Venice: November 1614, 1-15

Pages 236-248

Calendar of State Papers Relating To English Affairs in the Archives of Venice, Volume 13, 1613-1615. Originally published by His Majesty's Stationery Office, London, 1907.

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November 1614, 1–15

Nov. 1. Senato, Secreta. Dispacci, Germania. Venetian Archives. 471. Zorzi Giustinian, Venetian Ambassador in Germany, to the Doge and Senate.
In Flanders in the army of the States the Scots' quarters caught fire and were almost completely destroyed, causing great confusion. The Spaniards go about saying that if Spinola had cared to take advantage of the opportunity he could have routed them. The negotiations are now proceeding, and the ambassadors of France and England have gone to find the Archduke to see about concluding them.
From Vienna, the 1st November, 1614. Copy.
Nov. 1. Senato, Secreta. Dispacci, Grisoni. Venetian Archives. 472. Gregorio Barbarigo, Venetian Ambassador Extraordinary to the Swiss and Grisons, to the Doge and Senate.
I have received your Serenity's letters of the 4th inst. giving the reply to the exposition of the ambassador of England to assist in the negotiations for this league, and I will not fail to inform him of the present condition and the progress of affairs, and of everything that may be of use to him in the service of your Serenity.
From Zurich, the 1 November, 1614.
Nov. 2. Senato, Secreta. Dispacci, Francia. Venetian Archives. 473. Pietro Contarini, Venetian Ambassador in France, to the Doge and Senate.
Relates the negotiations carried on by the Marquis of Rambouillet and the Nuncio Savelli for an accommodation between the Governor of Milan and the Duke of Savoy. The duke spreads reports here that the republic has decided to support him. Whenever I hear this I contradict it.
Besides Scarnafes, who has gone from England to the States to obtain help, Count John of Nassau passed through here two days ago for the same purpose.
From Paris, the 2 November, 1614.
Nov. 2. Senato, Secreta. Dispacci, Francia. Venetian Archives. 474. Pietro Contarini, Venetian Ambassador in France, to the Doge and Senate.
The deputies of the provinces in the Estates continue to discuss certain propositions to present to His Majesty, but nothing has as yet been determined. From the clergy they expect a declaration in favour of the carrying out of the marriages, reports of which are now circulating again. As the ambassador of England has had a conference with the ministers upon the marriage of his prince with the king's second sister, their intention to satisfy both parties by following up the Spanish business and settling with England may easily be understood. The authority of the person who gives this advice has become so great that it is difficult to see what can stand in its way. On the other hand, those of the contrary opinion are so much in the background and so discouraged that they dare not offer any opposition. (fn. 1)
The affairs of Flanders remain in their usual condition. The negotiations are making no progress although the ministers of the two crowns are doing what they can, but Spinola raises difficulties about the restitution of Wesel and the Dutch will not listen to any other proposals.
From Paris, the 2 November, 1614.
Nov. 5. Senato, Secreta. Deliberazioni. Venetian Archives. 475. To the Most Christian King.
Offer congratulations upon his attaining his majority.
Ayes 124.
Noes 2.
Neutral 3.
Nov. 5. Senato, Secreta. Dispacci, Costant. Venetian Archives. 476. Cristoforo Valier, Venetian Ambassador in Constantinople, to the Doge and Senate.
I have been to congratulate Mehemet, the new Grand Vizier. He professed himself a friend of peace and promised that his friends, the merchants and the people shall enjoy tranquillity under him.
[Italian; deciphered.]
Nov. 7. Senato, Secreta. Dispacci, Inghilterra. Venetian Archives. 477. Antonio Foscarini, Venetian Ambassador in England, to the Doge and Senate.
On Sunday morning, the 2nd inst., on returning from mass, I found I had taken a severe fever, which has kept me in bed, and there I am still. My sufferings are redoubled, because of the sickness and because I can do nothing in the service of your Serenity. A dangerous catarrh troubles me, accompanied by some congestion. I pray that God will free me soon and grant me health, at least for the time that remains to me in this charge.
London, the 7 November, 1614.
Nov. 7. Senato, Secreta. Dispacci, Inghilterra. Venetian Archives. 478. Antonio Foscarini, Venetian Ambassador in England, to the Doge and Senate.
Three days ago the Count of Scarnafes arrived here from Holland and I will inform your Excellencies of the negotiations performed by him after he left here. When he reached Rees he presented the letters of the king to the Ambassador Wotton, and afterwards he presented the letters of the king and of His Highness to Prince Maurice. He expressed the desire of the duke to join in a league with the States, and his resolutions upon this and upon all the other points which had been written. He also gave an account of the affair here with the king, saying that he had a commission to do so. They replied that the States and Germany ought to be greatly obliged to the duke for the diversion which he had created for the forces of Spain, that the confederation was useful for all parties and it was necessary to succour the duke in every way and on no account to permit his fall. He accompanied this with a letter to the Sieur Barnevelt, saying that he must be governed by his advice. The Ambassador Wotton, after having treated with Maurice, sent a special person with the count and informed him of the desires and wishes of his king for the States. Thus the count passed from Rees to the Hague. There, after having presented the letters, he had a long interview with Barnevelt. The final reply was to the effect that the States would do the same as the king for the service of the duke, but that His Majesty ought to set the example as well as give advice. He afterwards asked how the duke fared with your Excellencies, and dwelt upon the necessity of good relations, as also with France and the Swiss. The Sieur de Vandermyle, who was ambassador with your Serenity, afterwards had a long interview with him upon this, with the same conclusion, that the States would move and do exactly the same things for the duke's service as the king. So he took his journey back again, and on reaching London he asked for an audience. Yesterday the Secretary of State went to call upon him, and to him he imparted the whole of what I have written. He replied that he had predicted to His Majesty the reply that the States would make because there was no reason whatever why they should neglect his advice, or why they should be the first to move.
The day before yesterday the count called upon me at a late hour and after a somewhat confidential communication of what had taken place, he began to tell me that the king will be in London on Monday at latest, if not earlier, and he will immediately have audience and press the affair to some definite conclusion, when he will at once send an express courier to his master. I shall receive information of the progress of this affair, and if God grants me health I hope to report thereon to your Excellencies.
London, the 7 November, 1614.
Nov. 7. Senato, Secreta. Dispacci, Inghilterra. Venetian Archives. 479. Antonio Foscarini, Venetian Ambassador in England, to the Doge and Senate.
The Count of Scarnafes stated that as Spinola had shown the ambassadors his troops under arms, on their return, Maurice had desired to do the same with his army, which is composed entirely of veteran soldiers, both in cavalry and in infantry the best armed and the finest that has ever been seen. Of the negotiations at Santen he brings little more news than I sent in my last, as he left only three or four days later. He asserts, however, that both the ambassadors and the States display a determination to see the end of them in some way. Brandenburg has presented a new document, which is the declaration of the articles contained in the first. This week I have received no letters or advices from those parts, and my present condition prevents me from discovering what information the king may have.
Late on Sunday the ambassador of Brandenburg kissed the queen's hand, and on Monday after receiving the king's letters in reply, he set out with the resolution which I reported. Besides the negotiations upon the affairs of Cleves, which I wrote of, he presented two letters to His Majesty, one from the king of Poland and the other from his Elector. By these the king is urged to interpose in order to reconcile that monarch with the king of Sweden. The ambassador himself told me all this. His Majesty has sent a Scotch gentleman named Patrick Gordon, to Poland. The ambassador of France has informed me that the ambassador sent by the Elector of Brandenburg to his king, dealt with the same subject.
I know from a sure source that efforts are being made on several sides to break off the marriages between France and Spain, and that it will be discussed in the present meeting of the estates at Paris.
I have just heard by way of Zeeland that the States have intimated to Spinola that if within four days he does not agree to restore Wesel and the other places occupied by him, they will consider the truce as broken. I do not write this as true, but simply as what I have heard.
London, the 7 November, 1614.
Nov. 8. Senato, Secreta. Dispacci, Roma. Venetian Archives. 480. Simon Contarini, Venetian Ambassador at Rome, to the Doge and Senate.
In chapel recently I had converse with the French ambassador. He said: This matter is not going well, the duke will come off badly. He explained that the Spaniards will press him on one side and the French on the other.
The Spanish ambassador has been to see me and spoke about the present affairs. He said: We have at this moment 26,900 infantry and nearly 3,000 cavalry, for no other purpose than to march in and convince the duke of his mistake. I do not believe that the duke's soul was made for his body but for a Grand Turk or a Sultan. The duke sets his hopes in the merits of his sons. Prince Vittorio is not like him, he has dissuaded his father as much as he could. One day the duke told him, if he was afraid, to go and shut himself up in his room. The poor prince was silent and said: Let us go. I do not know; he has not the pope; he has not the king of France; he has not the republic on his side; he has not, and I do not think that he will have the king of England or the States, who have enough to do at home, although he sends couriers to one and the other every day. This Rambouillet has done nothing. I do not know, but the idea has occurred to me that there are treasures in his states and he has possibly found them.
In my audience yesterday I thought it well to inform the pope of the news from England which your Serenity sent me. I did so fully, without omitting anything. After listening to my story His Holiness asked me if the 4,000 infantry which the king of England had ordered to be levied at the duke's request would be paid by His Majesty. I said that I thought they would. With regard to the diversion created which the king thought would assist the States of Holland, the States, as I understand, have need in their own country, and can ill assist the duke. He added that he understood that the affair of Juliers would be accommodated. I said yes and that I had previously told him of the promise of the English king not to allow the wars of Flanders to be settled without at the same time securing disarmament in this province. With regard to the whole of my discourse he said that the king had spoken differently to others and that he had it from responsible persons, but that as the news which I brought was comparatively recent, it might possibly be true. He said: These troubles disturb my peace of mind. There is ground for fear, but we need not despair. We and the republic will procure an accommodation, the king of Spain desires peace and the French also seem to be of the same mind. I replied: Holy Father, that is true, but it is of bad augury that all this produces no effect. He said: You have been in Savoy and must know the duke. I at once praised His Highness as a prince of great spirit, both a good captain and a good soldier, whose example would inspirit his army. The pope rejoined: We liken him to a great bandit, who acts boldly upon the principle Una spes victis nullam sperare salutem.
I afterwards went to the Cardinal Borghese and told him of the plans of the king of England in favour of Savoy. He thought that the distance of England would create a difficulty and that the king was short of money. As for the distance, I said that good seamen like the English, intrepid at sea, the sons of Neptune, quickly reach provinces and kingdoms in their ships and that they sail better in the winter season than at other times of the year. That they could quickly reach Nice and all the coast of Italy with the greatest ease if they wished to. (Quanto alla luntananza dissi che i buoni marinari, come sono gli Inglesi, feroci in mare, figliuoli di Nettuno, giuntavano con lor vasseli le Provincie e i Regni brevemente insieme, et che nel stagione del verno navigavano meglio che in altri tempi dell' anno; che a Nizza, et dapertutto le spiaggie d'Italia con gran facilità potrebbon, volendo, tosto condurse.) As for money, a great king would never be in want of it, especially as he is living quietly in his realms.
The Cardinal was somewhat impressed and said: You will remember, plus vident oculi quam oculus and perhaps it would be well to send a Cardinal. I said that I was more apt to point out the danger than to suggest a remedy, that his Holiness knew best what to do and even if his efforts proved unavailing he would enjoy the satisfaction of having made the attempt.
From Rome, the 8 November, 1614.
Nov. 8. Senato, Secreta. Dispacci, Firenze. Venetian Archives. 481. Domenico Dominici, Venetian Resident in Florence, to the Doge and Senate.
The merchandise captured and brought to the port of Livorno by two English privateering ships (Nari Inglesi di corso) has been unloaded by command of the Grand Duke, with orders that it shall not be sold or disposed of until it is ascertained whether it was taken from Turks or from Christians, as is rather suspected.
Letters from Brussels of the 25th ult. announce that the conference is still sitting at Santen to settle the affairs of Juliers, the deputies being two for France, two for England, three for the Elector of Cologne, two for the Archduke Albert, three for Brandenburg, two for Neuburg, and seven for the United Provinces. The principal point is a division between the claimants. They are expecting the Count of Hohenzollern (Zolen) as ambassador of the emperor, sent expressly to state his pretensions upon Wesel and Düren, Imperial towns. That Count Scarnafes, who was lately in England to treat with the king there in the name of the duke of Savoy, has gone to Holland to negotiate with the States.
From Florence, the 8 November, 1614.
Nov. 9. Senato, Secreta. Dispacci, Grisoni. Venetian Archives. 482. Gregorio Barbarigo, Venetian Ambassador Extraordinary to the Swiss and Grisons, to the Doge and Senate.
In your Serenity's letter of the 22nd ult. I have received the exposition of the secretary of England and the news of the order to the ambassador to continue his service with you. I had some idea of this through the passing of the courier this way, of which I notified your Excellencies, but I waited to hear if he had continued his journey, as I thought it would be proper to send the secretary to meet him in the country of the Grisons, in order to communicate to him that part of the information which would best serve your Serenity. However the staying of his journey has not changed his good intentions, and the news of the purpose of his stay here has produced an impression very favourable to the affairs of your Serenity.
It is said here that the ambassador of the Elector of Cologne will not be admitted to the negotiations upon the affairs of Juliers and Cleves, because he pledged his word, which has thus been broken, to Sir [Henry] Wotton that the Marquis Spinola would not make any move during the negotiations. This led the States to think themselves safe, and owing to the consequent delay in their preparations the Marquis was enabled to make the acquisitions which he has.
From Zurich, the 9 November, 1614.
Nov. 11. Senato, Secreta. Dispacci, Spagna, Venetian Archives. 483. Francesco Morosini, Venetian Ambassador in Spain, to the Doge and Senate.
Sends information with regard to Sabioneta. Had obtained it from one Sant Ander, an official in the secretariat of State, who had correspondence with the duke of Savoy and advised the king of England and Count Maurice. In letters from Flanders the Archduke writes that the States-continue to make complaints, because the Marquis Spinola has taken possession of Wesel and has fortified it. That the king of England had expressed the same sentiments and his ministers declared that if the fortress was not restored to its former condition His Majesty would favour the States and the negotiations for an accommodation would be broken off. Their Most Christian Majesties, with triple despatches, have directed their ambassador to request the king to order the Marquis to evacuate that place, but as His Majesty is on the way back from Lerma, the ambassador has not so far been able to execute his commission.
From Madrid, the 11 November, 1614.
[Italian; deciphered.]
Nov. 11. Senato, Secreta. Dispacci, Mantova. Venetian Archives. 484. Antonio Maria Vincenti, Venetian Resident at Mantua, to the Doge and Senate.
News has reached here that an English Ambassador has arrived at the court of the Duke of Savoy, although there is no other confirmation. It is also stated that the French ambassador is able to effect very little.
From Mantua, the 11 November, 1614.
Nov. 12. Consiglio dei Dieci Parti Communi. Venetian Archives. 484A. That the jewels of the sanctuary and the armoury of the Council be shown to M. de la Tremouille, a Frenchman, passing through this city.
Ayes 15.
Noes 0.
Neutra 0.
Nov. 13. Collegio, Secreta. Esposizioni Principi. Venetian Archives. 485. The Ambassador of England came into the Cabinet with the Agent and said:
I was astonished when the courier delivered me the orders at Padua to remain here in Venice. I have delayed to come for so long because I had to arrange my household affairs and collect my scattered thoughts. I now return to pay my respects to your Serenity and to offer thanks for the gift made to me by the hands of a minister. The king, when he sent the letters, doubtless expected some grave and universal commotion, and thought it would be well to have two ministers here. The command has shown me that my services here have been acceptable to His Majesty, who wishes to increase the good relations with the republic. He therefore views with the greater displeasure the evil machinations of those who attempt to oppress a free prince because a fire reasonably disturbs those near, who fear for their own interests. The unjust method of dealing with princes by judgments pronounced by tribunals surrounded by armed men, is now apparent to all and ought to arouse a general indignation. His Majesty has commanded me to assure your Serenity that he is ready to assist in procuring the peace of this province. He asks you to send back any message you wish by the courier.
I regret that my recall has prevented me from serving your Serenity in the Grisons and Switzerland. The affairs of the world are changeful and therefore it is most just that there should be a close friendship between republics and free states, because these last for ever, et homines sunt mortales. I therefore propose to send my secretary to those parts to assist the question of the league. He is a responsible agent of His Majesty and is eager to serve the republic. He will set out by way of the Grisons where he will not neglect to negotiate with some of my confidential friends in favour of the league. When he reaches Switzerland he will confer with the Ambassador Barbarigo, and will do nothing contrary to his advice. He will leave in three or four days so that he may return by way of the Grisons to perform the same duties there.
The doge expressed his thanks for the offer which promised the best results. He said the Cabinet would consider the matter and communicate their decision.
The ambassador then dealt with a formal matter, and after a gracious reply from the doge, took leave.
Nov. 14. Senato, Secreta. Dispacci, Inghilterra. Venetian Archives. 486. Antonio Foscarini, Venetian Ambassador in England, to the Doge and Senate.
The Count of Scarnafes, besides asking the king for an audience, has also represented to him, by His Majesty's agent here, the reply given to him by Maurice and the States, saying that the decision rested in his hands, and begging him for a reply and a decision. On Sunday the king informed him by the same agent, who should have been here, that he would give him satisfaction, and he promised to succour and assist the duke. On Monday His Majesty was in London, and the count having asked for an audience, he finally obtained it this morning. He kissed the king's hand, thanked him and informed him of the excellent disposition displayed by Maurice and of the conclusion given in Barnevelt's reply, that the States would do as much as His Majesty, who should accompany his advice by example. The king told him that the Dutch are in a different position from himself, as they are near the end of their truce with Spain; that the Spaniards refer to them under injurious names and call them enemies. It would therefore be useful and proper for the States to foment those who are oppressed by Spain, but in so far as they desire him to accompany his advice by example, he was resolved to do so and give a good example as well as new and useful advice, and that he was resolved to succour and assist the duke promptly.
The count besought the king to declare the quality and quantity of the assistance. The king replied that he would put it in writing and that he should have it that evening or very early the next morning, and with this the audience terminated. The count asked about Sweden, Denmark and your Serenity, and the king said that he had not yet received a reply.
In the council held yesterday His Majesty dealt with the assistance for the duke, and there was much opposition. In the end, so I hear, his opinion prevailed, and the promise made to the ambassador proves this. The king has been at the council again to-day also, when a resolution will be taken with regard to the quality and quantity of the assistance. To-day he has sent to the ambassador of the States to see him to-morrow morning, to speak to him about this.
The count has been to see me and given a fairly confidential report of his affair. As soon as he has received his reply he will decide to send to his master or go to him, whichever the king thinks best.
I said something to him about the consequences which the introduction of war into Italy will carry with it. He said that even if Spain assents to what is reasonable, without prejudice to the liberty of the duke, the declaration of this assistance will be opportune to facilitate the accommodation for the greater reputation and advantage of His Highness.
London, the 14 November, 1614.
Nov. 14. Senato, Secreta. Dispacci, Inghilterra. Venetian Archives. 487. Antonio Foscarini, Venetian Ambassador in England, to the Doge and Senate.
The king has advices that the differences between Brandenburg and Neuburg have been finally reduced to a state bordering on a provisional accommodation. That the ambassadors of the two kings have worked hard and have settled the greater part of the articles, as I wrote; but not quite all or entirely. An agreement or a total rupture of all negotiations will soon be seen. Even if Brandenburg and Neuburg are reconciled a more important matter will remain, which excites more fears, namely the restoration of Wesel and the other places occupied in which they will meet with the difficulties of which I wrote. If the two princes do not come to an agreement open war will be declared. I hear that the Ambassador Wotton has sent a person here to give an account of the whole affair. I will ascertain all about it and send the particulars a week to-day.
The ambassador of France informs me that the duke of Savoy has sent to tell the Most Christian Queen that he proposes to rule himself by her advice, feeling certain that he will receive nothing but wise and disinterested counsel.
I have received your Serenity's letters of the 14th, the one for the king, the copy of His Majesty's, the exposition of his ambassador and the reply thereto, and I will punctually execute my instructions.
London, the 14 November, 1614.
Nov. 14. Senato, Secreta. Dispacci, Zante Venetian Archives. 488. Girolamo Bembo, Proveditore in Zante, to the Doge and Senate.
Sends the mensuali for the last three months.
From Zante the 7 Nov., 1614.
Enclosed in the preceding Despatch. 489. Mensuali.
14 March. Custom of goods of Richard Beresford, for London, in the ship Cambia Real, Anthony Wood, master.
4 April. Custom on goods of Henry Chont, for London, in the English ship Hercules.
Nov. 14. Inquisitori de Stato. Dispacci, Inghilterra. Venetian Archives. 490. Giovanni Battista Padavin, to Giulio Muscorno.
The considerations given in your letters of the 17th ult. show that your request for repatriation is both reasonable and necessary. But the opposition is so strong that more than ordinary measures will be necessary. The matter will cost more than 1,000 crowns, and the Senate and Council of Ten will place public before private considerations.
From Venice, the 14 November, 1614.
Nov. 14 Senato, Secreta. Deliberazioni. Venetian Archives. 491. To the Count Palatine.
From your Highness's letters of the 4 September we are glad to learn of your good health and of the continued solicitude of the princes gathered at Heilbronn, for union, the preservation of the peace and of the general liberty, as in the present commotions it is prudent to be well prepared. We thank you for the communication and assure you of our sincere affection and esteem, moved as we are by the eminent position occupied by your Highness in Germany, by our friendship for your house and by your very close connection with the king of Great Britain, whose favours to us will always live in our memories. We beg to assure you that we also are animated by a desire for the general weal.
Ayes 208.
Noes 2.
Neutral 27.
It was resolved in the council that the present letters should be sent in Latin. This was done and it was read in the Cabinet.
Nov. 15. Senato, Secreta. Deliberazioni Venetian Archives. 492. To the Count Palatine.
The above letter.
Ayes 20.
Noes 0.
Neutral 0.
Nov. 15. Senato, Secreta. Deliberazioni, Venetian Archives. 493. That the Ambassador of England be summoned to the Cabinet and the following read to him:
We are glad of your Excellency's return to continue your charge here. We thank you heartily for your offer to co-operate in assisting the conclusion of the league with the Swiss, and whenever you have occasion to send your Secretary to those parts upon the affairs of His Majesty, or to some other parts from which he can easily go there, we shall be very glad of his assistance in the present affairs. He will be-able to present the commission of your Excellency to our Ambassador Barbarigo, who will have instructions to act in complete understanding with him, so that the best results may be obtained.
That in reply to the ambassador's offer to send his secretary to the Grisons and Swiss, the doge shall tell him that we are expecting letters from the Ambassador Barbarigo, who is waiting the return of some important persons to Berne, and it will be expedient to postpone the sending of the secretary until those letters arrive.
Ayes 130.
Noes 2.
Neutral 2.
Nov. 15. Senato, Secreta. Deliberazioni. Venetian Archives. 494. To the Ambassador in England.
After the return of the king's ambassador to this city, he had audience here yesterday and spoke, as you will see by the enclosed copy of his exposition, upon the present troubles of Italy. He said that he had decided to send his secretary to the Swiss and the Grisons, and will not cease to co-operate for the conclusion of our league. We replied as you will see by the enclosed copy. You will use this information as your prudence dictates. As we are not sure whether the ambassador is sending his secretary on the king's business or simply in the interests of our league, we shall be glad if you will use all diligence to discover the truth, and what is the chief cause of this mission.
Ayes 130.
Noes 2.
Neutral 2.
Nov. 15. Senato, Secreta. Deliberazioni. Venetian Archives. 495. To the Ambassador Barbarigo.
The ambassador of England has returned to this city, as we have already written. He came recently to audience and said that he had decided to send his secretary to the Grisons and Swiss to co-operate in the affairs of the league, as he could not do so himself. We enclose a copy of his exposition and the reply. As we are not sure whether the secretary is to go on the king's business or simply for the league, you will treat with him with such confidence as the occasion demands. We confidently trust to your ability.
Ayes 130.
Noes 2.
Neutral 2.
Nov. 15. Collegio, Secreta. Esposizioni Principi. Venetian Archives. 496. The deliberation of the Council of the 15th inst. having been read to the ambassador of England, he replied:
The mission of my secretary for the affair of the Swiss and the Grisons will be in the interests of the republic. He will set out with all speed, and will take his orders from the Ambassador Barbarigo. I hope the negotiation will prove successful.
In the absence of the doge Sig. M. Antonio Venier replied thanking the ambassador, but said, if the secretary is sent for the matter of the league only we should prefer his mission to be postponed until letters arrive from the Ambassador Barbarigo, who expected to send us various particulars of some important matters after his return to Berne.
The ambassador replied that the mission was intended to serve the republic and it should be postponed to any time they thought best.
Alvise Zorzi, the Savio for the week, then said: When it is necessary to send the secretary to Switzerland on the affairs of your Excellency, we shall be very glad for him to treat also in the matter of the league, but we think it advisable to postpone this mission, if there is no special pretext for it, without taking into account the advices which are expected from the Ambassador Barbarigo.
The ambassador said: To procure any advantage for the republic will always be His Majesty's affair, and there need be no lack of pretexts. In serving the republic I consider that I am serving my king. However, if it is thought best to postpone the mission of the secretary, he will await the commands of your Serenity at a convenient season. I also am daily expecting letters from my special friends in those parts. When they arrive, I will communicate the contents to your Serenity. With that the ambassador took leave.


  • 1. Villeroi advocated the English alliance as a precautionary measure, to be effected as the complement to the double marriages with Spain. See Perrens: Les Mariages Espagnols, p. 451. His chief opponent was the Chancellor Sillery.