Venice: December 1614, 1-15

Pages 265-276

Calendar of State Papers Relating To English Affairs in the Archives of Venice, Volume 13, 1613-1615. Originally published by His Majesty's Stationery Office, London, 1907.

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December 1614, 1–15

Dec. 4. Senato, Secreta. Dispacci, Savoia. Venetian Archives. 519. Ranier, Zen, Venetian Ambassador in Savoy, to the Doge and Senate.
I have secured information about the Marquis Villa, as instructed. He served the duke against France as a captain of horse. He was afterwards made a gentleman of the king's chamber and sent as ambassador to England. In recognition of these services the duke gave him the order of the Annunziata, and found a wife for his son with a dowry of 20,000 crowns.
Asti, the 4 December, 1614.
Dec. 5. Senato, Secreta. Dispacci, Inghilterra. Venetian Archives. 520. Antonio Foscarini, Venetian Ambassador in England, to the Doge and Senate.
The Marquis of Brandenburg approved of the opinion of the ambassadors with regard to the agreement, and afterwards, on the 18th, Neuburg also accepted it, but added that ratification by the Elector and Electress was necessary, for which there is not a sufficient commission. He asked for a short time that would be necessary to send for and receive it, and that when it comes it shall not disturb or prevent a good issue. He promised that Spinola shall bind himself to restore all the places, without entering into particulars, if Maurice will also do the same; that Spinola will give his eldest son as a hostage, if the other side will also offer persons of fitting quality. Your Excellencies will see all this from the copy of Neuberg's letter which I enclose with a translation.
Late on Sunday the ambassador of the States received news of this proposal. The count of Scarnafes knew it and on Monday he saw the king's secretary and on the following day he sent to the king His Majesty's recent agent at Turin, to press for a decision. He got him to say, that as the end of the fighting in Flanders seems to be near, it remains for His Majesty to come to a decision and declare that he intends to help the duke with the 8,000 infantry, of which the Secretary spoke, or what he proposes to do; whether he has decided to permit those who wish to arm ships to cruise and prey upon Spain under the duke's flag, to do it if it comes to open war. Within one or two days at most the agent will return with the reply, which I will discover and send information to your Excellencies.
The day before yesterday the French ambassador called upon me. He told me of two despatches from the Marquis of Rambouillet to their Most Christian Majesties, one of the 13th and the other of the 18th ult. They contain the promise given to His Highness on behalf of the king of France, in case the governor of Milan fails to keep his word and the proposal to disarm first; the proposal to withdraw the governor's troops to the other extremity of the state Milan; the suggestion of the nuncio, to put the duke's army and his safety in the hands of France, the recrimination because the governor had seduced a certain Frenchman and incited him to assassinate the duke, as he confessed; that the goveror denied this and complained about it, the statements of Rambouillet about this, and other things, all of which will have reached your Excellencies much earlier and upon which I need not enlarge. He afterwards told me that on Tuesday the 2nd inst. he went to the king's secretary, and told him that he had once promised His Majesty that the troops which are serving the duke should not be recalled, and that their acts in this respect would only be for appearance sake, and that the matters of Cleves and the duke should be settled in concert. But now the duke displayed too much restiveness, and he took back his word and cancelled his promise, defending himself with copious speech. The secretary requested him to write to France asking them not to recall the troops or withdraw their ambassador. That meanwhile he would write to the king and, after learning his will, they would act together as was fitting. So that very evening he sent a courier post to their Most Christian Majesties, and the secretary sent another to the king. The same ambassador told me that they have always shown a friendly feeling towards the duke here, and he thought that it was now better than ever, and after he had made some reflections about it he asked me for my opinion about the cause of it. I was very well able to see that he has not discovered the particulars of the negotiations either here or in Holland.
I hear on good authority that a knight, a close relation of Lord Rich, has promised to arm two bertons, under the duke's flag, and some merchants will arm three if war ensues. The king will allow this and will bind them to give security that they will harm no one but the Spaniards. Rich says that he has the troops of his command ready, and within six weeks he promised to have the 4,000 infantry ready at the first sign.
London, the 5 December, 1614.
Enclosed in the preceding Despatch. 521. Reply of Neuburg to the Ambassadors.
Since by the grace of God and your good offices the treaty of agreement between the Marquis of Brandenburg and myself has been brought to such a point that no difficulty remains except the time of its execution, one side saying that it should be made at once and my side claiming that we should await the ratification of the Elector and Electress of Brandenburg, seeing that there are recent examples of agreements remaining nugatory for lack of ratification, we ask you to allow the short time necessary to obtain this ratification. As for the places occupied by the Marquis Spinola, he will withdraw the garrisons upon the arrival of the ratification, provided that Prince Maurice binds himself to do the same, and for greater security he will give hostages, in the same measure as the prince will give them on his side, including his eldest son.
Wolfgang William, Count Palatine.
From the camp at Wesel, the 18 November, 1614.
522. Translation of the above.
Dec. 5. Senato, Secreta. Dispacci, Inghilterra. Venetian Archives. 523. Antonio Foscarini, Venetian Ambassador in England, to the Doge and Senate.
Here they evidently do not consider the provisional agreement to be very assured and they are much more doubtful about the restitution of Wesel, which they consider the principal point. Many say that even if the agreement is established and the place restored, war will break out in the spring between Spain and the States, and they adduce as reasons the fleet which they are sending to the West Indies, the intimation made by the emperor to demolish the part of the fort erected in the country which has relation with His Majesty, the questions of Aix la Chapelle, Frankfort and other difficult and contentious points.
The forty ships, of which I wrote, will not leave Holland for the West Indies before February, but they have been increased up to the number of fifty-seven, of better quality.
An agent of the king of Morocco is here. Last week he visited the ambassador of the States several times. They hope to secure from that king several advantages on that voyage.
Two ships have reached Plymouth (Plemua), taken from the Spaniards. They have since gone on to Holland; a Jew, their owner, has remained here. The Catholic ambassador has endeavoured to compel him to give them up, but he shewed a patent of Morocco, and a definite order of the king, and so he remains free. (fn. 1)
The merchants are preparing four ships to send to the country of the Mogul, the smallest of 1,000 and the largest of 1,100 tons. With these they beseech His Majesty to send as ambassador Sir [Thomas] Roe (Ro), who will be paid by them. The king has consented, but not to the person, because he comported himself in an unseemly manner in the last parliament (ha il Re assentito ma non nella persona, perche si porto poco bene nell ultima convocatione del Parlamento). They will leave in February. Their purpose is to capture for themselves the trade of the Portugese. They are going well armed in order to be able to resist, with the knowledge and good will of that king.
Two ships of M. de Villers, governor of Havre de Grace, have taken a ship of the fleet, laden with 400,000 crowns.
The king has written to the king of France, the queen and the prince of Condé in favour of MM. de Courtenay as your Excellencies will see by the enclosed copy. Their Most Christian Majesties have made a favourable reply to the ambassador. By the advice of His Majesty, they left three days ago. They have expressed to me a special devotion to your Excellencies and have asked me to inform you of it, and they declare that they will act with Conde in all circumstances, to whom they are most closely allied, so that he may interest himself in everything which may be of service or favour to your Serenity. I thanked them in suitable terms.
Four days ago the courier returned who was sent to the ambassador with your Serenity. In passing through he has diligently observed the quality and quantity of the garrisons, the improvements made in divers places of your Excellencies, and has given a special account of everything, and, as I hear, this will be imparted to His Majesty. The said ambassador has written to the king that he is treating with some of the chief men in Switzerland in the interests of your Serenity.
The earl of Arundel came here the day before yesterday. He kissed the hands of the king, queen and prince. He lauded Italy, extolled the favours which he had received from your Excellencies and spoke in terms of considerable warmth of those rendered to him by the duke of Savoy. The king expressed his pleasure at this and spoke the usual words in their honour. As regards Savoy he was resolved to do as much as the power of his realms would permit to free him from oppression, if a way was not found to an agreement consonant with his honour and safety.
London, the 5 December, 1614.
Enclosed in the preceding Despatch. 524. Letter of the King of Great Britain to the Most Christian King.
MM. de Courtenay having come to us on withdrawing from your kingdom to satisfy their honour, awaiting the time that your Majesty would be of age, have had recourse to us to beseech your Majesty to render justice to them, which they have so long asked for, and for the preservation of the rights of their birth, the recognition of their house and that they may be protected from what has been attempted to their prejudice, contrary to the laws and the forms of justice. We have not been able to refuse them the right of hospitality during the negotiations upon a cause which seems so just and honourable. As we have displayed a constant affection for the house of France, from which history shows them to be sprung in the direct male line, we have judged that it would not be grievous if we added our recommendation to their supplication, to ask that the justice of their cause may be considered as its importance deserves, and as it affects so nearly the royal dignity, and we feel sure that you will one day be grateful to us for the recommendation, as we think that it will be more decent that they should be about you than that they should be seen wandering about the courts of other princes, complaining that they have been abandoned, and nothing can better assure your state and person than the maintenance of the princes of your blood and house.
Your very affectionate cousin,
James R.
From our palace of Westminster, the 9th July, 1614.
Enclosed in the preceding Despatch. 525. Translation of the above.
Enclosed in the preceding Despatch. 526. Letter of the King of Great Britain to the Queen Regent of France.
MM. de Courtenay have withdrawn here and have acquainted us of their long suit and of the reasons upon which they base their pretentions, as well as their resolve to see the other allied and confederate princes of France to aid them in their supplication. They have asked me to support their arguments. We believe that it will not be taken ill if we add our recommendation, which we ask you to attribute chiefly to our friendliness towards you, the king, and the establishment of his state, since this is a question of the blood royal. It may be said that they are the strongest and surest pillars. We do not doubt that you will judge it expedient to apply some moderation to the matter which led them to remove themselves, rather than see them wandering about the courts of other princes with their complaints.
Your affectionate brother,
From our palace at Westminster, the 9 July, 1614.
Enclosed in the preceding Despatch. 527. Translation of the above.
Enclosed in the preceding Despatch. 528. Letter of the King of Great Britain to the Prince of Conde, first prince of the blood.
You are aware that MM. de Courtenay have withdrawn to us and have informed us of their long suit and their resolve to obtain the support of the other allied and confederate Princes for the recognition of their claims by the king, now so near his majority, and the queen regent. We have asked them to give their claims due consideration and to afford them their protection. We have also thought fit to write to you, so that one born a prince of the blood may the more readily embrace such a cause, which we consider to be based on just grounds. We think it would be better to show more moderation in the matter which induced them to withdraw rather than see them wander about the courts of other princes with their complaints. My cousin, such an act would be worthy of your rank and useful to the whole state and for the stability of your house.
Your affectionate cousin,
From our palace of Westminster, the 9 July, 1614.
Enclosed in the preceding Despatch. 529. Translation of the above.
Dec. 7. Collegio, Secreta. Esposizioni Principi. Venetian Archives. 530. The Catholic Ambassador came into the Cabinet and said:—
We know that the king of England is a peaceful prince. He has spoken to the ambassador of his Catholic Majesty accredited to him in a manner which shows that he does not wish to have a hand in troubles. This he has done quite spontaneously without any suggestion from us. It is possible that his ministers, owing to their distance from home, take some liberties. They also say that which is not, because it is their property to make broad their phylacteries, and all their words must not be believed. The ambassador of England resident here is my friend and a worthy man, but we must open our eyes to his proceedings. I know that he has written a letter to the duke of Savoy, persuading him to postpone the time of agreement, giving him to understand that he will receive assistance. We also know the duke's reply. Similarly the count of Scarnafes, the Ambassador of Savoy, who was in Holland has returned to England and has asked that the affairs of those parts may not be settled without these, but that they may be arranged together. They are afraid that if a settlement is made there, everything will fall upon them, while the others would prefer that all the disturbance should remain there, and so they contrive to evade all settlements and the laying down of arms. This is contrary to the intention of the republic, which is working for peace, and rightly since the maintenance of an armed force is bound to trouble everyone. His Majesty can easily place obstacles in the way of this foreign assistance, which would be provided with difficulty even if it were not so far off. He is well prepared for everything, but we wish your Serenity to know how to deal with the offices of these Englishmen. I am instructed by His Majesty and by the Governor to praise the prudence and sincerity of your Serenity in these negotiations. His Majesty wishes you to be informed of everything that takes place. We know that if this prince should prove triumphant in his designs, there will be no more peace in the province, no rest from his rashness and vigour, everything will be turned upside down, and it will be necessary to raise new armies daily, incur great expenses as well as great labour and danger.
Dec. 9. Senato, Secreta. Dispacci, Francia. Venetian Archives. 531. Pietro Contarini, Venetian Ambassador in France, to the Doge and Senate.
M. de Reffugé, His Majesty's ambassador in Flanders, writes that it is no longer possible to doubt the conclusion of an agreement between the Princes of Brandenburg and Neuburg, as both have signed the conditions drawn up by the ambassador of England and himself. The Burgundians have already withdrawn from Spinola's army and the French from Maurice's. He adds, however, that the Spaniards try to obtain delay by various artifices, perhaps in order to gain time. This is helped by the arrival of ambassadors from the Emperor and the Archduke, who claim a share in the treaty on behalf of their masters. But they have not been admitted, as the ministers of the two crowns are unwilling to share with others the glory which they claim to be all their own.
From Paris, the 9 December, 1614.
Dec. 10. Senato, Secreta. Dispacci, Grisoni. Venetian Archives. 532. Gregorio Barbarigo, Venetian Ambassador Extraordinary to the Swiss and Grisons, to the Doge and Senate.
From Germany comes the news that the Duke of Neuburg has accepted the capitulations, but the last courier has not brought letters from those parts. Here they fear that difficulties will arise as the Marquis Spinola seems anxious to protract the negotiations; but the ambassadors of France and England and the States of Holland having offered themselves for the ratification of what has been agreed upon, the articles have been sent for signature. Spinola raised a further difficulty; that although he was ready to restore Wesel, if an accommodation were made, he would not abandon the fortifications made by him unless Cleves were restored. Neuburg's idea is to make a division, which though nominally provisional might become perpetual, and that the part assigned to each might be kept by him until the final decision. But the Marquis of Brandenburg wishes them to change about every six months, so as to make sure that neither shall establish himself in one of the parts.
I know on good authority that Count Scarnafes, ambassador of the duke of Savoy with the king of Great Britain, has gone to Count Maurice to confer with him and the States in the name of His Highness. But Maurice sent him on to the Hague to treat with the States themselves. But before he had public audience he conferred with Barnevelt, who advised him not to speak at present, because the matter could not be kept so secret as was desirable and also because the States would be unable to do anything without a special decision of the king of Great Britain, to whom they must look not so much for advice as for example (c poi perche li stati non haverebbono fatto nulla senza una particolar risolutione del Re della Gran Bertagna, del quale haverebbono aspettato non tanto l'ariso quanto l'esempio).
The points which His Highness wished to advance were, 1st the continuation of the war in those parts, 2nd the friendship of the States, 3rd the maintenance of the troops which the Duke now has on his shoulders. The first point was considered of considerable difficulty and it was thought that its proposal would be of no advantage, and therefore the other two will probably not be mentioned, before the king's decision has been obtained. The ambassador has therefore returned to London in order to negotiate first with His Majesty.
From Zurich, the 10 December, 1614.
Dec. 12. Senato. Secreta. Dispacci, Inghilterra. Venetian Archives. 533. Antonio Foscarini, Venetian Ambassador in England, to the Doge and Senate.
On Thursday the ambassador of France saw the ambassador of the States. He informed him of the negotiations of Rambouillet, and added what was his king's mind with regard to this. He expressed a suspicion that the States wished to foment Savoy in order to gratify the king here. He begged him to move cautiously in writing about such affairs and asked him to keep that interview to himself. He afterwards added that the ambassadors of His Most Christian Majesty have instructions to speak with regard to this. He enlarged upon this, using the words and ideas which he thought most fitting to effect his purpose, and concluded by saying that the duke will find it expedient to yield, as he is no longer in a position to receive help in time. The Dutch ambassador listened attentively to what the French ambassador delivered with emotion, remaining reserved, and he replied in a few words of minor importance. On the following day the ambassador of France went to see the ambassador of Spain and gave him an account of what had passed between him and the king's secretary, myself, and lastly the ambassador of the States, and the replies received. That the first office will be despatched the same evening by a courier sent post to the knowledge of His Majesty, and the following day to that of the Lords of the Council. That with the States the strong expressions which he employed with their ambassador will have a great effect, and the words spoken by the Christian ambassador at the Hague to the same effect will finally induce them to believe that whatever comes from his king in this matter for the gratification of His Catholic Majesty, will be very heartily afforded. He also said that he had passed some office with one of the lords here. The ambassador of Spain replied in courteous and friendly terms, laying stress upon the importance of a good understanding between their two sovereigns. In speaking of this, the carrying out of the marriages and other things they spent three hours and more together.
On Saturday I saw the ambassador of the States, from whom I obtained information of some of the things of which I am writing, and which I had heard before.
Every day of late the Council of State has met and has discussed for the most part the manner of assisting the duke of Savoy. As I knew that on Monday the king's secretary was to go to His Majesty with an abstract of the matters discussed and decided, I thought it would be for the service of your Excellencies to call upon him to discover the course of an affair which touches you so nearly. As he was leaving, I wished him a good journey, and afterwards when we began to talk about the matters under discussion, I got him to show confidence, touching some of the matters which he knew before. I showed myself suitably informed about this in order to make him speak. What I gathered from his conversation in brief is the resolution of His Majesty not to allow the duke to fall in any way, or to be at the discretion of others. That the opinion of the majority of the Council was that assistance would not be given in any way more opportune than by money, leaving him free to obtain troops where he thinks fit, and to make use of everything else. There is an inclination to send an ambassador to the duke to come to an understanding and treat, and finally to assist the duke so that he may either enjoy, with complete security and a reasonable reputation, a settlement and peace, or be protected by arms and delivered from oppression. Late on Monday the secretary left for His Majesty after having passed the whole day in the Council.
Last week His Majesty's horse fell under him. The doctors immediately set out, but, praise God, he did himself no harm of any moment.
The agent, who was to have been here four days ago with the king's reply to Scarnafes, has not yet arrived. The day before yesterday he wrote to him, and the words of the letter, which I have seen, are as follows:
As I have not been able to come to your Excellency so quickly as I had hoped, I must explain the reason for my delay. It has been caused by the indisposition of the king owing to his fall, since when he has not transacted any business. He has suffered no other harm, except that he feels slightly tired and has a touch of the gout (non è per altro male che una certa stanchezza con un poco di gota). He desired me to say that he will hear me to-day, as because of the affection which he bears for His Highness he wishes this affair to be despatched with expedition before everything else, and I will return immediately without losing a moment. Your Excellency may promise yourself all success, only wait a couple of days.
Scarnafes is therefore daily expecting the reply and decision, which should have come before and have been delayed by the king's fall and indisposition.
London, the 12 December, 1614.
Dec. 12. Senato, Secreta. Dispacci, Inghilterra. Venetian Archives. 534. Antonio Foscarini, Venetian Ambassador in England, to the Doge and Senate.
A week yesterday Scarnafes saw the ambassador of the States and asked him if he had received any reply to what he had recently written to his masters by the king's command. He said no, but that he expected it daily and that it would be good and satisfactory to His Majesty. He afterwards began to speak of the campaign in Flanders, and told him that the Spaniards seemed determined to winter near Wesel and Cleves. He tried hard, by various arguments, to convince Scarnafes that there would be war in those parts in the spring.
While they were in the midst of this discussion the ambassador of France suddenly appeared, so that the count left, but as they passed by each other, they exchanged courteous salutations.
On the Saturday when I saw the ambassador of the States, besides what I wrote in the preceding letter, he showed me that he thought war in the spring was certain, and that if an agreement had been made at Cleves, it would begin with the execution of the ban against Frankfort. On Sunday the king's secretary used words of practically the same nature with me. In speaking of the duke of Savoy, he asked me if I had news of the arrival of the ambassador of your Serenity and of what offices he had passed, and whether they had been as described by the ambassador of France. I replied that I had received no information whatever about it and had heard nothing except what that ambassador had told me; that the ambassador of your Excellencies had been sent in reply to the mission of the Lieger of the duke, and at the same time to perform those offices which are characteristic of your Serenity. He spoke to me about the marriages between France and Spain, expressing a suspicion that the ministers who have arranged them will not rest satisfied until they have induced the deputies to demand their effectuation, and that they should take place before the separation of the Estates.
The agent of Morocco has settled with the Dutch about some ships which that king asks of them, and has granted the use of all his ports on the ocean as far as Guinea to take provisions, men and all things when they pass with their fleet, which will be in three months, in order to harass the Catholic king in the West Indies. With the advantages which they will derive from the places of that king, situate opposite the country which they propose to attack, and of that sea, through which the fleets are bound to pass, they have great hopes.
On Monday the ambassador of Spain sent to see me, to say that he felt certain of the good offices of your Serenity for the peace of Italy, and in Flanders everything had been accommodated, and peace reigned.
To-day I have been to dine with Scarnafes and Rich. The latter has shown himself ready to effect the levies at the first sign, and the former is awaiting the reply from the king. With all my efforts I have not been able to discover more, and I really believe that there is nothing more to discover.
London, the 12 December, 1614.
Dec. 14. Senato, Secreta. Dispacoi, Inghilterra. Venetian Archives. 535. Antonio Foscarini, Venetian Ambassador in England, to the Doge and Senate.
Fresh disputes have arisen at Cleves about disarming and making restitution first, and upon other points also, so that the agreement has been postponed and men's minds embittered. Both on Spinola's and on Maurice's side the forces are being considerably increased. Couriers have arrived here post from Spain and Flanders. The ambassador of the Archduke has gone to have audience of the king, who is many miles away. The ambassador of Spain, who gave me the information of which I wrote, has added that they are travelling towards a breach, but not through the fault of his king. When the ambassador of His Highness returns, the couriers will be sent off again to Spain and Flanders. As the king's agent did not arrive yesterday as expected, the count of Scarnafes has travelled to His Majesty to-day to ask for a decision and a reply. Please God I will inform your Excellencies by the ordinary of what takes place.
London, the 14 December, 1614.
Dec. 14. Senato, Secreta. Dispacci, Firenze. Venetian Archives. 536. Domenico Dominici, Venetian Resident at Florence, to the Doge and Senate.
News comes from Livorno that two of the principal pirates, of whom I wrote, have been hanged and quartered and gibbeted at the Molo as an example. Their companions and accomplices have been put in chains for life.
From Florence, the 14 December, 1614.
Dec. 15. Collegio, Secreta. Lettere Re. Venetian Archives. 537. Jacobus Dei Gratia etc. Domino Antonio Memmo, Venetæ Reipub. Duci, amico nostro charissimo, Salutem. Cum nobis sit necessario utendum opera et ministerio viri, non minus fidelis, quam in his gerendis exercitati, in decidendis et componendis illis dissidiis, quæ inter Serenissemum Princepem, Affinem nostrum Ducem Sabaudiæ et Gubernatorem Mediolani, valde infeliciter orta sunt; neminem habemus cui istam Provinciam libentius censuimus commendandam quam Dudleio Carltono Legato nostro, qui cum tot per annos, apud vestram Rempub, resederit, quis status sit, et quæ conditio rerum, quæ nunc in Italiæ geruntur, optime debet intelligere. Petimus ergo ut munus istud, quod si imposuimus, vestra bona cum venia subeat, et si vestris consiliis præceptisque instructus, iter istud possit suscipere, Serenitas vester illud faciet, quod nobis erit quam gratissimum, et si nos nostra non fallat opinio, quam saluberrimum vestræ Reipublicæ.
Jacobus R. [autograph.]
Dat. apud Newmarket, quinto die Decembris, 1614.
Dec. 15. Inquisitori di Stato Dispacoi, Inghilterra. Venetian Archives. 538. Antonio Foscarini, Venetian Ambassador in England, to the Inquisitors of State.
Moscorno has served throughout the whole time of my embassy here. He has already reached the term of his service and asks for leave to return home. His request is genuine. If a reply is delayed, owing to the serious preoccupation of your Excellencies, I shall take silence for consent. This shall not prejudice the public service, as I will supply his place.
From London, the 15 December, 1614.
Covered by the preceding Despatch. 539. Letter of King James.
We have previously notified you that your ambassadors should enjoy the same privileges with us as with others. The Ambassador Foscarini has asked to be placed first after the ambassadors of the kings, before all others, which place, he asserts, is granted to the representatives of the republic with the king of Spain. We at once assured him we would neglect nothing which concerned his dignity and convenience, and wrote to our ambassador in Spain ordering him to inform us what place, orders and dignity your ambassadors occupy there. We beg to assure you that we will do everything possible for the glory and honour of the republic.
Dated, etc., the 13 February, 1613. (fn. 2)
Dec. 15. Senato, Secreta. Dispacci. Savoia. Venetian Archives. 540. Ranier Zen, Venetian Ambassador in Savoy, to the Doge and Senate.
The very evening that we reached Turin, namely yesterday, the ambassador of France gave a sumptuous banquet, at which the duke was present and which lasted until eleven o'clock, with great rejoicings. The duke was loaded with jewels and among other things he wore a sword decorated with diamonds, recently given to him by the king of England. His Highness himself told me that it was worth 30,000 crowns.
From Turin, the 15 December, 1614.


  • 1. Here is a Jew pirate arrested that brought three prizes of Spaniards into Plymouth; he was set out by the King of Morocco, and useth Hollanders' ships, and for the most part their marines. But it is like he shall pass it over well enough, for he pretendeth to have leave of licence under the king's hand for his free egress and regress, which was not believed upon the first sight, till he made proof of it. John Chamberlain to Sir Dudley Carleton on 4 Nov. 1614, o.s. Birch, Court of James I. i. p. 352.
  • 2.