification of these kingdoms may be looked for, should die in the captivity in which she now is.
“But to compress within the compass of a few words this matter, the importance of which is such as to require a discourse longer and better matured than mine, ay, and yet more, the aid and countenance of all the Christian Princes, I could wish that for their own advantage at least these said Catholics would regard this sample of our fortune as prefiguring their own, because they might then see their own likeness, ay, and much foreshortened, if only the light of their minds were not totally obscured by passion and worldly interests. And considering how much blood this pernicious schism costs Christendom, they ought by common consent to bethink them how to remedy such grievous evils, and make a united effort to ward off the ruin that threatens this realm; in which event—and may God in His mercy prevent it!—it must needs be that its next neighbours succumb in their despite in consequence thereof, and lose alike their religion and their temporalities. But the first care of the Pope as common Pastor of all the flock of Christ, and by consequence of us also, remote though we are and all but utterly scattered, should be to follow the example of Paul III of holy memory, and create a spiritual head of our nation, one so noble of blood, so gifted in letters, so graced in manners that he might support the dignity with such and so deserved a reputation as is meet in that Court (supposing that there is a subject of the Queen in that Court of noble birth, a voluntary exile from this kingdom, endowed with all the qualities I enumerate, and one that has also deserved well of religion and the Apostolic See, and nevertheless is not so far estranged from the mind of the Queen as, being honoured by the Pope with such a dignity, to lack in case of need that influence with her which the Pope himself would desire in the cause of the Catholic religion) with whom his Holiness might negotiate upon a solid foundation at once the reconciliation of our Queen, the liberation of the Queen of Scotland, and the reduction of all the realm to the obedience [of the Holy See], as it is said Pius V [sic IV (fn. 5) ] of holy memory, was minded to do, if he had had length of days, as he had holiness of purpose and alacrity of will to favour and promote enterprises of this nature to the benefit of the faith, and in the common service of all the Christian commonwealth.”
1570. Received at Venice from England. Italian. Copy.


  • 1. Cf. p. 25 supra.
  • 2. i.e. land forces of the projected Catholic League.
  • 3. Cosimo de' Medici had recently been so created by Pius V.
  • 4. Cf. p. 199 supra.
  • 5. Cf. p. 163 supra.