Venice: November 1614, 16-30

Pages 248-265

Calendar of State Papers Relating To English Affairs in the Archives of Venice, Volume 13, 1613-1615. Originally published by His Majesty's Stationery Office, London, 1907.

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November 1614, 16–30

Nov. 20. Senato, Secreta. Dispacci, Costant. Venetian Archives 497. Cristoforo Valier, Venetian Ambassador in Constantinople, to the Doge and Senate.
The new Grand Vizier has paid some visits to the Arsenal. He did nothing but look to the work upon the eighteen galleys, already placed on the stocks, as I have often written. They may be ready by next year, but up to the present there seems to be no idea of making any further provision.
Dalle Vigne di Pera, the 10 November, 1614.
[Italian; deciphered.]
Nov. 21. Senato, Secreta. Dispacci, Inghilterra. Venetian Archives. 498. Antonio Foscarini, Venetian Ambassador in England, to the Doge and Senate.
On the morning following the day when I wrote my last I had audience of the king, presented the letter of your Serenity and expressed the entire satisfaction which your Excellencies had received from the Ambassador Carleton during the whole time of his stay at Venice, and I enlarged upon his qualities as instructed. I then thanked His Majesty for the orders given to that ambassador to assist the negotiations of the Illustrious Barbarigo in Switzerland and the Grisons and to secure the closer union and the success of the league with them. The king listened gladly to the praises of his ambassador, applauding and confirming them. He added that your Excellencies had good cause to love him because he has always performed the best offices in his power; that he was a favourite with him owing to his virtues, and the satisfaction given to your Excellencies will greatly increase that feeling in the future. That the orders given to assist the conclusion of the league had been made with a good heart, and were in keeping with the warmth which was usual in their relations. He afterwards said that the ambassador had received a packet with instructions to remain with your Excellencies, and he will have done so. He then began to speak about the affairs of Savoy, and said that he wished to relieve the duke from oppression and will do so; that the Spaniards have let it be understood that they wish to depose him and put his son in his place. He expressed his compassion and said that His Highness had done nothing to deserve it and that he will certainly defend him; that he does not wish for innovation or that they should make themselves greater by his ruin. He informed me of the reply given by the States to the Count of Scarnafes and complained that they had not immediately helped him, at last to some extent, and said that he would give them an example and that at my departure he would speak strongly to the ambassador of the States.
He afterwards spoke of the affairs of Cleves and said that we are on the point of seeing the result; that if Brandenburg and Neuburg are reconciled it will be necessary to see to the restitution of the places occupied, and it will be seen whether the Spaniards and the archduke are willing to restore them and Wesel in particular, as the ambassadors have so frequently promised, the archduke's Lieger having confirmed the same at his last audience. He seemed very doubtful about it, as at times they speak as if these were interests of the emperor, and frequently as if it were the concern of Spain or Flanders. He said that they were full of equivocations, but it would be better to await the results. He spoke to me of the resolution of Brandenburg and of the agreement with him to enter upon war if Wesel were not restored. He said that France shows a better understanding with Spain than is needful and that at the meeting of the estates efforts will be made to break off the marriages. If these prove successful, the elder daughter will be taken by the prince here, and the second by the prince of Piedmont; that this is the plan of the duke of Bouillon, and that the princes have two or three such excellent things to say and such convincing arguments to advance that when they are brought forward the marriages will be broken off; that only the queen and two ministers are enamoured of them. He showed a great desire to entirely separate France from Spain, by drawing it closer to himself, to your Serenity and other friendly princes. He did not hide from me that he had shortly before received letters from divers princes of France. After an interview of three quarters of an hour, the greater part upon the affairs of Savoy and Cleves, substantially as I have written it, and full of resolution to defend and assist both, I took my leave, knowing that the ambassador of Holland was waiting.
London, the 21 November, 1614
Nov. 21. Senato, Secreta. Dispacci, Inghilterra. Venetian Archives. 499. Antonio Foscarini, Venetian Ambassador in England, to the Doge and Senate.
A week to-day, after dinner, the king held a council upon the affairs of Savoy as he had promised Scarnafes in the morning that he would do. Four points were proposed: the quality of the assistance to be given to His Highness; the office which should be performed with the ambassador of the States and the manner of inciting them to give active help to the duke; if it were necessary for Scarnafes to return to Holland, and if not whether he should remain here or return to Piedmont to inform his master. Upon the assistance, opinions were varied, the majority inclining to give 4,000 paid infantry or the money to enlist them elsewhere, according to the convenience of the duke. They finally decided to send for the count to hear if he wanted help in money or in paid troops, and how much. With regard to inciting the States, that on the following morning the king should speak with the ambassador and send immediately to Wotton to perform efficacious offices in conformity. That as to whether the count should go to Holland, remain here, or return to the duke, should be decided afterwards according to circumstances. His Majesty informed Scarnafes of all this the same evening, adding that everything had been done for the service of his master, except the immediate declaration of war against the Spaniards, but he would like him to ask freely so that the king might satisfy him. The count replied that the duke needed money and troops, that one cannot do less for a friend than lend him money, and if His Majesty would give him some in that character, he would take it and give a receipt. That the Catholic king receives into his country the rebels of His Majesty, feeds them and gives them pensions, as is the case with the earl of Tyrone and others; and yet the peace is not broken; that His Majesty ought to fear a breach much less when it was simply a question of delivering a free prince from unjust oppression, who was a devoted friend, and upon the other points he expressed complete satisfaction without saying anything. Various discussions have been held upon this, and finally it was resolved to assist the duke with 4,000 paid infantry and with the money to pay them. Thus on Monday morning, when the king left he made this known to the count, adding that the money would be handed over to him in two instalments to be paid in advance, and it would be left to him to decide whether the troops should be enlisted here (upon which sufficient instructions had been given to Rich) or whether he would take them elsewhere. That he would also be at liberty to make use of munitions of war here and of any other things which he might require; that divers princes of France have written that hearing that His Majesty desires to assist the duke, they also will find troops for him and will serve him to the extent of their power; that he had replied by encouraging them and assuring them that they could do nothing more grateful. The count is now asking for the payment, and this morning he should interview the Secretary of State upon this. He thinks of consigning this money to Rich, who will be here the day after to-morrow, so that he may make the levies. Ships are promised from Holland to take the troops to the state of the duke his master. The count himself has told me all this, and he has been to see me several times, moreover I have it confirmed from another quarter.
London, the 21 November, 1614.
Nov. 21. Senato, Secreta. Dispacci, Inghilterra. Venetian Archives. 500. Antonio Foscarini, Venetian Ambassador in England, to the Doge and Senate.
In the audience which the ambassador of the States had, the king told him that it ought to be the policy of his masters to unite with those who are in bad relations with Spain and to give mutual support. He expressed his surprise and displeasure that they had not supplied money and troops to the duke of Savoy. He concluded by saying that since they wished that he should be the first, and that he should set an example as well as give advice, he was ready to do so. He then said that he would assist the duke with 4,000 infantry, increasing this force according as need should arise. That if the Spaniards were determined to destroy His Highness with all their forces, he would make war openly both by sea and land, that he will give an effective example, and with this declaration of his will he advised the States to do the like. He impressed upon him how necessary it was to keep the forces of Spain occupied, how useful to divide them, how near was the end of their truce with the Catholic king, and how great was the ill will which they showed. He charged the ambassador to write strongly to his master, saying that he had instructed his own ambassador to speak to the same effect. He further said that the ambassador ought to see the count and assure him of the goodwill of the States.
The ambassador replied that the States, with their forces alone, are faced by those of Spain and Flanders, that they are endeavouring to oppose the progress of Spinola both for the common benefit and their own interests, and they are incurring a very heavy expenditure; that if His Majesty wishes to break the peace, they will break the truce and enter upon war at the first sign from him; that with respect to helping the duke they have not shown themselves backward, declaring that they would do the same as His Majesty. He said that he would write upon the whole matter, and in order that it might be better represented, he would send a special messenger; that as for seeing the count, he will do so, and he has already fulfilled his promise.
The day before yesterday this ambassador called upon me. As I was previously tolerably well informed about his affair I was easily able to gather what I write. He informed me that Barnevelt had written to him at the departure of Scarnafes this last time, to carefully observe what the king would do; that in case of need the States would easily assist the duke with ships, artillery and other munitions of war. He asked me whether your Excellencies would do anything to help the duke, to which I replied that I had no information.
The king has sent letters to Sir [Henry] Wotton for Maurice and the States with instructions to use all his efforts to induce them to afford active assistance to His Highness. It is considered certain here, and indeed their promise has been given, that they will at least do as much as His Majesty declares that he will do for Savoy. The count spoke to me about it as a settled thing which presented no difficulty.
London, the 21 November, 1614.
Nov. 21. Senato, Secreta. Dispacci, Inghilterra. Venetian Archives. 501. Antonio Foscarini, Venetian Ambassador in England, to the Doge and Senate.
The person sent by the emperor (fn. 1) has notified Spinola that Cleves is a fief of His Majesty, that Wesel is separated by privilege and that he wishes to respect the pretentions of Saxony. The same person was to proceed to the diet of Santen and afterwards to the archdukes at Brussels, and he has done so. Spinola made a show of great respect for Cæsar. He said that Wesel ought at least to be placed in his hands, but this will never be conceded. The States say that all this is a contrivance of the Spaniards and that the emperor has taken action at their instance. They assert that restitution must be made or a rupture will result.
At Brussels the ministers of the two kings have worked very hard. At Santen they worked harder, meeting with a notable difficulty upon the point of the residence of the Princes. The Spaniards do not want Neuburg to consent to a change of residence every six months. Other difficulties have also been encountered, but in the midst of great confusion and a variety of opinions the ambassadors gave their opinion in the form of a provisional agreement, signing it and sending a copy to each of the two princes, giving them four-days, which will expire on Saturday, in which to accept. They say that at the expiration of the time they will leave and not return, and all negotiations will be entirely broken off. They add that if one accepts, every one ought to act against the non-content, and if both refuse, war will result.
At a late hour the day before yesterday the person sent by Wotton arrived here with two copies of the capitulation. With one he went immediately to the king and the other remained with the Lords of the Council. I hope to obtain a copy to-morrow, when I will forward it at the first opportunity. Wotton writes that the Spaniards have done everything to prolong the negotiations and gain time; that the limit of four days only was proposed to deprive them of an opportunity, as it was known that they were awaiting a courier from Spain, with a decision and instructions; he adds that the provision in one of the articles that no place shall be put into the hands of a third person was designed as a security against Neuburg with Spain. He seems to think a great deal of having bound France by the signature of the Most Christian Ambassador to take the part of Brandenburg if Neuburg refuses the agreement; of the issue whereof he expresses considerable doubt. He says that they hope much, but fear much more; their hopes are founded upon the disposition of the princes and of the country, their fears are caused by the vigorous fortifying of Wesel and the new levies of troops made by the archduke.
I acknowledge the receipt of your Serenity's letters of the 23rd ult. with regard to the return and the staying of the king's ambassador, of which I sent word. I will use all diligence in gathering information as to the reasons for this step, and will forward the same. The advices of what is passing at Milan and Turin will assist me in executing your wishes.
London, the 21 November, 1614.
Nov. 22. Senato, Secreta. Dispacci, Roma. Venetian Archives. 502. Simon Contarini, Venetian Ambassador at Rome, to the Doge and Senate.
A cardinal who displays some feeling for the general good says that the Spaniards are going to take possession of Villafranca with their fleet in order to forestall the English and the Dutch, who, they fear, will go there to land the troops in aid of the Duke of Savoy promised by those powers. They are proposing to erect a fort between Monaco and Villafranca near to that port, to prevent the use of it, which seems to them a better plan. When I asked him how the French would take this invasion by the Spaniards of a district so close to them; he replied, Ill on every account and it might easily lead to the breaking off of the marriages between those crowns. He told me that he was afraid of war and that the pope would do nothing. He was surrounded by bad ministers who advised him not to commit himself.
The ambassador of His Majesty in England writes that the ambassador of His Highness has left that Court in great haste. This certainly bodes no good. But on the other hand they are afraid for the port of Villafranca, and the Spaniards want to make sure of it.
From Rome, the 22 November, 1614.
Nov. 24. Collegio, Secreta. Esposizioni Principi, Venetian Archives. 503. The Ambassador of England came into the Cabinet and said:—
Although unwell, I have come at the request of the ambassadors of the Duke of Savoy here and on behalf of my king. Your Serenity has sent a most splendid embassay to His Highness, who has been much gratified at this public sign of friendship. It now appears that the instructions given to the Ambassador Zen are restricted and do not correspond with those received by the ministers of other princes. The duke asks your Serenity to enlarge the commission of your ambassador, to make it similar to that of other envoys, as the nature of the affair demands. I may add that whereas your Serenity is accustomed to rely more upon deeds than words, yet in this instance words may prove more efficacious even than deeds because if the duke is under the protection of so many princes and also of your Serenity, he will be more respected by the governor of Milan unarmed than he would be armed. I am not so rash or so foolish as to presume to offer advice where the least councillor possesses more interest and knowledge than I can lay claim to. I will only say that I believe that if the ship be steered on a swift course it will arrive safely at its destination with more or less wind to fill its sails. The ambassadors tell me that the delay is dangerous, but I reply that I know well the end which your Excellencies have in view and that I expect you will act accordingly. As for my king, owing to his very high regard for the Duke of Savoy, the more the republic protects His Highness the better he will be pleased.
In the absence of the doge, Sig. Marc' Antonio Venier replied, The excellent intentions of the republic and our perfect goodwill towards the duke appear clearly by all that we have done, and in the future we shall not omit to do what is judged best.
The ambassador added, I am sure that your Serenity will do what is best for the general peace. The saying of the ancient author concerning Pompey and Cæsar seems to me to apply to these affairs Si ullus aliquid de sua gravitate, alter de cupiditate minueret. It will not be difficult to agree together in such a way that the governor of Milan will somewhat abate the rigour of his demands, while the duke of Savoy will be more temperate in his solicitations.
After some further formalities the ambassador took leave.
Nov. 26. Consiglio X. Parti Secrete. Venetian Archives. 504. That in gratification of the ambassador of the king of Great Britain, and in response to requests made to him several times in the Cabinet, a safe conduct for two years be granted to Baron Francesco Furietti and Trogian his brother, banished for ever by decree of this Council on 6 February, 1612, so that not-withstanding the said banishment they may come and go freely in our state during the two years aforesaid.
Ayes 7. Ayes 8.
Noes 0. Noes. 0.
Neutral 2. Neutral 1.
The affair remains undetermined.
Nov. 26. Senato, Secreta. Dispacci, Spagna. Venetian Archives. 505. Francesco Morosini, Venetian Ambassador in Spain, to the Doge and Senate.
The Secretary of England, who has been at the Court during the absence of the ambassador, has lately been to tell me that his chief had started back to resume his charge, in which he will have to remain for some time. He brings with him his wife and all his family. He is coming in one of the king's ships, but they refuse him the free transit of his baggage, saying that the king is not accustomed to make any exception, except upon the first occasion that the ambassadors visit his court.
From Madrid, the 26 November, 1614.
Nov. 27. Senato, Secreta. Deliberazioni. Venetian Archives. 506. That the following be read to the ambassador of England.
We greatly valued the office lately performed by your Excellency in the matter of Savoy, as we are accustomed to value everything in which the authority of the king of Great Britain is concerned. While we were discussing the proposals made by you, we learned by letters of the 21st from the Ambassador Zen that the affair was already begun by means of the nuncio and the ambassador of France, and in such good train that an accommodation was considered as good as made. This has since been confirmed by the said ambassadors, from whom you will have perhaps learned the same. However, we thought good to impart this information as a sign of esteem and also as an expression of our gratification at the result. This is largely due to the good offices and authority of His Majesty, who has laboured with so much benignity in these affairs.
Ayes 149.
Noes 0.
Neutral 3.
Nov. 27. Senato, Secreta. Deliberazioni. Venetian Archives. 507. To the Ambassador in England.
The negotiations of Mons. Savelli and M. Rambouillet have so far succeeded that they have gone to the governor with the proposal, that Savoy shall disband his army as a sign of obedience to His Catholic Majesty, retaining in garrison the troops suggested by M. Varenne, while the governor promised to disarm within a fortnight after, and not to attack Savoy. If he fail the pope and Most Christian King will defend His Highness. There shall be a mutual restitution of places and prisoners, disputes shall be decided by arbiters chosen by the parties within six months; Mantua will leave the dower of the Infanta and Madame Bianca to those ambassadors and the governor. We hear that the governor told the Ambassador Zen that his hands were tied by orders from Spain, which he must execute whether Savoy arms or disarms. He seems to have said this to prevent our ambassador from intervening. The ambassador told him that as we wished to bind Savoy not to attack Mantua, so we asked a pledge from the governor not to attack Savoy. Thus the affair which was considered to be settled at Vercelli is now in greater disorder than before through the governor's reply. Hostilities have begun and the taking of Oneglia is reported. We hear that His Highness's forces are being augmented, especially by Swiss troops. We hope that the Almighty will interpose his hand, and as we hear that a promise not to attack Mantua was given, perhaps this may induce the governor to put a more liberal interpretation upon his orders.
That the same, mutatis mutandis, be written to
Ayes 154.
Noes 0.
Neutral 5.
Nov. 27. Senato, Secreta. Dispacci, Inghilterra. Venetian Archives. 508. Antonio Foscarini, Venetian Ambassador in England, to the Doge and Senate.
Late yesterday I received the copy of the form of agreement drawn up by the ambassadors in Cleves. To-day I have had it copied and translated, and I enclose the copy and translation herewith together with a translation and copy of the same ambassadors sent with the said form to the duke of Neuburg, that sent to Brandenburg being in the same words. The ambassador of Spain has expressed to me how much he thinks of the mission sent by the emperor upon that affair. In speaking of the affairs of Italy he told me that the governor of Milan writes to him that his forces are now so strong that he is able to divide them, and thus defend the country with one half and attack with the other; that an attack would be made upon the Piedmontese without a fear that the duke would be able to retaliate upon the Milanese. He hinted at a design to winter in the duke's territory. I pointed out to him the consequences of stirring up war in Italy and how uncertain the end would be. He replied with some favourable words. The ambassador of France told me that his king will do everything for the peace of that province, and he will press his requests hotly without giving the Spaniards much room to think about it, and I urged him to do so.
Rich has arrived here. Both yesterday and to-day he has seen the count of Scarnafes, with whom some other subject has also been. He hopes for greater assistance and begs for the execution of His Majesty's orders. I will send particulars by the ordinary of what is decided. Meanwhile I take advantage of a courier who is sent to Savoy, to despatch these.
London, the 27 November, 1614.
Enclosed in the preceding Despatch. 509. Articles arranged between the ambassadors of the undersigned kings, princes and powers upon the differences between George William, Marquis of Brandenburg and Wolfgang William, Count Palatine, duke of Neuburg touching Juliers and Cleves, which articles have been drawn up to obviate many difficulties which might lead to lengthy negotiation and so prolong the sufferings of the people of the country and thus delay the restoration of the princes and would also be to the grave prejudice of the public peace. The ambassadors bind themselves to maintain the princes of Brandenburg and Neuburg in the provisional administration.
The Articles.
The garrisons which have been put in the various places of Juliers, Cleves, Bergh, the Mark, Ravensberg and Ravenstein, in whosesoever name they may be occupied, shall be instantly removed with the munitions stored there, and all the troops of both powers shall withdraw to their countries without any pretentions and without doing any harm to the inhabitants of the towns or other subjects of the said places.
The princes bind themselves not to put any place of those lands into the hands of a third party, but will help each other against all other pretenders save those who proceed in a friendly way or by justice and no garrisons shall be put in any place by either side except by common consent. The princes, for the protection of their persons, shall not have more than 50 horse and 100 foot each.
The fortifications made by either side since May last shall be demolished, and no one shall be allowed to restore them in the future or to fortify any place in the country until after the final decision.
The officials, ecclesiastics, gentlemen or others who have been deprived or robbed or who have withdrawn by reason of the enmity between the princes, shall be restored to their offices, charges and goods without any exception, and those who have been legitimately provided with benefices and offices according to agreements made between the princes, shall be retained without it being necessary for them to bind themselves to the service of one prince more than the other.
All new things, whether ecclesiastical or political, shall be established jointly by commissioners deputed by both princes, and so shall they be regulated in the future, the whole in conformity with the treaties of Dortmund and Hall and the reversals and declarations made upon them by the consent of the princes and states of the country, so that they be not contrary to the promises made to the late king, Henry the Great. The princes of Brandenburg and Neuburg shall be protected in all things, and commissioners shall be appointed for this chosen by the princes from persons of quality resident in the country and interested in its peace. They shall be nominated within a month from the date of their presents, and if one of the princes neglects this, the execution of this article shall be made by the commissioners nominated by the other prince. If the commissioners are in any doubt upon the execution of the agreements or promises they shall nominate two persons, one of each religion, to act with the commissioners in conformity with those agreements.
The princes shall reside separately in the country, and for this the country shall be provisionally divided into two parts, without prejudice to their union or the treaties of Dortmund and Hall.
One of these parts shall consist of the duchy of Cleves, the districts of the Mark, Ravenstein and Ravensberg, with all the appurtenances of Cleves, as well those situate in the duchy of Brabant and county of Flanders, except the county of Ravensberg, withdrawn from the chancery of the Counts of Dusseldorf to be joined to that of Cleves.
The other part shall consist of Juliers and Berg, upon condition that the citadel of Juliers shall be dismantled and the town to a simple enclosure. At the same time the new fortifications of Dusseldorf shall be destroyed, and for the execution of this a captain or engineer shall be appointed by each of the princes, and it shall be done at the expense of the country.
When the fortifications of Juliers and Dusseldorf have been completely destroyed those places shall be put in the power of the States of Juliers, Cleves, etc., and persons of quality interested in the country shall be deputed for this.
That for this purpose four persons shall be nominated by the States of Juliers, two of each religion, two to be captains and two lieutenants. The like shall be done in Cleves, Berg, and the Mark. Each captain shall have charge of 100 men, who must be natives, and of five captains, three shall be set to guard the citadel of Juliers and two for Dusseldorf, for which they shall draw lots.
The captains and soldiers shall take an oath of fealty to defend the places and to obey the commands of no one to the prejudice of the defence.
When all this has been done the princes shall draw lots as to which part they shall govern, in the name of both, all public acts being issued in their joint names under the signature of each chancery.
In each residency the princes shall place two presidents for the work of the chancery and four councillors for the chamber, with such number of secretaries as shall be found necessary. The presidents shall act alternately week by week. Affairs of justice and finance shall be decided by a majority without appeal to the princes. Whenever a dispute arises in the chancery, nothing shall be done before both princes have been consulted. If the president and councillors of one chancery differ in opinion, these affairs shall be deliberated twice on two different days, and if the disagreement continues, the resident prince and the presidents shall decide.
The distribution of favours and offices shall rest to the princes, and they shall dispose thereof in alternate months, in accordance with the preceding agreements and with the information supplied by the agents of the councillors of chancery deputed for this, Benefices shall be distributed similarly in accordance with the ancient rule, and a vacant benefice shall be presented by the nearest ecclesiastic of the same religion until provision has been made by the prince.
If either prince neglect to nominate to a benefice for the space of three months, the other may confer it upon a suitable person.
The revenues of the country shall be equally divided between the princes and so shall the ordinary outgoings and charges, and each shall receive his share by order of the chamber of accounts, without either prince being able to arrange for any part separately or make any diversion.
They may not levy any contributions or impositions without common consent, and what the states of the country contribute shall be equally divided between them.
The accounts shall be examined by the presidents or others deputed by the chamber of accounts, and a proper return made, and all contracts and debts shall be examined and corrected if necessary.
The archives, titles, registers etc. of both chanceries and chambers of accounts shall be examined a year from the date of these presents, by commissioners deputed by the princes, and an inventory shall be drawn up. A separate inventory shall be made for Ravensberg which shall be left to the chancery of Dusseldorf, when the originals are removed to the chancery of Cleves, and he to whom the department of Cleves belongs shall promise to restore those titles to whomsoever Ravensberg may be adjudged.
The execution of all alienations, gifts, and pledges made by the princes before October last, shall be suspended until the final decision, saving to each prince who has alienated anything beyond the residence assigned to him, to recompense himself in all his residence, those to whom he has made such alienations, upon condition that the total of such alienations shall be deducted from the half of the total revenue of the states. With respect to alienations made after the beginning of October last, the things so alienated shall be restored by both parties.
The princes shall live in the country jure familiaritatis, in conformity with the treaties of Dortmund and Hall and with the reversals and other privileges of the country, until the final decision.
As regards the present agreement it must not be understood to revoke any declarations previously made by the princes in favour of any pretenders to the country, but they shall remain in force.
The princes and their officials shall swear to observe the present agreement, and the princes shall ratify it within six weeks.
The treaty shall be put in execution, without awaiting the ratification, as regards the withdrawal of troops and the demolition of forts, and meanwhile the towns and citadels of Juliers and Dusseldorf shall be placed in the hands of the commissioners appointed by the states of the country to guard them.
Dated at Santen on 12 November, 1614.
Reffuge, councillor of state of the Most Christian King and ambassador for the pacification of the disputes of Cleves, Juliers, etc.
Du Maurier, ordinary ambassador of His Most Christian Majesty with the States of the United Provinces, deputed for the same purpose.
Henry Wotton, knight, extraordinary ambassador of the king of Great Britain, for the same purpose.
John Albert, count of Solmes. On behalf of the United Princes of the Empire.
B. Buwin, chaussen of Wallmerode, councillor of the duke of Wittemberg.
Dirch Bas; Alb. Joachim, March. de Lyclama en Niesolt. On behalf of the States General of the United Provinces.
J. Van Goch.
W. Borte, lord of Haersolte.
John Dickenson, agent of the king of Great Britain with the Princes Possessioners.
All the ambassadors and deputies of the kings, princes and powers who have in the past assisted the princes of Brandenburg and Neuburg in their provisional establishment. (fn. 2)
Enclosed in the preceding Despatch. 510. Translation of the above.
Enclosed in the preceding Despatch. 511. Letter from the Ambassadors to the Duke of Neuburg. My lord,
In consideration of the delays and inconveniences which might arise in the negotiations for an accommodation between your Highness and the Marquis of Brandenburg to the affliction of the country, we have decided to present to your Highness a provisional form of agreement expressed in the most equitable terms which we could devise after much trouble. We trust that your Highness will accept them without further difficulty, or else will excuse us if we leave here in four days, so that we may not be rendered accountable for the present evils and for the accidents which may arise.
From Xanten, the 12 November, 1614.
Signed: Reffuge; Du Maurier; Henry Wotton; J. Albert, count of Solmes; B. B. of Valmeraden; Dirch Bas; Alb. Joachim, March. of Lyclama en Niesolt; J. von Goch; W. Borte Van Amerongen; lord of Haersolt.
Enclosed in the preceding Despatch. 512. Translation of the above.
Nov. 28. Collegio, Secreta. Esposizioni Principi. Venetian Archives. 513. The deliberation of the Council of the 27th inst. was read to the ambassador of England. He expressed his thanks and promised to communicate the matter to his king, who will be very glad to receive news of peace.
The duke of Savoy, being born under a star not common to princes who love peace, has followed the advice of those ministers who counselled him to withdraw his arms rather than to lay them down absolutely so that he may at least be secure, if the fire should break out again, with greater force in a place where his changeful fancies might lead him to act in the interests of the Spaniards once more. In such circumstances both I and my king will take it as a special favour if your Serenity will inform me of what takes place.
In the absence of the doge, Sig. Marc' Antonio Venier replied that they were always pleased to do anything that gave satisfaction to the king or his ambassador.
The ambassador continued: Your kindness emboldens me to make a request. During the whole time of my stay here I have always had good relations with certain professors of Science at Padua. Out of gratitude to Doctor Gio. Berustio in particular I wish to employ all my powers. There is a Venetian subject of the foreign nation in the University of Padua. He asks for an increase, not of salary, but of dignity. As he is of high character and a dear friend of mine, I recommend him to your Serenity, knowing that he will do credit to my recommendation, by advancing the study of letters.
The Most Illustrious Venier replied that the recommendation would have great weight with them, and the Reformers, who are here, will do all in their power in favour of the person recommended. At this, the ambassador repeated his request to the Reformers, and after they had courteously replied, he departed.
The Memorial.
Doctor Gio. Prevotio asks for the readership in medicine rendered vacant by the death of Sig. Tarquinio Carpaneto.
Nov. 28. Senato, Secreta. Dispacoi, Inghilterra. Venetian Archives. 514. Antonio Foscarini, Venetian Ambassador in England, to the Doge and Senate.
The Count of Scarnafes has received letters from the duke in which he commands him to thank the king for the warmth which he has shown in protecting his affairs, and to assure him that he will respond by spending everything which he has in this world in his service. He praises the offices of the count and expresses his complete satisfaction with them. He adds that the Marquis of Rambouillet was the first to ask him to disarm, without any security that the governor of Milan would afterwards do the same; that he threatened to renew the orders to recall the French who are serving him; that he offered no other safeguard that His Highness should not be attacked except the word of the queen, who had failed him so many times that he did not know how he could trust to it. He instances the ratification by Her Majesty of the contract of marriage, settled and signed by the late king, between the princess of France and the prince of Piedmont, in which she had afterwards failed, and says that the French ambassador having promised so faithfully to the king that the orders given to the French to return should not be observed, they ought, for appearance sake, to ask His Majesty to speak strongly upon the matter and to write to France urging them warmly to keep their word. That the Spaniards go on increasing their forces to devour him afterwards at a mouthful, but by the help of God it is possible they may not succeed, as he has given orders to levy Swiss and Valais and to increase the number of the Piedmontese. They have attempted to capture Asti by stratagem; that the guilty are prisoners, have confessed all and will pay for their treason with their life. That a similar conspiracy has been discovered at Vercelli also, where the duke now is, and he will send the particulars in other letters. He ends by saying that the incorruptible fidelity of his subjects is such that it will resist all plots. As for Rambouillet, he will reply that he is in some sort bound to the king here owing to his demonstration in his favour, and to your Serenity by bonds of paternal affection, so that he cannot and ought not to come to any terms without their knowledge and advice. He declares that without a greater security he will not lay down his arms, and in any case he will at least have the word of the pope and that of your Excellencies. That if it comes to disarming, if, after he has partially disarmed, he sees that the governor continues armed, he will keep the remainder of his forces on foot, in order that he may not be exposed to the ill will of others. He praises the representations made by the king to the ambassador of Spain, which I reported in my letter of the 10th ult., and considers them very opportune. He supposes that his letters will find the count in Holland, and he therefore instructs him to beg the States for assistance, or at least to make an arrangement. That the Count John of Nassau had left by his orders for Holland and would give him assistance if he arrived in time; that as for Rich, if need arises, he will send by courier the money to levy the 4,000 infantry and cause them to pass with the other auxiliaries which the king promises in the event of a rupture. That the advice to make his terms in concert with those of Flanders is good. He expresses a desire to compound his differences with Mantua, that His Majesty may be the judge; that he asks no more than justice, and afterwards he proposes a general understanding including your Excellencies for the common safety. He directs him to send information about his negotiations and what he has concluded by courier or on his return to Piedmont. The letter was written at Vercelli on the 28th ult. and was sent to Paris by courier. In the packet of letters for the king the duplicates have arrived here, in the hand of His Majesty's agent who was at Turin, and these reached Scarnafes. They talk of sending the agent to the king to give him an account in part and obtain an audience.
Since then the count met with the king's Secretary, who informed the king of everything and received as reply an order to write to France and to make representations to the ambassador here. Three days later he saw him and complained in the name of His Majesty that Rambouillet wished to force the duke contrary to the promise made that the recall had been issued simply for the sake of appearances and without any effect. He urged him to write earnestly to His Most Christian Majesty, and that he will also write in the king's name. He did this later, and in one or two days he will leave for the court. He wrote that the count had been with Rich negotiating for levies, and had found him very willing. He spoke about some other matter in his instructions and begged for the payment of the money, which has been actually made. The king's secretary has raised no doubt about the execution of the command for the 4,000 foot and added that the king thinks of going to 8,000 and an expenditure of 400,000 crowns; that a smaller help would not be in keeping with the greatness of the king of Great Britain. He concluded by saying that the present week will show whether the agreement between Brandenburg and Neuburg will be effected or no, and what is of more importance, whether the Spaniards will give up Wesel or show themselves unwilling to do so; that if they refuse, His Majesty will openly declare war with Spain and give public assistance to the duke; otherwise he will help with money alone, allowing him to obtain troops, munitions, ships and whatever he pleases in these kingdoms. The count pointed out the negotiations in Italy for peace made by his master and that soon the decision about Cleves will be here, from which a great alteration will arise in the quantity and method of the assistance. He asked Rich to keep captains ready to effect his levies and is waiting four days, which will decide everything.
London, the 28 November, 1614.
Nov. 28. Senato, Secreta. Dispacci, Inghilterra. Venetian Archives. 515. Antonio Foscarini, Venetian Ambassador in England, to the Doge and Senate.
So far the king has not received any news about the affairs of Cleves, and as twelve days have passed since the presentation of the letters to Neuburg with the proposals of the ambassadors in the form of a provisional agreement, leaving only four days for its ratification or for their departure, there has been plenty of time for receiving the final reply and decision. This causes astonishment here and gives rise to the suspicion that the delay is due to Spain, and they believe more than ever in the difficulty of arriving at a settlement. The king's secretary said that he had letters from Holland that all negotiations for an accommodation were as good as broken off. He is a person of importance, who may be trusted.
The ambassador of the States informed Scarnafes yesterday that he had written to his masters in conformity with the orders given him by the king, that they should help the duke. He afterwards told him that the minister of the emperor had required of the States the demolition of part of a fort built by them, 24 years ago, partly in their territory and partly in territory in relation with the empire, where His Majesty will not suffer that fort to remain. He said that the States most decidedly would not do this, and expressed an opinion that this intimation was due to the offices of Spain.
The king has let it be known that if news does not arrive this week of the agreement and speedy restitution of Wesel, he will consider everything as broken off and will turn his thoughts to war. Three royal ships have been armed with 700 men in each, and as many more are being made ready.
The king's ambassador has left to return to his charge in Spain. He makes the voyage by sea and carries instructions to make complaints upon matters touching the interests of merchants.
The ambassador in France writes to the king that the two ministers who wish to effectuate the marriages with Spain are endeavouring in the queen's name to induce the States to demand their completion as being useful to the realm. That of the three members which constitute the estates, the clergy, nobility and third estate, the first, owing to various interests inclines to the marriages, and the third also, composed of people who enjoy the offices and who do not desire any reform; but that the nobility does not agree, and considers it disadvantageous to conclude distant marriages, especially in the case of the king, as the Infanta is deprived of the right of succession which belongs to her by birth and by the laws of Spain, and which has never been denied in any other marriage with any small prince whatsoever.
The Catholic ambassador has told me that, after the conclusion of the marriages with France, whether the affair turns out well or ill, his king will maintain his part till such time as France thinks it convenient, and the queen will certainly do the same; that they will take place and it is impossible to assert the contrary.
The Most Christian Ambassador told me that it is impossible to tell at present what will be decided in the Estates, but it is clear that if the marriages are effected they will arouse some appre hension among the other princes and bring them closer together.
The bastard son of the Earl of Orkney entered with 200 men into the largest of those islands, took possession of the citadel, the bishopric and the king's house, which are all three together; and made the bishop a prisoner. These islands formerly escheated to the king by the forfeiture of the earl, who is confined in Dumbarton castle. His Majesty sent the Earl of Caithness (Catane), who has reduced everything to obedience, punishing the guilty.
London, the 28 November, 1614.
Nov. 29. Senato, Secreta. Dispacci, Francia. Venetian Archives. 516. Pietro Contarini, Venetian Ambassador in France, to the Doge and Senate.
The ambassadors of France and England have again taken up the negotiations to establish an agreement between the two princes who claim the states of Cleves. They have already agreed upon an arrangement much more equitable than the first, to assign the parts by lot and receive promises of restitution from the Marquis Spinola and the States. The commissioners are away, awaiting the division; when that has been made, the difficulties will be ended and the armies disbanded, if the Spaniards do not raise difficulties about being the first to disarm.
From Paris, the 29 November, 1614.
Nov. 29. Senato, Secreta. Dispacci, Grisoni. Venetian Archives. 517. Gregorio Barbarigo, Venetian Ambassador Extraordinary to the Swiss and Grisons, to the Doge and Senate.
News from Cleves states that the ambassadors assembled at Santen have brought matters nearer to a settlement. They have arranged that the country shall be divided into two parts, one to include Juliers and Berg and the other Cleves, Ravensberg and Ravenstein, upon which the two claimant princes will cast lots. The administration will be in the name of both. Religion will remain free, in accordance with the pact of Dortmund. Spinola is not only to refrain from fortifying Wesel, but to demolish the existing works, and to restore that place as well as the others occupied by him. Count Maurice will do the like on his side.
There was some difficulty with regard to Juliers, as although the States agreed to destroy the works constructed outside, they want to preserve the fortress, and that it shall remain in the hands of the kings of France and of Great Britain, which neither the Marquis Spinola nor the Palatine of Neuburg approved. They desired that the whole of the fortifications should be demolished and the same thing done as was done at Dusseldorf. However, all the points were arranged and nothing remained except to affix the signature, when the Count of Hohenzollern intervened in the name of the emperor and intimated to both parties that they must place the affair in the hands of Cæsar as His Majesty would not allow others to meddle in the affairs of the empire, and he was the proper judge to decide the matter; that all the places ought therefore to be put in his hands and all foreigners expelled from the domain of the empire. This has reduced everything to the original and even greater difficulties.
From Zurich, the 29 November, 1614.
Nov. 29. Senato. Secreta. Dispacci, Firenze. Venetian Archives. 518. Domenico Dominici, Venetian Resident in Florence, to the Doge and Senate.
At Livorno there were some corsairs, who had come from Ma'amura with a quantity of plundered merchandise, which was kept in deposit until it should be ascertained from whom it was taken. The captain and some of the sailors have been imprisoned at the instance of certain claimants of the stolen property. The others, who remained at liberty, had fitted out a ship to take to Tunis. When they were about to set sail, the matter having been ascertained, the ship was arrested and all on board were made prisoners. It is expected that they will be severely punished for the sake of example.
From Florence, the 29 November, 1614.


  • 1. The count of Hohenzollern.
  • 2. Dumont, Corps Diplomatique, ed. 1728. Vol. V. pt. ii., pp. 259–261