Venice: April 1614

Pages 104-118

Calendar of State Papers Relating To English Affairs in the Archives of Venice, Volume 13, 1613-1615. Originally published by His Majesty's Stationery Office, London, 1907.

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April 1614

April 2. Senato, Secreta. Dispacci, Milano. Venetian Archives. 216. Andrea Surian, Venetian Resident at Milan, to the Doge and Senate.
On the 29th of last month a courier arrived at Turin from England sent by Gabaleone. The letters were immediately sent to the duke of Savoy at Nice.
From Milan, the 2 April, 1614.
April 3. Senato, Secreta. Dispacci, Costant. Venetian Archives. 217. Cristoforo Valier, Venetian Ambassador at Constantinople, to the Doge and Senate.
When all the capitulations had been delivered by the ambassadors into the hands of the Grand Vizier, he immediately gave directions that the chapter for the protection of foreign nations, granted to the agents of France and England, should be annulled, and he further altered their capitulations in many other parts, as his sole pleasure, without giving notice to any other of the Pasha Viziers, and without paying the least attention to the ambassadors concerned. He has acted as if he were the king, and has never given a thought to the difficulty caused by giving offence to all the princes at the same time in a matter of so much importance.
The Pasha caused these revised capitulations to be scaled with the imperial seal and then delivered to the ambassadors. They held a consultation, at which I was present, as to what was to be done. We agreed not to receive these revised capitulations and sent them back by the Chiaus who had brought them, saying that the original agreement had been solemnly sworn to by the Grand Signor and should be unchangeable.
On the following day the Chiaus returned with the same capitulations, saying that the Pasha had commanded him to leave them upon pain of losing his head. Thus in spite of the resistance of the ambassadors, the Chiaus succeeded in leaving the capitulations with each of them. They at once sent to ask an audience of the Grand Vizier, which was settled for the following day. But the Pasha summoned the dragomans and told them he had nothing to discuss with the ambassadors, who had nothing to do but to observe the capitulations left to them by his Majesty. The ambassadors, who were unwilling to depart with such capitulations, put themselves in the way of the Grand Vizier and insisted upon being heard. As he could not refuse, he had them led into a large hall where there were several other magnates, and after a seat had been placed for him, he motioned to the ambassadors, who remained standing, to speak. They spoke of their grievances and of the slight put upon their princes. The Pasha angrily replied that the capitulations sent to them were those which the Grand Turk desired to be observed. They would have to observe them; there was no more to be said and they could leave the country if they were not satisfied. They replied with emphasis that although the capitulations had been left in their houses by force they did not intend to accept them, and had come on purpose to return them. With that they left them behind and departed without saying another word.
The Pasha was much disturbed by this resolute action, as were all present, and he has not as yet taken any action.
I have succeeded in getting the capitulations of the republic returned to me unaltered, without any friction, after a long argument upon the matter with Mehemet Pasha, who is at present in high favour with His Majesty. They returned them saying that the republic was a good friend of His Majesty and much wiser than the other princes.
Some time later the Grand Vizier sent for the ambassadors of France, England and Flanders. They immediately attended and were better received than at the first audience. After a lively discussion the ambassadors informed the Pasha that he had no power to decide upon an important matter without his master. They were in the same position with regard to their own princes, and therefore they could not receive the capitulations. They so far prevailed that the Pasha abandoned everything except the withdrawal of the permission granted to them to protect foreigners, because it was too much to the prejudice of his king that the subjects of hostile princes should be allowed to come constantly to his dominions. The ambassadors could not well dispute this, and they simply contended that the subjects of foreign princes, who may be here at present, should have two months in which to leave, and that the same time should be allowed to those at Cairo and Aleppo, from the time that they received the order to depart. The Pasha agreed to this and allowed the ambassadors six months in which to inform their princes and receive the replies, in order that the objectionable article may be entirely removed from the capitulations. Thus the affair may be said to be terminated.
Dalle Vigne di Pera, the 3 April, 1614.
[Italian; deciphered.]
April 4. Senato, Secreta. Dispacci, Padova. Venetian Archives. 218. Giovanni Battista Foscarini, Podestà of Padua, to the Doge and Senate.
Owing to the cession of the privilege of the Count Palatine to confer the degree of doctor on those who through poverty or for other reasons, chiefly the oath of the bull in cœna dominis, which some of the German nation and other Ultramontanes refuse to subscribe, they have no part in the colleges of Philosophy and Law and this has induced them to petition the Reformers and the Senate to grant them some means of taking that degree. A certain Austrian, one Quirino Cnoglero, has opposed this and written a very bitter book against the opposite side. I have thought fit to order him to leave this city in three days never to return without express permission, as I do not think it expedient that disputes should be introduced into this nation, which has hitherto lived quiet and united. If your Serenity will grant them some means of taking the doctor's degree, it will give a great impetus to this University, which has not for many years been so crowded and flourishing, there being numerous Ultramontanes, including many of noble birth, and though there have been some brawls between the students and the Paduans, all is now quiet and peaceful.
From Padua, the 4 April, 1614.
April 5. Senato, Secreta. Dispacci, Firenze. Venetian Archives. 219. Domenico Dominici, Venetian Resident at Florence, to the Doge and Senate.
Their Highnesses spent Easter week at Pisa. There are rumours that they will proceed to Livorno, but they have not yet gone, as they are waiting for news of the Tartana. It is thought that the Grand Duke will only have to concern himself with finding food for the sailors and soldiers, without paying them any wages. They will pay themselves out of the booty which they take, of which they receive a third, while two thirds go to the Grand Duke. This is a method of campaign discovered by the English (ch'è modo d'armare stato trovato dalli Inglesi).
From Florence, the 5 April, 1614.
Ap.[6–11]. Senato, Secreta. Dispacci, Inghilterra. Venetian Archives. 220. Antonio Foscarini, Venetian Ambassador in England, to the Doge and Senate.
On the 7th ult. the baptism of the little Prince Palatine took place eight or ten days earlier than the date originally fixed. The prince of Anhalt attended in the king's name, accompanied by more than three hundred knights. Count Henry came for the States with a great company. A difficulty of precedence arose between that count and the duke of Dupont, which delayed the ceremony and the dispute remained unsettled, the duke entering with the Electress mother and Henry with the prince of Anhalt.
The States presented the little prince with two large cups of gold, full of money, also of gold, and with 2,400 crowns a year for life. The king has not sent anything yet. He has been much pleased with a portrait of the baby prince.
The ambassador of France received couriers on Saturday and Monday. On Tuesday he had audience of His Majesty, which lasted for two hours. So far as I can gather he first related that the prince of Condé and those with him were to arrive at Soissons (Suisson) on that very day, and the queen's deputies would arrive there on the morrow, to treat. He afterwards spoke of the marriage, declaring it to be the queen's resolution to give satisfaction in all things.
The king expressed his satisfaction at the decision of Condé and said that if it had been necessary he would have intervened readily in the interests of peace. He dilated upon this. There was a long discussion about the marriage, His Majesty showing a favourable disposition, but the parliament had first to be considered, and so matters were postponed in order that the issue of the movements in France might be seen. It is commonly believed that these will end peacefully.
Besides what I have written about the marriage I have since heard that the king's ambassador brought an autograph letter from the queen of France. In this she says that among the articles of agreement there are some which do not please her. She would have preferred the number of chaplains agreed upon to be four; that of the household which she is to take with her to be 25 in all; that of the princess who is going to Spain would be the same. She would also prefer the giving of the hand in France by a Catholic bishop, but in the manner observed by Henry IV with his first wife. The whole negotiation remains in suspense, but with great hope.
I have received the letters of your Serenity of the 6th. I have asked for an audience with His Majesty at a convenient time, to offer congratulations upon the birth of the Prince Palatine, and I will fulfil my instructions at that time.
London, the (fn. 1) April, 1614.
April 7. Senato, Secreta. Dispacci, Francia. Venetian Archives. 221. Pietro Contarini, Venetian Ambassador in France, to the Doge and Senate.
The Prince of Condé insists solely upon the assembling of the estates, and that the marriages with Spain be suspended in the meantime. He refuses to listen to any proposals in his own interests. If things are really taking this direction, an agreement will be rendered more difficult.
From Paris, the 7 April, 1614.
April 7. Senato, Secreta. Dispacci, Germania. Venetian Archives. 222. Zorzi Giustinian, Venetian Ambassador in Germany, to the Doge and Senate.
The Protestant provinces of Austria are united with the confederate princes, and there are strong suspicions that under the pretext of arming against the Turk they are making preparations against their countrymen. The Catholic League, on the other hand, wishes to see the emperor armed and they have announced that at the slightest movement of the Protestants they will take action.
The matters of Cleves get worse. Brandenburg supported by the States has tried to get possession of Dusseldorf and check Neuburg, who has at his back the duke of Bavaria, chief of the Catholic League. Denmark is collecting troops to help Saxony against Brandenburg, who has alienated the affection of his subjects by some reforms in matters of religion.
From Veltz, the 7 April, 1614. Copy.
April 8. Collegio, Secreta. Esposizioni Principi. Venetian Archives. 223. The Councillor Valarezzo reported to the Cabinet a conversation with the ambassador of France, who said, among other things, that the proposals for the marriage of the second princess with the prince of England was proceeding so successfully that the publication of this new alliance would follow soon. The friends of the crown consider that it would assist in every way to confirm the king in peace and greatness.
April 8. Senato, Secreta. Dispacci, Spagna. Venetian Archives. 224. Francesco Morosini, Venetian Ambassador in Spain, to the Doge and Senate.
The ambassador of England, before leaving, has been to see me. After some complimentary expressions he said that when he reached home he would not fail to inform the king of the mutual confidence which existed between us in all relationships. To continue this exchange of confidences, he wished to inform me of the conclusion (stabilmento) of the marriage between the prince and the second princess of France, by means whereof he hoped that a perfect union between the two crowns would be formed and preserved. That such a union ought to be gratifying to the republic. That the Spaniards, having got wind of it, had complained that the queen of France had not informed them about it before it was concluded, and had enquired if it really was settled. He had replied that he believed the negotiations were nearly concluded, and when everything had been settled he was sure that his master would inform the king. He added to me that it ought to take place a year later, as would the marriage between Spain and France, for which they are sending Don Pedro di Zuniga.
I thanked him for communicating this confidence and for his good disposition towards the service of your Excellencies.
Before leaving, the ambassador complained to the ministers, and especially the duke of Lerma, that Schopp (Scopio) had been received here, who had dared to write against his king with such presumption and malignity, showing that the book was by his own hand. He complained that they had given ear to the pretensions of the man, which were based upon his merit in having by his writings insulted a monarch friendly to that crown. They replied that no favour had been shown to Schopp, as His Majesty had no liking for that sort of person, but that if he had taken refuge here he ought not to be refused, and some of the king's own subjects were also protected in England.
The ambassador, seeing that his representations were of no avail, set ten of his servants upon the man in the public street, with orders to slay him. But by good fortune he succeeded in escaping with a slight wound, and has taken refuge in one of the monasteries here, openly declaring that he intends to write other works against that schismatic and tyrant.
The ambassador left immediately afterwards by post, having previously sent the greater part of his household by sea, leaving only a few servants in the house which he occupies.
From Madrid, the 8 April, 1614.
[Italian; deciphered.]
April 8. Senato, Secreta. Dispacci, Spagna. Venetian Archives. 225. Francesco Morosini, Venetian Ambassador in Spain, to the Doge and Senate.
Couriers have come from Naples bringing word of the provision made for the defence of those parts. This is because of their fears of the Turkish fleet, but they say that they hear from several quarters that it will not exceed 90 galleys.
After the departure of the English ambassador there came fresh instructions directing him to stay. But he expected something of the kind and took care to depart before it arrived.
The Spanish ambassador in England writes that the king there is sending to His Majesty a present of dogs, horses and sables, a sign of friendship which is greatly appreciated.
From Madrid, the 8 April, 1614.
April 8. Senato, Secreta. Dispacci, Spagna. Venetian Archives. 226. Francesco Morosini, Venetian Ambassador in Spain, to the Doge and Senate.
The king, having been requested by the queen of France to intervene in favour of peace, has taken the opportunity to send by means of the ambassador of Florence, very friendly letters to the Prince of Condé and the dukes of Mayne (Umena), Nevers, Vendome and Longueville, exhorting them not to stir up new things at this time, but to maintain the peace. The ambassador of France, considering himself slighted by this negotiation with the representative of Florence, has asked to be recalled.
The Spaniards do not wish to see the estates convoked, because they fear that matters of religion will be discussed, and also that difficulties may be placed in the way of the marriages, it being understood that if the estates meet with the approval of the princes, the negotiations for these will cease. Meanwhile the preparations for the day continue to proceed slowly.
From Madrid, the 8 April, 1614.
[Italian; the part in italics deciphered.]
April 12. Senato, Secreta. Dispacci, Inghilterra. Venetian Archives. 227. Antonio Foscarini, Venetian Ambassador in England, to the Doge and Senate.
I have received the letters of your Serenity of the 7th March with those of Mantua of the 27th and 28th February. I learn the proposals made by the Cardinal Duke with regard to the marriage, with the Infanta, and the two points of the rebels and damages, the reply made by your Excellencies and the resolution of the Duke, I will make use of the instructions as I am directed.
Ten days ago the ambassador of Spain told me that the affairs of Italy were accommodated, and the Duke of Mantua had acted like a good knight (come gran cavaliere), having freely placed himself and all his affairs in the hands of the Catholic king, and sending a blank sheet to Spain, promising to carry out whatever might be written upon it by the hand of His Majesty. That the Grand Duke had also borne himself admirably, having informed Mantua that by treating with Savoy he would give satisfaction to Spain, to which crown he was greatly bound. I write these things to inform your Excellencies of what is being said about these affairs.
The States and Prince Maurice have received letters from the new Grand Duke of Muscovy with particular relation of his present state, offering free commerce and a good understanding. The mistrust between Brandenburg and Neuburg appears to be growing.
The archduke had received orders from Spain to send the Chiaus with all those who were with him at that time. But two days before, he had passed on to the Hague, where he was very well received. He presented the letters of Calil Pasha of the sea to the States, and others to be sent to Mulei Sidan, king of Morocco. Copies of both are enclosed in a translation. They replied and promised to send the letters for Morocco, as your Excellencies will see by the reply made on the 11th of last month.
Since the Chiaus arrived here they have paid all his expenses and given him money for his return, Maurice in particular has presented him with a chain worth 1,000 crowns and sent him with a good escort on a safer way to Constantinople.
London, the 12 April, 1614.
Enclosed in the preceding Despatch. 228. Copy of the letter of the Chalil Pasha to the States-General.
The emperor has again appointed me Captain of the Sea, and now all the things necessary for that charge are being prepared. As slaves of your nation are both here and in the whole of the Empire, we will procure their release, and when vessels and merchants arrive they shall go with them, and I will myself see to this. We also expect that you will not fail in friendship, and hope you will advise us of all the things that you desire in order that that friendship may increase.
As we understand that you have always honoured Mulay Saidan, king of Morocco and Fez, we ask you to continue your friendship with him and to send him the letter which our ambassador is bringing, so that we may be the more sure of your friendship with him.
From Constantinople at the end of the month Seheval in the year of the prophet 1022, that is, at the beginning of December, 1613.
Halil, Vizier and Captain.
Enclosed in the preceding Despatch. 229. Copy of letter of the Vizier Calil Pasha, Captain of the Sea, to Mulay Saidan, king of Fez and Morocco.
The emperor has made me captain again, and at the earliest opportunity I shall put out to sea with the royal fleet. A letter of friendship was sent to your Highness, but as no reply has been received, either because it was not delivered or for some other cause. We ask you to send an ambassador to the Porte, so that our friendship may not be broken. We are sending this letter by means of the States and Governors of the Netherlands, who are the friends of the emperor in everything, and we hope that you will send a reply to the other letter and also an ambassador; I have also advised the States that you may apply to them in case of need, and they will not fail to do anything, because of the friendship which they have with us.
From Constantinople, the 2 December, 1613.
Chalil, Vizier and Captain.
Enclosed in the preceding Despatch. 230. The States-General of the free United Provinces of the Low Countries to the Calil Pasha, admiral and captain of the sea.
We have received your letters with great satisfaction as well as those of our envoy Cornelius Haga. We rejoice in the appointment given to you, especially as it will be of great advantage to our subjects, and we congratulate you and thank you for your good offices. We beg you to continue your kindness, especially in the release of prisoners of the United Provinces in all the dominions of the emperor, upon the galleys and elsewhere.
We will send your letter to Mulei Seidan, king of Morocco and Fez, in all safety, as we are anxious to gratify you in all things.
Besides this, Chiaus Hosner Aga, bearer of these presents, after his imprisonment at Antwerp and Brussels from which he was released by the archduke of Austria owing to our vehement remonstrance, has arrived here bringing with him eighteen prisoners whom he had released in Tunis, having left behind, both in that city and at Algiers, about a hundred other prisoners, whose release was refused to him. We have received him with honour and have procured the repayment of the money taken from him at Marseilles and Antwerp on his journey hither. We have allowed him to visit our cities and principal places, and have ordered our ship master to take him without charge to the island of Cyprus. For his labours and his effort for the release of the prisoners we have given him 700 ducats of Hungary, so that we hope he has left us well content. We have charged him to assure you of our friendship, and have asked him to procure the liberation of the prisoners, for which we desire the kind offices of your Excellency and the graciousness of the emperor.
Dated at the Hague in Holland, on 11 March, 1614.
April 12. Senato, Secreta. Dispacci, Firenze. Venetian Archives. 231. Domenico Dominici, Venetian Resident in Florence, to the Doge and Senate.
A ship has arrived at Livorno from London after a voyage of twenty-five days. She brings a considerable cargo of lead, tin, cloth and pepper.
From Florence, the 12 April, 1614.
April 14. Senato, Secreta. Dispacci, Francia. Venetian Archives. 232. Pietro Contarini, Venetian Ambassador in France, to the Doge and Senate.
The ministers who are negotiating with the Prince of Condé at Soissons have sent word to the queen that he makes three demands: to disarm, to assemble the states and to suspend for the time being the marriages with Spain. These points have been discussed every day in the council where there is a great diversity of opinion. Villeroi tries to make them believe that it would be dangerous to suspend the marriages with Spain, as this is the only bond by which they hold the Spaniards from attempting any harm during the king's minority. By maintaining a good understanding with that crown, they will be able to curb all the bad humours of this realm, while those of the religion in particular will be kept within bounds. That it was not consonant with the king's dignity to suspend what had been done with so much solemnity. Too much tolerance at the beginning had encouraged the princes to go to greater lengths.
The chancellor counselled peace, saying that it would be a dangerous thing to begin a civil war in a country full of so many humours, with various religions, numerous malcontents and the king a minor. Her Majesty is distracted by the various counsels, but she must make up her mind soon and everyone awaits her decision with the utmost anxiety, for upon it depends the question of war or peace.
From Paris, the 14 April, 1614.
April 14. Senato, Secreta. Dispacci, Francia. Venetian Archives. 233. Pietro Contarini, Venetian Ambassador in France, to the Doge and Senate.
It has been decided to satisfy the prince of Condé upon the three points of disarming, convoking the estates and suspending the marriages with Spain, and word has been sent immediately to Soissons. This resolution has given the greatest satisfaction to all those who desire the welfare of this kingdom.
From Paris, the 14 April, 1614.
April 14. Senato, Secreta. Dispacci, Francia. Venetian Archives. 234. Pietro Contarini, Venetian Ambassador in France, to the Doge and Senate.
It is reported that the duke of Savoy does not now appear to be so anxious for the marriage of the Infanta, his daughter, to the Cardinal Duke, in order it is thought that he may not be led to disband his forces. He is also moved by jealousy of this kingdom, as it is discovered that he has written to the prince of Condé urging him not to abandon his purposes, that he has 6,000 good infantry and in a few days he will have 4,000 more, to send into France, if necessary.
The ambassador of England is expected daily but has not yet arrived. Although the disposition of that king to marry the prince to this princess could not be better, his ministers advise him to await the end of the present troubles, and so secure greater advantages.
From Paris, the 14 April, 1614.
[Italian; deciphered.]
April 14. Senato, Secreta. Dispacci, Germania. Venetian Archives. 235. Zorzi Giustinian, Venetian Ambassador in Germany, to the Doge and Senate.
The attempt of the Marquis of Brandenburg against Dusseldorf has greatly incensed the emperor. His anger has been increased by letters from Neuburg representing the act as one of contempt for His Majesty. He says that Brandenburg, with the help of prince Maurice, had attempted to surprise the city, and would have succeeded had not the Catholics and Lutherans united against the Calvinists. He complains that the governor would not permit him to withdraw to Juliers, as Prince Maurice and Brandenburg had arranged to take possession of those States between them. The emperor has endeavoured to invoke the authority of the queen of France with those princes, especially in order to dissuade Maurice from such attempts, but she is too much occupied with her own troubles to interfere. The emperor is therfore constrained to handle those princes with the utmost delicacy in order to avoid worse troubles.
From Veltz, the 14 April, 1614. Copy.
April 15. Senato, Secreta. Dispacci, Francia. Venetian Archives. 236. Pietro Contarini, Venetian Ambassador in France, to the Doge and Senate.
The ambassador of His Catholic Majesty has complained to the queen about the suspension of the marriages, and has induced the nuncio to do the same. The queen replied that she has been driven to take this action by a due regard for the peace and quiet of the realm, but that when the king attained his majority the marriage should take place.
From Paris, the 15 April, 1614.
April 16. Senato, Secreta. Dispacci, Costant. Venetian Archives. 237. Cristoforo Valier, Venetian Ambassador at Constantinople, to the Doge and Senate.
The ambassadors of France, England and Flanders are still working hard to obtain their original capitulations, and have had several conferences with the Grand Vizier upon the subject, especially since they found that I had received back the capitulations of the republic unaltered. But neither their arguments nor anything else can more the Vizier, who insists upon the exclusion of the subjects of aliens taken under their protection. He also insists upon retaining the capitulations until they have received the reply from their princes and the matter is decided. In the meantime he declares that the ambassadors can have recourse to him in all emergencies, and it has been impossible to move him from this point. The ambassadors, despairing of moving him and being anxious to recover the capitulations, have conferred together and agreed to accept the deletion of the chapter which is desired by the Pasha, surrendering the point completely in order to make sure of the remainder. To this the Vizier has offered no opposition, having gained a victory upon the principal point. He has given orders that all the subjects of alien princes now in Constantinople must depart immediately.
Dalle Vigne di Pera, the 16 April, 1614.
[Italian; deciphered.]
April 22. Consiglio X. Parti Communi. Venetian Archives. 238. That the letters of the Podestà of Pirana of the 12th inst. concerning the offences committed in the matter of contraband of salt and the injuries done to Zuan Jorner, master of a barque, be referred to our council.
Ayes 15.
Noes 1.
Neutral 0.
April 24. Senato, Secreta. Dispacci, Francia. Venetian Archives. 239. Pietro Contarini, Venetian Ambassador in France, to the Doge and Senate.
The English Ambassador in ordinary at the Spanish court has passed this way. Although he explains that he has permission from his king to return home for some months on his private affairs, yet there is a suspicion that the Spaniards have sent him on this journey to serve actively in the interest of the marriage of one of the Infantas to the English prince, similar to the office performed by the ambassador resident here. Of the return of this latter there is as yet no news, but it is understood that his negotiations for the marriage of the second princess are proceeding with good hope of success.
From Paris, the 24 April, 1614.
April 25. Senato. Secreta. Dispacci, Inghilterra. Venetian Archives. 240. Antonio Foscarini, Venetian Ambassador in England, to the Doge and Senate.
The Parliament assembled on Tuesday the 15th, as I wrote that it would. The king passed from the palace of Whitehall (Vuital), his ordinary dwelling, to that of Westminster, where it is held. Ten trumpeters on horseback preceded him, then some gentlemen also on horseback, then ten more trumpeters in the same manner; fourteen heralds in full dress followed, then thirty-eight barons clothed in scarlet in long robes lined with ermine as well as the sleeves, which were pendent; twelve bishops, dressed in robes similar to those of the Cardinals, the cap a croce, but black; seventeen earls, a viscount and the duke of Lennox with a costume slightly different from that of the barons. The prince was there, surrounded by many gentlemen, who serve him on foot, some of whom bore the long train of his robe. The king followed, wearing the imperial crown, in the royal habit and on a superb horse. He looked full of dignity. After him there was only the master of the horse (gran Scudier). He dismounted at the church of Westminster, and after prayers he mounted to the place of the parliament, which is thus situated. First, a hall of extraordinary size. At the top of a flight of twenty steps on the left hand side in a separate room sit the deputies of the provinces, who are knights, those of the cities being burgesses (popolari). This is called the Lower Chamber (la bassa Camera). On the right is a great hall, but not comparable with the first, then four chambers, the roof of great height and formed of ancient beams, and the hall furnished with silk tapestries and richly decorated with gold, a baldachino of cloth of gold with the royal arms embroidered in relief, above it a small crown resplendent with numerous precious stones, and surmounted by the royal arms, also embroidered in relief; the royal seat, of cloth of gold upon two steps alone, and on either side of it, cushions of cloth of gold, on a level with it, and occupying the breadth of the baldachino. About the room, benches with crimson arms, and in the middle great bags of cotton covered with the same cloth and of the same colour.
The king sat down as did all those who were with him, the earls having first placed on their heads a small coronet in accordance with the ancient custom. His Majesty made an eloquent speech, which lasted more than an hour, confining himself chiefly to three points.
The first of religion. He complained that some have called him the persecutor of the Catholics, and that he wished to make new laws. He asserted that he had not and would not persecute them; and he knew well that all religions, whether true or false, increase with persecution. That it was necessary to make use of the laws already in existence to distinguish the good and loyal Catholics from the seditious.
In the second, he spoke of the princess and of the Palatine. The gratification which that marriage had afforded him, and if necessary he would do it again. That God had already recompensed him for the loss of the late prince by the birth of a son to the princess. He thought that the succession was more assured, and he proposed to naturalise him and give him a title in this realm.
In the third he dwelt upon the expenses incurred during the eight months of the Palatine's stay here, on the solemn festivities for his marriage, the present which it is now necessary to make for the baptism, the extraordinary expenses of Ireland in building, and other things. He promised to be very liberal in releasing them from divers grievances, exhorting them on their part to meet him and grant supplies with an open hand for the divers necessities.
The Parliament met again on Thursday and afterwards on Saturday, on which day His Majesty released the realm from fourteen heads of grievances, two of which he pronounced with his own mouth. The chief among them is the great number of carts with which the king is ordinarily served during his progresses, to the great disturbance of the country. Thus in the future he will have his own carts, in the same way as is customary in France.
The question of the little Palatine was settled after some discussion, and the king having given great satisfaction to his people both by words and deeds, he is pressing for the contributions, which he hopes will be given with a liberal hand.
London, the 25 April, 1614.
April 25. Senato, Secreta. Dispacci, Inghilterra. Venetian Archives. 241. Antonio Foscarini, Venetian Ambassador in England, to the Doge and Senate.
Some days ago the count of Scarnafes arrived here, sent by the duke of Savoy. He is staying in the house of the agent of His Highness. He had audience of the king, and presented a letter from the duke, written in French, of 2£½ pages, with the signature right at the bottom of the third page. It contained the affair of marriage, said that as His Majesty had not given a reply to France he thought the matter was not settled, and offered carte blanche; that there could be no difficulty in the conditions, because His Majesty might make them at his pleasure. At the end was a letter of credence. The count spoke in conformity; and as the king did not reply, Gabaleone began to speak in French. His Majesty answered in a few inconclusive words, after first saying that he understood Italian well.
The count has not had another audience so far, and there seems to be no disposition in this direction. The same day he was with the ambassador of Spain, but he did not say a word to him of that affair, as I have heard.
The king's ambassador in Spain is now in France. Though he received orders on the way not to leave, yet he continued his journey.
The ambassador of Spain has confided to me that the queen of France has repeatedly complained to the Catholic king that Savoy has stirred up Condè with his advice; that Florence is behaving very well.
They are proposing here to send an ambassador to Muscovy in the interests of commerce. He will be maintained by the merchants, but will be under the king's name.
The ambassador of Sweden, who is now at the Hague, expects that he will have to return to his master in a few days.
London, the 25 April, 1614.
April 28. Senato, Secreta. Dispacci, Spagna. Venetian Archives. 242. Francesco Morosini, Venetian Ambassador in Spain, to the Doge and Senate.
Last week the secretary of the French ambassador returned from Paris, and the day before yesterday a courier arrived from Don Innico. It is hoped that the Princes will not insist upon the assembling of the Estates or oppose the marriages. Don Innico writes that as there has been no movement in the realm in their favour, and as they have not been able to obtain any promises of help from abroad, they have confined themselves more to looking after their own interests than to effecting the reforms which at first they seemed to desire.
I hear that the Spaniards consider the alliance between the second princess of France and the prince of England as settled. The duke of Lerma complained to the ambassador of France that the queen had not informed the king of these negotiations, and endeavoured by many reasons to show that this alliance would not serve France or the queen, and that it was not in harmony with her piety and zeal.
The ambassador replied that he did not think it was settled yet, and he promised to write home what Lerma had said to him. Don Innico has been directed to throw every obstacle in the way, and they have also hastily sent to their ambassador in England for the same purpose the courier who had only arrived a few days before, as they do not think that the union of these two crowns will be to their advantage.
From Madrid, the 28 April, 1614.
[Italian; deciphered.]
April 29. Senato, Secreta. Dispacci, Costant. Venetian Archives. 243. Cristoforo Valier, Venetian Ambassador at Constantinople, to the Doge and Senate.
The Captain Pasha is anxious to set out with the fleet. But he cannot leave in less than a month, and not even then without the greatest efforts. He will not be able to take more than thirty galleys, and it will not be easy to collect even this number, so that the entire fleet will number some eighty vessels, counting the guard and the other galeots of Barbary. Their plan seems simply to go and harry the coasts of Sicily. They know that they can do this without fear of the Spanish fleet.
Dalle Vigne di Pera, the 29 April, 1614.
[Italian; deciphered.]
April 29. Senato, Secreta. Dispacci, Mantova. Venetian Archives. 244. Copy of a Letter sent to Spain by Don Carlo Bos, enclosed in a despatch from Antonia Maria Vincenti, Venetian Resident at Mantua, to the Doge and Senate, dated the 29th April, 1614.
As the Republic of Venice has shown such an unfriendly disposition to the house of Savoy, it will be as well to teach them a lesson. This need not be difficult or expensive. It is only necessary to make demonstrations on the frontiers, assist the Uscocchi and send pirate vessels to sea to harass their shipping. By such means they will be filled with fear, will be led to incur great expenses, and the best blood will be thus gently drawn from their veins.


  • 1. The date is torn away.