Venice: October 1614, 1-15

Pages 205-219

Calendar of State Papers Relating To English Affairs in the Archives of Venice, Volume 13, 1613-1615. Originally published by His Majesty's Stationery Office, London, 1907.

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October 1614, 1–15

Oct. 1. Senato, Secreta. Dispacci, Grisoni, Venetian Archives. 418. Gregorio Barbarigo, Venetian Ambassador Extraordinary to the Swiss and Grisons, to the Doge and Senate.
From Germany we hear that the Marquis Spinola has taken possession of the whole of Cleves, and Juliers from Juliers onwards; the decision of the United Princes of Germany at their next meeting is awaited. Count Maurice joined with the Marquis of Brandenburg has drawn near and taken Emmerich, and they are said to have set up the arms of the king of Great Britain and the Elector Palatine on their standards. In answer to this Spinola has made use of the imperial standards. The States are very ill pleased that while his Most Christian Majesty and the king of Great Britain are supposed to be treating together for some settlement, the Marquis Spinola continues his progress, and they therefore think that no help can be expected from France. I have seen letters from persons in very high positions who speak of these affairs in these very words. The plans against Aix la Chapelle and Brandenburg have been executed without the French moving, and though at first they praised the vigilance of the States, they now say that what they have eaten ought to content them, since they have fed themselves upon vain hopes; and when everything has been ruined, they promise to send M. de Reffugé.
While writing these presents I receive confirmation of the capture of Emmerich by Count Maurice, who has since taken Rees, Anholt and Burg, and is approaching Wesel. He is strong enough not to fear the Marquis of Spinola without reckoning upon the diversion which the fear of the English fleets is expected to cause in Flanders.
From Zurich, the 1st October, 1614.
Oct. 1. Collegio, Secreta. Esposizioni Principi. Venetian Archives. 419. The Senator Piscina came into the Cabinet and said [among other things]:
I come to inform your Serenity that Count Scaglia, the ambassador of the duke, has arrived and is awaiting your command to enter the city and this place.
In Flanders, if war has not broken out the rupture is near. The States will have the assistance of the kings of England, Denmark and Sweden, with that of the Protestant princes of Germany. There will be troubles elsewhere. It is necessary to beware, bearing in mind Ovid's story of Ulysses when he and his companions fell into the hands of Polyphemus, who said he would eat him last because he was a finer fellow (più galant huomo) than the others.
Oct. 1. Collegio, Secreta. Esposizioni Principi. Venetian Archives. 420. The Ambassador of England came into the Cabinet and thanked the Doge for allowing him to see Friuli and for all the facilities granted. The governor of Palma in particular was very courteous, gave a splendid banquet and personally conducted him and the English gentlemen with him over the fortress, where they saw some works carried out there under the governor's direction. The lieutenant of Udine had also received him with great honour, shown him the city and given him a banquet in the palace. The ambassador continued: I renew my offer of friendly services with the Swiss when I pass through their country on my way home. I also renew my application in favour of the Furieti, who were but boys when they committed their offence. I know that the matter has been referred to the Council of Ten.
In the absence of the Doge, the Most Illustrious Marc' Antonio Venier replied that everything possible would be done for the two young men, but that as serious matters are strictly reserved for the Council of Ten they could not do all that they desired.
The ambassador said that the difficulties in the way would only make him value the favour the more if it was granted. He was perhaps over solicitous, but he expected his letters of recall that evening, and when once he had presented those letters, introduced his successor and taken leave the laws of his realm would not permit him to ask or receive a favour. He therefore asked to be pardoned for his importunity.
Venier repeated that the utmost would be done to satisfy him. The ambassador thanked him and departed leaving a memorial for the banished men, which was afterwards sent to the Capi.
Oct. 2. Senato, Deliberazioni, Costant. Venetian Archives. 421. Instructions to Almoro Nani, appointed Bailo at Constantinople.
As you are well aware, the ministers of the Porte have introduced the custom of affording a refuge in divers parts of the Empire to English vessels and bertons, which go about spoiling the ships, property and merchandise of our subjects and others, and take them to the ports of his Majesty to sell, to our great prejudice. This has happened frequently during some years, at Modon, at Tunis, Bizerta and other ports of this coast, whether our ships have been taken, with very rich cargoes, and there sold. These pirates would abstain from such depredations if they had not some place where they could go and sell their booty, and frequently they have plundered Turkish ships and subjects. You will dwell upon the important consequences of affording a refuge to these pirates and ask that orders may be given, especially to the ministers at Modon, not to connive at such things, and if such pirate ships arrive, to detain them and keep their property for the benefit of those to whom it belongs, threatening those ministers with severe penalties if they neglect to do so.
Ayes 125.
Noes 0.
Neutral 4.
Oct. 2. Senato, Secreta. Dispacci, Costant. Venetian Archives. 422. Cristoforo Valier, Venetian Ambassador at Constantinople, to the Doge and Senate.
No extraordinary preparations are being made in the arsenal at present.
Dalle Vigne di Pera, 2 Oct., 1614.
Oct. 3. Senato, Secreta. Dispacci, Inghilterra. Venetian Archives. 423. Antonio Foscarini, Venetian Ambassador in England, to the Doge and Senate.
On Monday morning the Count of Scarnafes went to Theobalds where he had audience of the king the same day. His Majesty again declared his desire to help the duke, adding that His Highness might avail himself of the troops of these realms who were very disposed to go and serve him, and that he had already given leave to pensioners and adventurers. The count asked for troops paid by His Majesty's money, upon which the king took time to answer. On Tuesday morning, while the count was preparing to leave Theobalds, he received a courier sent by the duke on the night of the 22nd, who made the journey in less than eight days. He immediately asked for another audience, which was granted, and he went without delay. He told the king that the governor of Milan had entered Piedmont with fifteen pieces of artillery, 22,000 infantry, and 2,000 horse; he had burned two villages and made prisoner a son of the count of Verua. But as His Highness afterwards advanced with all his forces, he had compelled the governor to dislodge, and so he did the troops of Spain in Montferrat, so that they all have withdrawn into the Milanese and expect to entrench. The king expressed his satisfaction at the duke's vigour. He wished especially to be informed whether the governor had been the first to enter Piedmont and to have recourse to force.
By the same courier the count has received new and urgent order to beg His Majesty to make the proposals for a confederation which I announced, and that done to pass to Holland and present letters to the States and Count Maurice, after procuring others from His Majesty as well as efficacious offices.
The count has done this, and as for the confederacy he received the reply that [the king] had spoken with me and had written to all the places, and as concerns the States and Maurice that he would write willingly and would direct his ambassador to accompany the instances of the duke with warm recommendations and press the matter strongly. In short the king evinced the best disposition towards his prince and fully granted every one of his requests, except to send at this season troops paid with his own money, to which he made no reply.
To-day the count visited the queen, who was at Oatlands; to-morrow he will return to London, and in two or three days he hopes to send back from here the courier with all the affair, and to pass to Holland to fulfil His Highness's commissions.
I have discovered from the count's conversation that he has begged His Majesty that if he is requested to treat for an accommodation in the differences of Flanders, he will not do so without at the same time settling those of the duke with Spain. Of this he has received a complete assurance.
London, the 3 October, 1614.
[Italian; the part in italics deciphered.]
Oct. 3. Senato, Secreta. Dispacci, Inghilterra. Venetian Archives. 424. Antonio Foscarini, Venetian Ambassador in England, to the Doge and Senate.
After the capture of the Wesel the Marquis Spinola has taken a place called Xanten. Maurice has taken two called Calcar and Goch and has directed the Governor of Nimuegen (Nimega) to do the same for Gennep and Cranenburg, the last places of Cleves towards Guelders. He has increased his forces and posted his army only three miles away from Spinola, thus stopping his further progress. Brunswick has already sent troops, which will be with Maurice. The elector of Brandenburg is engaged in collecting five regiments of infantry and 400 horse, and soldiers are reaching Maurice from every side. Spinola has diminished his army considerably, owing to the numerous and considerable garrisons left behind in the captured towns. The Chancellor of Neuburg offers the captured places to the States, if they will give up Juliers. He is seeking for union, understanding and communion with Brandenburg in the government as previously, until a final decision has been taken, which should be made as soon as possible by the arbiters and confirmed by the emperor.
Barneveldt replied that Neuburg is a deceiver and has deceived him before, and he will not do what he says. That the places occupied by Spinola are not in his power but in that of Spain.
The resolution of the States, the forces of Maurice, the declaration of this king, and the fact that all the Princes of the Union are under arms have moved the Spaniards and the Archduke to treat for an armistice for some days. The ambassador of France told me that one has already been arranged for a month and that Mons. de Refugé, ambassador of his king, has already arrived at the Hague. He has received letters from France in reply to those which the king caused him to send by express courier, and he should have audience to-morrow. The courier sent by the ambassador of the States got back three days ago and he has had audience since. I hope to send all particulars by the first ordinary.
The States have recently decided to send forces to the West Indies to make war on the Spaniards in those parts. They hope to meet with the fleets and to make themselves felt about the Rio della Plata.
Here, besides seeing that all the ships of war are put in order, they have issued orders to muster and review all the troops of the realm. For the rest a decision is expected in favour either of peace or of war, which will entirely depend upon the restoration of all the places occupied by the Spaniards.
London, 3 October, 1614.
Oct. 4. Senato, Deliberazioni, Secreta, Venetian Archives. 425. That when the ambassador of England comes into the Cabinet to take leave the following shall be read to him:
Your Excellency has been the worthy means of increasing the good understanding and friendship between his Majesty and our republic. In the matter of the league with the Swiss we see the usual good intentions of his Majesty, who looks to our particular as well as to the general interests. We thank His Majesty and we feel sure that his authority aided by the prudence and ability of his representative will have great weight in this affair, to the general advantage. Our ambassador Barbarigo, who is now in Switzerland, will receive instructions to communicate all particulars so that you may have a complete knowledge of what has taken place hitherto. We shall always be delighted to oblige your Excellency and to show the particular esteem in which the republic holds you.
Ayes 118.
Noes 2.
Neutral 3.
Oct. 4. Senato, Deliberazioni, Secreta. Venetian Archives. 426. To the Ambassador Barbarigo.
We send you a copy of the office made with the ambassador of England in reply to his offer to pass through Switzerland on his return and use his offices in favour of the league. We notify you of this that you may confer with him on his passage and communicate all particulars to him as you see fit.
Ayes 118.
Noes 2.
Neutral 4.
Oct. 6. Senato, Secreta. Dispacci, Germania. Venetian Archives. 427. Zorzi Giustinian, Venetian Ambassador in Germany, to the Doge and Senate.
The Princes of the Union have held a diot at Ulm and decided to arm. The Marquis of Anspach and the princes of Anhalt will have the command of their troops, who will amount to 20,000 foot.
From Linz, the 6 October, 1614, Copy.
Oct. 9. Senato, Secreta. Dispacci, Grisoni. Venetian Archives. 428. Gregorio Barbarigo, Venetian Ambassador Extraordinary to the Swiss and Grisons, to the Doge and Senate.
Acknowledges the receipt of the exposition of the ambassador of England made upon these affairs. He will make use of it as directed.
From Zurich, the 9 October, 1614.
Oct. 10. Senato, Secreta. Dispacci, Inghilterra. Venetian Archives. 429. Antonio Foscarini, Venetian Ambassador in England, to the Doge and Senate.
The king has charged the ambassador of the States to write warmly to his masters to assist the Duke of Savoy with succours. He has represented it as being of great service for the present movement of arms in Flanders, to create so powerful a diversion for the forces of Spain as the Duke would make. He also proposed that he should be received into alliance and informed him of what he has written to Sweden, Denmark and the Princes of the Union, and of what he has made known to your Serenity of his will and request. His Majesty has commissioned the eldest son of Lord Rich to enlist 4,000 infantry at the first sign from the Duke and has intimated that he is appointed colonel of those troops. He also told him that he would be glad to see others beside these go as adventurers.
In the audience which the ambassador of France had on Saturday, the king complained that the queen had recalled the French troops who are with the duke. He said that it was contrary to her pledged word not to allow the duke to succumb. The ambassador professed not to know or believe this, and even if it were true it would be a mere appearance owing to the instances of the Spaniards. He said that it would serve for nothing and he might write to his ambassador that he had given this assurance on behalf of and by the instructions of their Most Christian Majesties.
The same day the ambassador of Spain saw the king. He complained about his levying troops for the service of Savoy, and said that it was contrary to the terms of peace and an act of hostility. The king replied that it was true that he had given leave for these troops to be enlisted and he would have done the same for his Catholic Majesty, but he did not wish to see the Duke oppressed. The ambassador said that no one wished to oppress him. His Majesty rejoined that the ambassador of Spain in Venice had told your Serenity that the governor of Milan wished to chastise the Duke, and similar indecent expressions had been published by him, and he warmly asked the ambassador what authority the governor possessed over the duke, a free sovereign prince, dependent upon no one. The ambassador remained silent, without making any reply.
I hear on good authority that the French troops who are serving Savoy will continue to do so. The Marshal Lesdiguières has commanded the captains, all his creatures, to obey Colonel Alardo as they would himself. The king has thanked him and begged him to continue to succour the duke as much as possible. He has informed the Count of Scarnafes of the orders given to Rich and the licence to others, adding that in good time he will assist the duke with paid troops, that he will cause the States and his other friends and allies to assist him, and that he has sent letters for the United Provinces and Prince Maurice and yet others to the Ambassador Wotton, with express orders to assist the offices of the count, and so to act that the States may declare themselves and that he may receive every satisfaction. With great joy he sent back the courier post to the duke on the third day, and late yesterday he will have set out for Holland.
Last week the king sent an express courier to the ambassador with your Serenity, with orders to stay and to return if he had left. He gave him instructions as to what he was to do and of what is taking place. The courier took the route through Germany; and the one whom the count has sent to the duke has also taken duplicates to make certain, in case the ambassador should go by that road. The letters for the Marshal Lesdiguières have also gone to the hands of His Highness. Rich has written two letters to the duke, one concerning the king's commands, and the readiness with which he will raise the 4,000 infantry at the first sign, and the other that if he did not wish to employ paid troops, he will go and serve him as an adventurer, bringing with him a hundred gentlemen, as he is well able to do.
After the count has received the resolution of the States and sent word of it to the duke by courier, he proposes to return here.
Only four days ago I had a long discussion with the ambassador of Spain upon the prospects of fighting in Italy. I impressed upon him how advantageous the quiet of that province must be, especially to his king, in the present circumstances which threaten war elsewhere and I induced him to say that the governor of Milan would be well advised to lay down his arms first and not to take as mere punctilio what Savoy desired for safety alone and out of fear. He concluded by saying that he would write to his Excellency, and that it is the part of your Serenity to interpose.
I have received your letters of the 18th with the one for His Majesty, and I will ask for an audience and punctually obey instructions.
London, the 10 October, 1614.
[Italian; the part in italics deciphered.]
Oct. 10. Senato, Secreta. Dispacci, Inghilterra. Venetian Archives. 430. Antonio Foscarini, Venetian Ambassador in England, to the Doge and Senate.
Since the reply of Barneveldt to the Chancellor of the Duke of Neuburg, the States have declared that they will not treat with that duke as he cannot be relied upon to observe his promises. Spinola with his army is encamped between Cologne and Wesel, and Maurice with his between Emmerich and Rees. The first has spoken about restoring all the places, retaining Wesel for four years, and he afterwards reduced these to three and to two. Maurice replied that he would leave it to him for three months, possibly meaning those of the winter, which is approaching, during which campaigning is impossible. Letters have been intercepted from which the States have learned that Spinola had instructions to capture Emden, and afterwards the whole country of Cleves. In the audience which the Dutch Ambassador had on Friday he related all this to His Majesty, who heard him with emotion. While the ambassador was insisting upon the importance of the affair, he said that he did not desire peace unless Wesel were first restored by the Spaniards with all the other places occupied. The ambassador pointed out that the States have all the weight of the war upon them, and if His Majesty grants that it is necessary for them to defend the common cause, as he says, let him declare what help he will give. The king replied that he was ready to do so and would do so without fail.
The ambassador of France, who had audience on Saturday, told the king that Spinola expects to fortify Wesel; that he has made two forts, one on each side of it, and each one will take 2,000 infantry. That in the heart of the city he has placed 1,200 Spaniards; that these are not signs of a wish not to restore it, and what ought to be decided in such case. The king replied that for him the question was easy, and that was to make war boldly; that France will look after her own affairs, and he after the interests of the Palatine, his son-in-law, those of Brandenburg, his confederate, and that for other reasons he desires the restitution of that place, where chiefly the confederation was established under his auspices, with all the others; that the ambassador of Spain would be with him soon after; and on the following day the ambassador of the archduke. He said that when he asks them they reply beside the purpose and can with difficulty be brought to the point, but that he will oblige them to. When the ambassador of Spain came on that same day the king expressed his resentment at the actions of Spinola, and said that he had had an easy task, as he had attacked while the places were unprovided and were relying upon their good faith, and thus the designs of his king were completely disclosed. The ambassador replied that the Dutch had been the first to attack and take possession of Juliers, and afterwards he gave his word that Spinola had moved by necessity alone against Aix la Chapelle out of consideration for the emperor, and afterwards he had taken the places in the state of Cleves, simply on the grounds of dignity and with the intention to restore them. That his king does not desire the possessions of others, and has quite enough of his own to satisfy him. The king replied with some heat that he knew quite well that Spinola had orders to take Emden, as well as all the places of Cleves; that these plans will fail and he will find means to prevent them; that the fortification of Wesel, which is being carried out is not a sign of a wish to restore it. The ambassador humbly begged His Majesty to believe that all the places will be restored, he gave his word and promised and assured him of it. The king asked what security he had for this, and the ambassador showed a letter of the archduke in which he says that they will cause the restitution of all the places belonging to Cleves, if the States do the same for Juliers. The king, somewhat appeased and with a mind more at ease, asked if Wesel also was meant, and said that as regards Aix la Chapelle, he would treat with the emperor. In conclusion the ambassador said that all the places of Cleves did not exclude a single one. During this audience His Majesty became so angry that the duke of Lennox and other gentlemen, who were in a room close by, went twice to the door of the king's chamber. His Majesty left London immediately having only stayed there during the four hours spent in this audience and in the Council. On the following day the ambassador of the archduke had audience at Hampton Court, and with regard to the restitution of the places, made the same affirmations as the ambassador of Spain.
The Catholic ambassador sent yesterday morning to tell me that he will call one of these days; that in the audience with His Majesty, at leaving, he had given and received satisfaction, but that afterwards he had heard that Maurice had surprised two places in the March, a country pertaining to Cleves, showing that he expected that Spinola would be making some new move, if this be true. Yesterday also the ambassador of France spoke with me about this. He says that the ambassador of Spain has news of it, and if it is true, the fortifying of Wesel by Spinola will have aroused the suspicions of Maurice, and occasioned this step. It is suspected that even if the Spaniards agree to a restitution they will contend that Wesel is an imperial town, they will claim from the States the restitution of Juliers and the other places, while they will only give up places which are of little or no importance.
London, the 10 October, 1614.
Oct. 11. Senato, Secreta. Dispacci, Firenze. Venetian Archives. 431. Domenico Dominici, Venetian Resident in Florence, to the Doge and Senate.
Count Fabio Scotto has arrived in this court, on a special mission from the duke of Modena to congratulate the duke here on his recovery. In the course of a conversation with me he spoke about the affairs of Lombardy, of which he has great knowledge, having been with the duke of Savoy at the time of the mission of the Marquis of Urfé from the Prince of Condé and when Monsig. Savelli was at Turin. He said: the duke of Savoy is well armed and a valorous prince. The army of the Catholic king is large and to swell it the kingdom of Naples has been almost completely stripped of troops, even though there is danger from the Turks. There is great disorder in the principal commands owing to incapacity. The Governor of Milan is despicable, not being of noble birth, and his courage unequal to his position and the king of Spain's power was not so great as the world believed. Italian popes ought to think of their liberty. He asked me what the Grand Duke is doing; his illness must have removed him from affairs. He hoped to make a proposal to him later. The duke of Savoy has the help of M. Lesdiguières, and the States may soon be expected to declare war in Flanders. The king of England had sent help and he was assured that the queen of France would not let the duke be subdued. He asked me if the Marquis of Urfé had treated with your Excellencies about preventing the reciprocal marriages. The idea was that the king ought to be of age to consent and there were yet other matters of great moment.
From Florence, the 11th October, 1614.
[Italian; the part in italics deciphered.]
Oct. 13. Collegio, Secreta. Esposizioni Principi. Venetian Archives. 432. The Ambassador of England came into the Cabinet and said:
I delayed my departure in order to allow your Serenity more time to favour me with your commands to the places to which I am going. Now I may delay no longer, but must obey the commands of my king, whose letters I present.
Serenissime Princeps.
Cum legatus noster Dudleius Carletonus, eques aureatus in ea legatione, qua apud Rempublicam Vestram functus est, annum jam quartum compleverit, revocandum eum censuimus, quod ejus opera atque industria aliis in partibus uti decrevimus. Cum vero amicitia nostra postulet, ut in ejus locum alter quam primum surrogetur inter complures spectatae virtutis et probitatis viros aptos, ad suscepiendum, et dignos ad sustinendam istam, neminem habemus præferendum Henrico Attono, equiti aureato, tum quod sit usu rerum vestrarum excrcitatissimus tum quod (quod nos merito testari possumus) nemo sit propensiori animo aut ad reipublice vestre dignitatem propagandam, aut ad mutuam nostram amicitiam conservandam, Eum ergo dessignavimus, qui equis, velis ad vos festinabit. Sed quoniam hoc tempore impeditus legatione quam nostro nomine obit apud Ordines Confœderatos Belgii, fortasse per anni tempus, quo alter est discessurus, Venetias appellere non possit, in hoc interstitio constituimus procuratorem rerum nostrarum Isaacum Wachium amanuensem sive secretarium presentis legati, qui, quod omnino non sit hopes in Vestra Republica, nobis autem quam notissimus propter egregias animi et ingenii dotes, quibus est laudabiliter excultus, Serenitati Vestri quod confidemus, non erit ingratus, Rogamus ergo, ut plena fides ei adhibeatur in rebus omnibus, quas nostro nomine in Senatu vestro tractabit agetve. Interea Deus Opt. Max. Serenitatem diutissime conservet incolumem.
Jacobus Rex.
Datum e Castro Bererensi viiio die Augusti, 1614.
Seremi Principi Veneta Reipublice Dua, D. M. Antonio Memmo, amico nostro charissimo.
The ambassador continued, In looking back I can thankfully say that during my residence here there has been no suspicion or dissatisfaction, but nothing except courtesy and mutual esteem between the king and your Serenity, while your relations have become more intimate. Now that I am laying down my charge let me say frankly that there never was a time when it was more necessary for free princes to have a good understanding among themselves. The evil designs of those who have no other purpose than to lie in wait for the states of others are clearly apparent. Wherefore it is not only necessary to make provision, but to make it jointly, in order to preserve the reality and not only the name of liberty, dum tempus est. Where the leonina pellis is lacking, these traitors compass their ends by cunning and deceit. It is therefore necessary from every point of view that your Serenity should be prepared, just as no time has been lost on our side of the Alps, where His Majesty has made all the preparations which he considers necessary to oppose to the unlimited pretentions of those who wish to form a power similar to the ideas of the legists and canonists, who make the objects of their desires appear as they please now in the temporal and now in the spiritual mirror. In this connection I may state that the Roman see used in times past to have great authority in England and by that means they secured the dependence of the princes of Europe because the English kings have always had great influence with the emperor, with France, Spain and other powers. But now the right hand of the ecclesiastical court has been lopped off by the failure of the authority which they had in our realm. It would be a good thing if the relations which once existed between Rome and England should be continued now between England and Venice, because such a friendship would form an excellent foundation. It is necessary to add that in former times England was not united with Scotland and Ireland possessed a great authority. Now that all three kingdoms are united warlike and subject to His Majesty, an understanding with him is the more valuable, while he will highly esteem the union of the forces of the republic and the advantage of its wise counsels. Wherefore it will behove your Serenity to apply your wisdom to the present condition of affairs because what other persons procure under cover of peace but by unjust means and by the oppression of free princes, non est pax sed umbra servitutis. Nevertheless I am bound to highly praise the decision of your Serenity to send an ambassador to Piedmont and I hope that he will prove a physician capable of healing the sick in declinatione morbi. My king will be very glad to hear of this, as he highly esteems the duke of Savoy and because in this way it will be much easier to arrange an alliance for the universal benefit. Upon this important matter the intention of the king will be more fully disclosed by him whom I do not know whether to call my predecessor or my successor, between whose embassies mine has been a parenthesis. He is fully informed and is now in the Netherlands. In the meantime, His Majesty has appointed as resident Isaac Wake, a well lettered man of high character.
I thank your Serenity for the numerous kindnesses rendered to me and especially for the readiness to oblige me in the matter of the banished Bergamese, for I know that if the Council of Ten have not granted me that favour it was not for lack of goodwill. I ask your Serenity to favour me in this at the earliest opportunity and add this to so many other favours.
In the absence of the Doge, Councillor Venier replied wishing him all prosperity. The Senate will inform him concerning the proposal to treat with the Swiss on his journey home. The matter of the Bergamese youths will be dealt with as soon as possible. Afterwards the deliberation of the Council of the 4th inst. was read to the ambassador.
He replied thanking them for honouring him with a commission to the Grisons and Swiss on his way home.
Councillor Venier expressed the wish that by means of the ambassador's negotiations with the Swiss and the Grisons they would attain to what they so greatly desired for the common weal.
The ambassador then said, I have received letters from the Elector Palatine, His Majesty's son-in-law, commanding me to serve the Duke of la Tremouille (la Tramaglia), a distinguished Frenchman and a near kinsman of the prince of Condé. He has visited Germany and is now coming to see Italy. He has reached this city by way of Padua. But he has not been able to come to pay his respect, because he has fallen sick of the small-pox, a disease of the young, for he has not yet reached twenty years. He is, however, on the high road to recovery and has asked me to offer his excuses.
There is another matter, which will probably make you laugh. My wife and her ladies have sent to England for a small chest containing gloves and other trifles for their use on the journey. As I propose to start in three or four days, I ask that it may not be sent to the Lazaretto. I am happy to say that there has been no plague in England or in any other part of His Majesty's dominions for two years, so that it would be advisable to make commerce absolutely free, to the notable advantage of the customs of your Serenity.
The Most Illustrious Viaro replied, The necessary orders shall be given to the magistrates in charge of the public health. Your Excellency knows that our regulations are very strict, as we wish to keep out the plague.
The ambassador continued, The podestà of Malamocco, owing to some trespass, removed half the artillery from an English ship. The master has since then voyaged in the gulf and thanks to the protection afforded by the galleys of the republic, he has returned in safety. He is now returning to England, where the seas are dangerous, and he is afraid to go unless his vessel is well armed. He therefore begs your Serenity to restore his artillery as a special favour.
Sig. Alvise Zorzi, Savio for the week, replied that if a memorial were presented they would see what could be done.
The ambassador continued, When I entered the Cabinet, this memorial, which I present, was given to me. Two subjects of His Majesty have suits at Zante. I beg your Serenity to direct the Proveditore there to favour them with speedy justice. I would have written a letter in their favour, but it has been represented to me that on account of the power of their adversaries it will be necessary to have the express commission of your Serenity. I ask this favour and also that all the king's subjects, who come to these parts with their merchandise, may be favoured. This would be of great advantage to the mutual trade.
In reply, it was said that the ambassador's request would be granted.
The ambassador then said, I am like one at the point of death, who recognising that he has but a short time to live, asks for everything that seems to be his advantage, knowing that he will not be able to do so for long. He then asked leave to introduce Mr. Isaac, (fn. 1) who was to act in the interval, and after presenting him in the Cabinet, he took leave.
Oct. 14. Senato, Secreta. Dispacci, Francia. Venetian Archives. 433. Pietro Contarini, Venetian Ambassador in France, to the Doge and Senate.
Gives an account of the declaration of the majority of the king on the 2nd inst., and of the speeches made upon that occasion. Now the king attends the council and is present with the queen at all audiences of ambassadors.
From Paris, the 14 October, 1614.
Oct. 14. Senato, Secreta. Dispacci, Francia. Venetian Archives. 434. Pietro Contarini, Venetian Ambassador in France, to the Doge and Senate.
Letters have come this week from Lesdiguières, referring to the orders to prevent Frenchmen from going to serve the duke of Savoy and to recall those who had gone. He says that this is most difficult, as the frontiers are very open. He had already proclaimed that His Majesty's subjects should return within a month, upon pain of life and forfeiture. In Flanders they have not been able to arrange an armistice, as Spinola asks for a longer time than the Dutch are willing to agree to. However, the ambassadors of the two Crowns continue their good offices, and the lieger of England resident here constantly presses His Majesty to take a decision, declaring that his king will not leave his allies in the lurch. But here they wish to have M. Reffugé's report of his negotiations before they bind themselves to anything.
From Paris, the 14 October, 1614.
Enclosed in the preceding Despatch. 435. Advices from Flanders.
From Amsterdam comes news of the 28th ult. that the States have granted the petition of the merchants for the navigation of the East Indies, with regard to Guinea and Angola. They must not attack the Spaniards unless first attacked by them, and they may act like those of the East India Company.
It has been proposed to treat for an agreement between the princes of Brandenburg and Neuburg. The camp of Count Maurice is daily increased by the arrival of many English and Zeelanders. Three thousand of these had arrived on the 28th ult. and they continue to come in.
Oct. 14. Senato, Deliberazioni, Secreta. Venetian Archives. 436. To the Ambassador in England.
The ambassador of His Majesty has been to the Cabinet to take leave, presenting letters from his king expressing the customary goodwill to the republic. You will see our reply by the enclosed copy and we also send letters for the king. You will present them to His Majesty, assuring him not only how thoroughly we reciprocate his good will but of our satisfaction with the Ambassador Carleton in all things, enlarging freely upon this. As regards the proposal of the ambassador to further the league with the Swiss and Grisons on his way back, you will see by the enclosed copy what we have said to him, and you will thank His Majesty in our name for employing his authority and the offices of his minister in our interests, we leave the form to your prudence.
For your information we add that we have presented the ambassador with a chain worth 1,000 crowns and given 200 crowns to his Secretary, in accordance with the ordinary usage. On the arrival of Carleton at Court you will inform him that you have fulfilled the above instructions.
As regards Savoy, an ordinary ambassador has arrived from the duke, who has asked us to continue our efforts in favour of peace, not only by continuing the good offices of our secretary at Milan, but by giving every necessary commission to the ambassador chosen to go to him, as by means of his negotiations he hopes to obtain the laying down of arms to complete the establishment of universal peace.
We forward this for your information, being well content with your zeal in the public service, as we have occasion to praise your qualities, your last despatches being full of prudent advices.
Ayes 114.
Noes 1.
Neutral 0.
Oct. 14. Senato, Deliberazioni, Secreta. Venetian Archives. 437. To the King of England.
Dudley Carleton, the ambassador of your Majesty, has been to take leave, to return to another charge and has presented your gracious letter of 8 August last. We have always found Carleton to be a man of the highest honour, prudence and ability, and we take the opportunity of saying how grateful his stay here has been to us. We will show the usual friendliness of the republic to the Secretary Wake (Vachio), who is to stay in charge here until the arrival of the Ambassador Wotton, whom we already know and esteem highly and upon all occasions we shall show our particular regard for your Majesty.
Ayes 114.
Noes 1.
Neutral 0.
Oct. 14. Senato, Deliberazioni, Secreta. Venetian Archives. 438. That such honour shall be shown to Sir Dudley Carleton, ambassador of the king of England, as has been used by the republic to other ambassadors at the time of their departure.
That 1,000 crowns shall be expended upon a gold chain to be presented to the ambassador, and 200 crowns shall be given to his Secretary, as is usual.
Ayes 114.
Noes 1.
Neutral 0.
[Oct. 14. (fn. 2) ] Collegio, Secreta. Lettere. Venetian Archives. 439. To the King of England.
Besides what we have written to your Majesty of the great satisfaction which the republic has received from your Ambassador Dudley Carleton, in letters presented by our ambassador, we desire to add a further expression of our entire satisfaction, with the minister whose prudence and ability render him a worthy representative of your Majesty, and who has always displayed his excellence in his offices.
Ayes 24.
Noes 0.
Neutral 0.
Oct. 15. Consiglio X. Parti Comuni. Venetian Archives. 440. That leave be granted to Marc Antonio Correr, knight, (fn. 3) to visit, on one occasion only, the ambassador of the King of Great Britain, as a simple compliment, upon the occasion of his return to England, and to receive a return visit, on one occasion only.
Ayes 14.
Noes 0.
Neutral 0.
Councillor Francesco Correr did not vote.


  • 1. Isaac Wake.
  • 2. This paper is undated and in the letter files of the Collegio it is bound up between papers dated October 26 and October 27, 1614. By October 22, however, the Cabinet had been informed that Carleton was to continue to act as ambassador [see No. 447], and so it cannot possibly be assigned to a later date than that day. It probably belongs to October 14th or 15th.
  • 3. Correr was Foscarini's immediate predecessor at the Venetian Embassy in England. Carleton had called upon him in London, before leaving to take up his post at Venice. See the preceding volume of this Calendar, at page 28.