Rome: April 1573

Pages 98-108

Calendar of State Papers Relating To English Affairs in the Vatican Archives, Volume 2, 1572-1578. Originally published by His Majesty's Stationery Office, London, 1926.

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April 1573

Vat. Lib.
Urb. Lat.
1043. f. 215.
172. News Letter.
“By letters from the camp of the 22nd of last month, we understand that the folk of La Rochelle had made another sortie, and had found the besiegers more on the alert than on other occasions; that there had ensued a great skirmish between them, with dead on both sides, and that among the wounded was Count de Retz. Nevertheless, Monsieur had won the fosse, and the engineer, Sipione, held out good hope of blowing up by means of a mine that bastion which causes most loss to the besiegers. Nevertheless there was still talk of an accord, and it is suspected that the faction in that town is fomented by England.”
2 April, 1573. Lyon. Italian. Copy.
Vat. Arch.
Nunt. di
vol. vi. p. 165.
173. [Antonio Maria] Salviati, [late] Bishop of S. Papoul, Nuncio in France to [Ptolemy Galli,] Cardinal of Como.
… “From Flanders by letters of the 30th [of last month] we have received the following advices:—
“By letters from England they had tidings of the departure of Montgomery with 35 ships and about 6,000 infantry: that many troops had embarked for the passage to Holland.
“That in Antwerp they were arming six great ships and four small ones to join the other fleet, bound for Zealand to succour Middelburg; in this they hoped to succeed, because they supposed that the ships of Holland which had come to the aid of those of Zealand and Flushing must return home; seeing that the fleet of his Catholic Majesty in Holland has taken 24 ships, and though some of them are small, there are yet three great ships among them of the galley type, which had drawn nigh to Amsterdam to block a passage, attend to the siege of Amsterdam, and intercept the victuals that are brought from Utrecht and the neighbouring places to the camp at Harlem. The business makes little way and is deemed likely to last some time yet, unless some way is discovered of intercepting the victuals.”
5 April, 1573. Moretto [Moret sur Loing]. Italian.
Vat. Arch.
Arm. xliv.
vol. 28. p. 24.
No. 45.
174. [Ptolemy Galli,] Cardinal of Como to [Henry] Cardinal of Portugal.
The bearer, an unnamed Irish bishop described as “Elomucensis” [sic of Emly], having been expelled from his see by the heretics, has repaired to Rome, and there been graciously received by the Pope. He is now returning to his see by way of Portugal; and the Pope, who deems him a good man, commends him to the Cardinal's especial charity and good offices.
7 April, 1573. Rome. Italian. Copy.
Vat. Arch.
Nunt. di
vol. xv. f. 226.
175. The Same to [Nicholas Ormanetto, Bishop of Padua, Nuncio in Spain].
To the like effect.
7 April, 1573. Rome. Italian. Draft.
Vat. Arch.
vol. xxxviii.
p. 120.
176. — to [Maturin Lesent] otherwise Romagas, Knight [of the Order of St. John of Jerusalem], Prior of Ireland.
“I have received your letters of 13 Feb. and 8 March, which I thought best not to answer until I had spoken to Marc Antonio Colonna, in order that I might be able to give you some direction as to what you should do; but since the sudden arrival of his Excellency from the Court of Spain, and also of the disappointing and vexatious intelligence of the peace made by the Signory of Venice with the Turk—you may judge for yourself and learn from others how mortifying, how heartrending it must have been to the Pope—I have but to apprise you that, as peace is actually made, his Holiness has no longer any occasion to despatch galleys, and have recourse to you, who cannot now lack scope for the employment of your virtue and valour in serving your Religion, which God grant you grace to do to good purpose. It remains for me to congratulate you on the news you send me that your affair is peacefully arranged, and that the Grand Master and the Council with the obedience and reverence due to his Holiness' despatch have granted you the place of Prior of Ireland. I am heartily at your service and pray God to grant you all happiness.”
10 April, 1573. Rome. Italian. Minute.
Vat. Lib.
Urb. Lat.
1043. f. 216.
177. News Letter.
… “From England by letters of the 8th they write that the accord between the Queen and these States is concluded, and that it will be published on 10 May.”
12 April, 1573. Antwerp. Spanish. Copy.
Vat. Arch.
Nunt. di
vol. vii. p. 337.
178. “An Edict published in Scotland and in the King's name for the good reception and treatment of the succours sent by the Queen of England against the Catholics in the Castle of Edinburgh. Dated, 13 April, 1573, in Our Royal Palace of Holyrood, and signed in Our name, James, etc. By Act of the Privy Council.
Vat. Lib.
Urb. Lat.
1043. f. 217.
179. News Letter.
… “It is said that Montgomery has returned to England, and that he is arming afresh to return to the succour of La Rochelle, if he may effect it, the mouth of the port being blocked.”
14 April, 1573. Paris. Italian. Copy.
Vat. Arch.
Arm. xliv.
vol. 28. p. 24.
180. [Ptolemy Galli,] Cardinal of Como to [Louis de Berlaymont] Archbishop of Cambrai.
Soliciting his aid to procure and secure for Richard Hall possession of a canonry in the church of Cambrai, which the Pope has conferred upon him.
14 April, 1573. Rome. Latin. Copy.
Vat. Arch.
Nunt. di
vol. vi. p. 176.
181. [Antonio Maria] Salviati, [late] Bishop [of S. Papoul], Nuncio in France to Ptolemy Galli, Cardinal of Como.
… “The Duke of Alva is still at Nymegen. They say, moreover, that he is raising horse and foot for a powerful attack upon Harlem. Ypres was likely to fall into the possession of the enemy, but the Count of Reulx, who has the chief command in those parts, being warned thereof, caused divers persons to be arrested and three of the chief conspirators to be hewn in pieces. There must be more than 40 other prisoners, on whom he has found spoils of churches in abundance and of some value.
“Many Frenchmen that were made prisoners last summer have escaped, having contrived to break out of the gaols in which they were confined by the Duke of Alva.
“Montgomery's destination with his numerous and well-equipped fleet is not as yet exactly known. They write from London that merchants had furnished him with 8,000 crowns, for which he bound himself to give a certain quantity of salt, which was but to colour the contract in order to screen the person that made the payment.”
14 April, 1573. Moretto [Moret sur Loing]. Italian.
Vat. Arch.
Nunt. di
vol. xv. f. 240.
182. [Ptolemy Galli,] Cardinal of Como to [Nicholas Ormanetto,] Bishop of Padua, Nuncio in Spain.
“That which I have to say in answer to the content of your cipher is that, since it is manifest that the affairs of Flanders are daily worsening, and there is a suspicion of some league between the heretics [there] and [those] of Germany, and his Majesty has informed us that he cannot at present come to Italy, his Holiness now desires you to submit to his Majesty's consideration that he would do well to betake him to Flanders, alleging the very reasons which in your cipher letter of 24 Jan. (fn. 1) you wrote had been suggested to you by some person well informed and zealous for the public weal, and also submitting to his Majesty's consideration, that by his presence in those parts he will gain two notable advantages, to wit, the immediate appeasement of all the existing agitations and disorders, and, pending negotiations being cut short, the reduction of all those countries to peace and tranquillity; and, moreover, that, being in that province, his Majesty would be able at a convenient opportunity to superintend and carry out the enterprise of England, and deliver that realm and the Catholics that are there out of the hands of that wicked and iniquitous woman. And furthermore, as to treating for a defensive league between his Catholic Majesty and the Most Christian King for the deliverance of their respective States from the vexations of the heretics, the Pope is most ready to intervene, provided that his Majesty so desire, for, as to moving of his own initiative, he apprehends that it would do little good, as he would have to consider both sides; and, moreover, it would seem to him to be compromising to his authority and dignity, if, after making so honest an endeavour, he should fail of success. So, if he that has submitted this to your consideration is, as you say, a person of consequence, you may tell him, as from yourself, that he should be at pains to put his Majesty in communication with the Pope, because, as universal and loving father, he will never fail to seize all the occasions that are brought to his notice of aiding his children and benefiting Christendom.”
[14 ?] April, 1573. [Rome.] Italian. Draft for cipher.
Vat. Lib.
Urb. Lat.
1043. f. 303.
183. News Letter.
“While the Court is at Fontainebleau, they are busy reducing the salaries of the King's servants to make use of the money in the war with La Rochelle, where, confronting the fort they call the Gospel, M. de Monluc has built another to batter it, which he has named the Epistle. Since the action of the 7th, which was attended with great loss on our side, the Duke of Anjou is said to have taken by force the said fort of the Gospel, being master of the fosse; but the defenders were so well entrenched that it was expected there would yet be work to do.
“On the 19th Montgomery with 54 vessels had attempted to afford them succour, but had not succeeded, and he has been constrained to return to England.”
24 April, 1573. Paris. Italian. Copy.
Vat. Arch.
Nunt. di
vol. vi. p. 188.
184. [Antonio Maria] Salviati, [late] Bishop of S. Papoul, Nuncio in France to [Ptolemy Galli,] Cardinal of Como.
… “The peace made by the Venetians with the Turk causes me double displeasure by reason of what you write of the vexation it has caused the Pope, albeit the matter itself is of all things in the world the most apt to annoy and irritate a Prince. It was for their service that the war was made; to deliver them from the hands of the Turk were all those forces got together; and yet without the cognizance of their confederates, and upon conditions neither advantageous nor honourable they have made peace, and placed themselves at the mercy of him that is most covetous of their possessions.
“The newly arrived ambassador of England has been received sumptuously: by what they say he is a doctor, and a less obstinate Huguenot than his predecessor.”
24 April, 1573. Moretto [Moret sur Loing]. Italian.
pp. 191
et seq.
185. The Same to the Same.
“Our people that are busy at La Rochelle with the reduction of the bastion of the Gospel, being unable to scale the summit without great loss, because it is commanded by towers and other high places belonging to the enemy, resolved some days ago with the aid of some English pioneers that are with them to make a mine. While busy with this work it seemed to them as if the enemy were making another mine under their feet, thereby to arrest their operations and blow up those that were employed therein, so they determined to fire the mine and make the best of a faulty work. Before doing so they made a feint of delivering an assault, in order that the enemy might come to the defence on the spot which was being mined, and, on their appearance, they forthwith fired the mine, but to little purpose; for as the mouth of the mine was not thoroughly closed, the flame gave backward and not upward as it should have done, and with the loss of more than a hundred soldiers they were fain to withdraw from the bastion, which before they had for the most part gained.
“Signor Sciarra Martinengo says in one of his letters that there fell no fewer of the enemy than of our men; in all the other accounts there is no mention made of their loss.
“The King is more mortified by this affair than by aught else that has befallen in all this enterprise; and many whisper that if the experience of his army in military matters were equal to its ambition, such misfortunes would not happen.
“Montgomery appeared on the 19th in sight of La Rochelle with a fleet of 80 ships, 40 for fighting, and the rest laden with munitions and victuals. It was God's pleasure that the people of the shores of Brittany and Normandy, who had observed him coasting by, had got together some ships for their defence, in which they thereupon set sail, and joined Monsieur on the evening of the same day, raising by their junction with the other fleet the total strength, galleys and ships included, to 60 vessels of war. On the following morning Monsieur sent the Count of Fiesco with his two galleys to reconnoitre him, followed by all the rest of the ships, to give him battle in the open sea, fearing lest, the tide being high, he might get in with his succour. The Count made every endeavour to induce him to give battle: he discharged against his fleet some 22 pieces of artillery, and one shot struck the mast and another the sail of the commander's ship; and at last Montgomery showed his heels, and in his flight lost a ship manned by Englishmen which could not keep pace with the rest.
“The red crosses and arms of the Queen of England being found upon the said Englishmen and observed also in the rest of the fleet, the King, immediately upon receipt of the news, caused make a procession, and gave thanks to God: he then resolved to recall the dismissed English ambassador, to discover from him what might be his Queen's mind, and whether she purpose to recognize the English that have been taken as her subjects or no. If he say that she means to recognize them as such, then for the future the relations between the King and the Queen of England must be of another order, and all the capitulations of leagues and peace will be held to be ruptured; if he say that they are none of his Queen's subjects, they will be executed as fautors of rebels and violators of the concord of princes.
“To-day the King sent a gentleman express to us ambassadors to impart these glad tidings to us, which gentleman spent much time with me talking of the recall of the English ambassador. I told him that I deemed it certain that, as Montgomery's appearance had been to no purpose, the Queen of England will make out that she knew nothing about it, and will continue with her wonted arts to foment all the seditious; and that there is none so bound to make such a denial as the ambassador whom they are recalling, because, besides that one may believe that he is not fully acquainted with his Queen's secret policy in this matter, he will, for fear of being detained, take care to give the King all satisfaction possible in words, recking little that the King should wreak his vengeance for such a wrong upon those few Englishmen that have been taken because they were unable to escape, which shows that they were the people of least reputation in all the fleet.
“I bade him reflect that the acts of the Queen of England which have to be considered are those of an enemy, and that therefore his Majesty ought not to rely upon what he may hear from the ambassador, who desires to take his departure, but should send a person of Weight and authority to England, and clear up the affair with the Queen herself, who cannot deny that the fleet was got together in her realm by one who is a rebel to the King of France, makes open profession thereof, is known by all men for such, and has no other object than to confound the affairs of this State. If anything further should happen, I will advise you thereof.
“As to La Rochelle I must not omit to apprise you of some matters as to which I wrote you heretofore less fully than I shall do now, that I have learned in more detail what I entered into but in a summary way when of late I reported to you thereon. When Monsieur went to La Rochelle I wrote you that by an understanding with those within the place he hoped readily to get it, and again I wrote you that the people of La Rochelle, having discovered that there was a treaty afoot, had put some few to death. I say then that by information from a person worthy of credit, who took part in the business, the course the affair took was as follows:—
“Long before Biron began the siege, while still the folk of La Rochelle used to go forth with an escort to visit the surrounding villages, one of the gentlemen that had withdrawn thither, being apprehensive of an insurrection of the people, told him that he knew their error to be great who thought to defend La Rochelle against the King's forces, and that for himself he was minded to be a good servant of his Majesty and busy himself in his service. This was reported by Biron to his Majesty, who was rejoiced at the proposal, and bade proceed with the business; which was done to such purpose that the gentleman gained for the King other two of the principal captains that were there; but as he was not satisfied that he had yet made matters altogether safe, he wrote to Biron that he had better by some stratagem try to send thither 15 or 20 trusty and responsible men. Biron, being minded to walk warily, seized the opportunity afforded him by some of his soldiers who had been guilty of mutiny, with violence and pillage of villages, made choice of a few men who agreed to pass themselves off as some of the mutineers and robbers, and sent them to La Rochelle, there to present themselves as persons destitute of all other hope of safety but in the folk of La Rochelle, enemies of the King and his ministers; and by letters in cipher he sent the gentleman their names and surnames and the countersigns whereby he was to know them; and to preclude discovery of the affair, of which he seemed to be apprehensive upon its communication to so many, he proceeded as follows: he told the soldiers that he was sending them to La Rochelle to facilitate the conclusion of a negotiation that he had on hand there, and to preclude discovery of the author, he showed them half a sou by way of countersign and bade them obey him that should show them the other half.
“Matters having been brought to such a position that a conclusion was hourly to be expected, and word having been sent to the Court, which governs, that he desired the honour to be Monsieur's, he bade keep all in suspense until Monsieur's arrival, that the glory might be his. Whereby it befell that he posted thence as if he were going not to reduce a fortress, but to take possession of some fine house where every one was at his beck and call.
“My informant as to the sequel is troubled in mind, being convinced that, if it had rested with Biron to take advantage of certain favourable opportunities that occurred, he would certainly have entered the place two days before Monsieur's arrival, and all would have gone well. That which disconcerted the arrangements was that one of the soldiers sent by Biron, hearing one night a call to arms, took fright for lack of firmness adequate to such a strain, and communicated the errand upon which he had come thither to the master of his lodging; the master informed the magistrate, the soldier with some of his comrades was taken and executed, and all remained incomplete, presenting the utmost difficulty. Lanua [La Noue], who was within, was himself in part accessory to the treaty, though, by what I understand, he had no mind to subserve its execution. The gentleman who was its author remained for a while in statu quo, but afterwards, to make a pretence of zeal, sallied forth one day with the rest to fight our men and was killed by an arquebus shot. One of his confederate captains got out with Lanua [La Noue], the other is yet inside; and though he still has Biron's cipher and the means of sending him many letters, nevertheless, I understand that he writes but seldom to him, nor indeed would his ability seem to be of such a sort as to fit him to carry through a business of such importance.
“In Dauphiné the Huguenots daily gain strength; they are masters of the Rhône and in many places obstruct the roads and the traffic of the country.
“By advices from Antwerp of the 18th of April:—The Count of Boussu, having got with his ships into the sea of Harlem, constructed two forts to preclude succour of the city, and has blockaded it so closely that not a soul can pass in or out of it; wherefore some days since they resolved to hazard four vessels, and send to crave succour of their confederates. But Boussu's men, being apprised thereof, took two and sunk other two ships. However, the rebels in those ports of Holland collected about a hundred and eight ships, with which on the 9th they attacked the Count's fleet, and though repulsed returned to the attack, to be repulsed again with the loss of some vessels and without succouring Harlem.
“While the two fleets were engaged a sortie was made from Harlem in four companies, who attacked the royal camp, but were everywhere repulsed; and so it is judged that the place suffers sorely.
“The Duke of Alva at Mons had caused about thirty-two burghers of that place to be executed, but no offence was known to have been done by them since the place returned to his Majesty's obedience; the execution was therefore displeasing to many good servants of the King, who deemed that thereby the hearts of the insurgents might be the more embittered and hardened.
“The Prince of Orange was yet in Delft, providing as best he might for the needs of all the surrounding places that are under his obedience, especially Anchusa [Enkhuizen] and Dordrecht, which are the most important. It was said that for his succour his brother, Count Louis, was bringing cavalry and infantry from Westphalia.
“Here ready to sail are the ships recently equipped with the other vessels of war for the expedition to Zealand for the succour of Middelburg: they number more than 50 vessels well provided with mariners and soldiers. They say that there are also 30 other ships at Bergher [Bergen-op-Zoom] and Tergus [Tergoes]. The Flemings will have it that they will not be able to make the passage because the enemy will again oppose them; but the King's ministers hope that it will be otherwise.
“There was a rumour that the accord with the Queen of England was to be concluded, or at least a suspension of all differences for two or three years, trade in the meantime to go on as usual; the English that for trade have gone to Hamburg, a free city of Germany, to return to Antwerp, and the Queen of England not to harbour rebels against his Catholic Majesty. Nevertheless, many are of opinion that the said Queen dallies with these negotiations to gain time and shape her policy as in view of the course of events in France and Flanders she shall deem expedient.
“Although the Count of Reulx was most vigilant in guarding the coast of Flanders, nevertheless the Duke, the better to preclude incursions by the enemy, was making fresh levies of Walloons and Germans.”
24 April, 1573. Moretto [Moret sur Loing]. Italian.
Vat. Arch.
Nunt. di
vol. vii. p. 204.
186. Nicholas [Ormanetto,] Bishop of Padua, Nuncio in Spain to [Ptolemy Galli,] Cardinal of Como.
“I have not failed to do the office which the Pope bids me do with his Catholic Majesty in aid of the Catholics of Ireland against the heretics, in order that his Majesty may at any rate be now pleased to send thither some force, as he has every reason for not deserting these good men, who for the holy Catholic faith hazard all their substance and their very lives. His Majesty's answer is that he will do all that he can, but at the same time he lets me know the great expense in which he finds himself involved in defence of the cause of God and the faith, intimating that he cannot meet all demands, but that still he will see what can be done. This business got wind some days ago, and there are men here that concern themselves with it; and just now an Irish friar has arrived. I shall miss no good opportunity of doing all that is possible in aid of this pious and holy work, for if the business goes no further, it will be but a sorry defence this King will make of himself in regard of the realm of Ireland.”
25 April, 1573. Madrid. Italian.
p. 216.
187. The Same to the Same.
… “I would fain hope that his Holiness, for his great piety and valour, will not, although the Venetians have withdrawn, relinquish his holy design of bringing the Emperor and all the rest of the Christian princes into a league against the Turk, who, it may be supposed, having succeeded in acquiring the realm of Cyprus in this war, and detaching the Venetians from this league, and rupturing this grand union, will not fail to make fresh attempts to ruin Christendom. And likewise I hope that his Holiness will not fail to carry out the enterprise of England in favour of the Catholics against that wicked woman and the heretics of that kingdom; to which there is reason to hope that his Majesty will give his attention as soon as tranquillity is restored in Flanders. Let us trust in God, and be true to ourselves. Pardon me if I have been too bold, for ex abundantia cordis os loquitur.
25 April, 1573. Madrid. Decipher. Italian.
Vat. Arch.
Germ. vol. vi.
f. 136.
188. [Ptolemy Galli,] Cardinal of Como to [John Delfino,] Bishop of Torcello, Nuncio [in Germany].
… “The disgust which, you write, his Majesty has conceived at this accord of the Venetian Signory with the Turk is indeed just and meet; but if it were possible to set it in one scale and that which his Holiness has conceived in the other, I am sure that the latter would exceed it by far; and as to the resentment that his Majesty thinks his Holiness should exhibit at so grave an offence, you are to know, and may inform his Majesty, that the Pope, besides dismissing with the utmost wrath the ambassador, Tiepoli, when he brought the news, and ever since refusing to hear or see him, forthwith by express courier despatched two briefs revoking two most important and lucrative graces that he had granted to the said Signory, those, to wit, of the tenths and the alienation of church property, which briefs have forth with been put in execution by the nuncio. Besides which he has transferred the alms collected for the Hospital of Corfù, which amounted to a vast sum of money, to the Knights of Malta. Nay, more, he has abolished the post which by his grant the Signory had at Rome, and restored the usage of the time of Pius V, of holy memory, sending a postmaster to Venice there to reside on his Holiness' behalf.
“This is as much resentment, and though not adequate to the offence received, it is not therefore a mere trifle, as his Holiness has so far been able to manifest without aggravating the disorder and jeopardy of Christendom.”
25 April, 1573. Rome. Italian. Draft.
Vat. Arch.
Nunt. di
vol. vi. p. 202.
189. [Antonio Maria] Salviati, [late] Bishop [of S. Papoul], Nuncio in France to [Ptolemy Galli,] Cardinal of Como.
… “The English ambassador, late resident here, whom the King bade recall à propos of Montgomery's fleet, which, as I wrote you, appeared at La Rochelle with the red cross ensign, (fn. 2) had posted from Paris on the 21st, so that the King has neither succeeded in recalling him nor in holding any communication with him. His Majesty's ministers assured him that he would not depart without the present of 3,000 francs which they had ready for him, but they have been deceived.
“The other ambassador, but lately arrived, has sent his secretary to the King, certifying him that his mistress, the Queen of England, affords Montgomery no support, and offering to go himself to set this matter right. The King and Queen have given him to understand that he may go, and are pleased to converse with him, a policy which will be little to the purpose in regard to the main matter in hand.
“The Queen [of England], according to several advices, is getting 4,000 foot together for service in Scotland in the reduction of the Castle of Lylleburg [Edinburgh], which is held by the supportors of the Queen of Scotland, who is in prison.
“It is also understood that she has concluded the accord with the Duke of Alva for the restitution to the merchants of Flanders of traffic with England for two years.
“The merchants will forthwith begin to do business, and pending differences in regard of past transactions will be readily settled. As to this, letters are to hand from the Duke to the Spanish ambassador, from England to the Scottish ambassador, and from Flanders to me, as you will see in the advices that reach me thence.”
27 April, 1573. Moreto [Moret sur Loing]. Italian.
Vat. Arch.
Nunt. di
vol. vi. p. 207.
190. [Antonio Maria] Salviati, [late] Bishop [of S. Papoul], Nuncio in France to [Ptolemy Galli,] Cardinal of Como.
“Yesterday evening I wrote you that à propos of the appearance of Montgomery's fleet with the red cross ensign (fn. 3) the King had sent to recall the former English ambassador, and that, having posted from Paris, he was not to be had.
“This morning I am informed that one of the King's equerries had followed him and come up with him at Abbeville, a seaport in Picardy 30 leagues from Paris; and that as soon as he learned what his Majesty proposed he turned back, and that to-morrow he will present himself at Fontainebleau along with the ambassador, his successor, to whom in the last audience the Queen took a high tone as if she deemed herself to have proof positive that the Queen of England is in some measure concerned in Montgomery's fleet. This the ambassador still persisted in totally denying, and in doing his best to banish such an impression from the Queen's mind. Touching this matter, he has despatched one of his men to England, and the King likewise has sent a messenger to M. de la Motte [Mothe-Fénelon], his ambassador to that Queen. The bearer of the King's packet is de la Motte's steward, who has a salary by royal warrant, and is deemed of some intelligence.”
28 April, 1573. Moreto [Moret sur Loing]. Italian.


  • 1. Cf. p. 85 supra.
  • 2. i.e. the English ensign. Cf. p. 103 supra.
  • 3. i.e. the English ensign.