Venice: July 1615, 1-15

Pages 503-519

Calendar of State Papers Relating To English Affairs in the Archives of Venice, Volume 13, 1613-1615. Originally published by His Majesty's Stationery Office, London, 1907.

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July 1615, 1–15

July 2. Senato, Secreta. Dispacci, Inghilterra. Venetian Archives. 899. Antonio Foscarini, Venetian Amaassador in England, to the Doge and Senate.
It is now fifty days since the courier was sent to Turin with the instructions about securing peace which I reported, thirty-three since the gentleman of the ambassador of Savoy left and twenty-six since the secretary of the Ambassador Carleton went, yet the courier has not yet returned, and there is no further news than what I reported a week ago.
On Sunday the ambassador of Savoy saw the king's secretary, who told him that he had letters from the ambassador of His Majesty in France who reported that their Most Christian Majesties had entirely consented to the five heads of demands made by the duke's ambassadors and he hoped that His Highness was at peace or soon would be. The ambassador replied that the consent of France does not settle the matter or create a situation, that the consent of Spain is necessary, which seems afar off, as they have not agreed to an armistice, for the governor of Milan continues to do his utmost to despoil the duke of his state; that if France is contented with sending a courier to Spain, the war going on vigorously the while and the negotiations proceeding slowly, the duke being abandoned and without assistance must certainly fall. He enlarged upon this with much emphasis, but without any results as the secretary did not depart from the usual and commonplace remarks. He pointed out that the king here, although far away and removed from the duke's interests, has nevertheless done more for his service than all the other princes together, with the intention of continuing to do so; that those who were nearer and more concerned in the duke's fall ought to do their share and support him. He informed him how he had charged me in the name of His Majesty to write to your Excellencies, exhorting you to follow his example and provide the duke with some assistance in money; that he had previously done the same with the Resident of Florence, and had afforded an example to all by first paying down the 100,000 crowns; that if peace cannot be obtained he will get the others to pay, and will not fail to do all in his power.
While matters are in this position various people are getting ready armed ships for the service of His Highness, and some are already ready and under sail. They are waiting for nothing except the patents of the ambassador, which he will bring in five or six days, although he hopes that some news will come about the continuation of war, or else peace.
I hear on good authority that the last letters written by the States in reply to the duke contain a promise of assistance whether the affairs of Cleves are settled or no; and seven ships have already started for Villafranca.
Three days ago Barnevelt was to have returned to the Hague and to-morrow the general assembly will begin, in which they will discuss the nature of the assistance. The agent of the duke leaves here to-day for this occasion, to prefer requests. He has received word from Amsterdam that he will be provided with 2,000 corslets, as many pikes, muskets and arquebuses, which will serve to arm 6,000 foot, and they will at the same time send 1,000 barrels of powder by other vessels which are getting ready to start.
A Dutch pirate of great reputation and following has sent to ask pardon of the States, who have sent back the messenger with letters from themselves and Prince Maurice to say that he may go in safety to serve His Highness, and if he serves well and brings back a testimonial of his good service at the end of the war, he shall be pardoned, and so the messenger has returned.
The document which the king's secretary gave to the ambassador contains the articles which I reported a week ago, in order that they might be confirmed if they pleased him. However, the ambassador is keeping them himself, without making any further request, and is simply passing the time until the arrival of news of the state of his master, with fresh orders.
London, the 2 July, 1615.
July 2. Senato, Secreta. Dispacci, Inghilterra. Venetian Archives. 900. Antonio Foscarini, Venetian Ambassador in England, to the Doge and Senate.
Already some weeks ago the negotiations were resumed for marrying the prince here to the second princess of France. The principal points have been settled almost in the same terms as I reported. Two alone create difficulties, one is the place where the marriage shall be consummated, the other the education of the children. With regard to the first the king will be contented if the nuptial feasts, which they call fiancailles (fianzagli) are celebrated in France, but the consummation here, upon this point he advances many arguments, and seems displeased at the delay. As for the education of the children it seems as if the pretensions of France were being abandoned, and here they seem inclined to be more liberal in allowing to the princess the free exercise of the Catholic religion, and to give them every satisfaction. It is certain that the Spanish ambassador has spoken to the king for his second Infanta for the prince and His Majesty has imparted the whole to the ambassadors of the States and of Brandenburg, from whom I heard this confirmed. The king's secretary also told the ambassador of Savoy about it. Among the councillors of His Majesty, to whom he imparted the state of the negotiations a few days ago, there are some friends of Spain, possibly interested ones, who speak in a manner very contrary to the king's taste. He is most determined to conclude with France, and has clearly told the Spanish ambassador that the matter is so far advanced that he cannot and ought not to treat with others. (Tra i Consiglieri della Maiestá Sua a qual hà ella conferito gia pochi giorni lo stato della trattatione, ve ne sono di amici di Spagna, et forse interessati, che parlano con sensi poco conformi al gusto del Rè, che si mostra risolutissimo di concluder con francia et ha detto chiaro all' Ambassadore di Spagna che tanto inanzi, che non può ne deve trattar con altri.) The ambassador in France has taken various vigorous steps to hinder or at least postpone the passing of the betrothed princes from France to Spain and from Spain to France, and it is understood that he has not received a reply to his taste. This is gathered from his most recent letters, written the day before yesterday.
London, the 2 July, 1615.
July 2. Senato, Secreta. Dispacci, Inghilterra. Venetian Archives. 901. Antonio Foscarini, Venetian Ambassador in England, to the Doge and Senate.
On the third day the ambassador of Brandenburg had audience of the king. He asked His Majesty if a day had been fixed upon for the restitution of the places. The king replied that he had written about this to the States, that the archduke is ready, and there will be peace everywhere. When the ambassador was about to reply, His Majesty interrupted him and assured him in emphatic terms that the places will be restored and that he might be assured of it, for there was no longer any doubt. He refused to listen to the contrary and repeated to the ambassador that the places would be restored and that they would see the results in a very few days. He went on to say that the marriage of the prince with France continues to draw nearer, and he had said so frankly to the ambassador of Spain who had spoken to him about the second Infanta; and so the ambassador took leave after a very few words which the king allowed him to pronounce and without any results from his audience than the promises which 1 report.
The Spanish ambassador has told me that the archduke now intends that the promise to restore the places shall be made by the States to His Highness, and he will no longer be contented that it shall be said simply following the promises made by them. I asked him if these were the advices of the past week. He replied that they were not, that they had only arrived on the preceding day, that they suppose that here they will no longer speak about such a restitution, that the affair is becoming more difficult, that the whole of the archduke's council is of one mind upon the matter, and he concluded in clear terms that there will be no restitution. He afterwards added that in Flanders they are enlisting soldiers and preparing their arms, that in his opinion they would come to grief in Germany. He enlarged upon this; that the ambassador of the archduke will leave soon, that the ambassadress has already taken leave of the queen, and he enlarged upon similar ideas.
The States, in their present general assembly, will decide upon the affairs of Cleves, and will make provision for the safety of themselves, their friends and allies. The reply is expected soon from those parts to what the king wrote about appointing a time for the restitution, and it is considered certain by the majority of people that the Spaniards are simply gaining time and will not make restitution, as I have written several times, and as I have frequently heard from the mouth of the Spanish ambassador himself.
I have frequently represented my afflictions and how much I need to return home, the loss of my substance and of health, so that I have nothing more to expend except my goodwill. I beg your Excellencies to come to the decision which I expect from your generosity.
London, the 2 July, 1615.
July 2. Inquisitori di Stato. Dispacci, Inghilterra. Venetian Archives. 902. Giovanni Rizzardo, Venetian Secretary in England, to the Inquisitors of State.
On Saturday the 27th of last month the Spanish ambassador at length came to call on His Excellency, ten days after he said he was coming to communicate the news which he had, as I wrote to your Excellencies, and about two months after the visit paid by His Excellency. The last time they met His Excellency said that he had begun to think that the Spanish ambassador was under the impression that there was no longer any ambassador of Venice in London, and he had almost decided, if it were possible, to avoid meeting him again. The other replied that if he had imagined that he had sunk so low in his favour he would have been to see him again and again, to increase the esteem for the ambassador Foscarini which his merits and his position demanded. His Excellency replied that he also greatly esteemed both Don Diego Sarmiento and the ambassador of Spain, as the representative of so great a king. They remained more than an hour together, exchanging similar compliments, and when at length the Spanish ambassador left, he seemed quite friendly towards His Excellency. Perhaps he thought he would increase his reputation by delaying the visit; possibly he was really offended and was moved by something done from this house, or perhaps, being informed of the king's pressure on the republic to help Savoy, he did not think it advisable to remain unfriendly with the ambassador of Venice any longer. Perhaps all these considerations operated together, or something else, at all events his action was quite spontaneous. I hope that no harm may result and that he will maintain a correct attitude for the future. He has not done so in the past, as he was always impressed by the evil reports maliciously circulated against the ambassador.
Sig. Ludovico Montecucoli has also left here for Italy, having been sent for recently by his father. He was very intimate with this Spanish ambassador and most friendly to the Spaniards, as he wished to prove by serving under their king in war. It is thought that his uninterrupted stay of four months in this house did not tend to further a good understanding between these two ambassadors. He is going to Venice, and if your Excellencies desire to hear anything from him about Sig. Moscorno or anything else, as he is acquainted with some of the things which you desire to know, you may find him at the house of Sig. Lorenzo Giustiniano, where he is to stay, professing to be his friend and servant.
The ambassador of the archduke will depart in a few days, leaving his secretary behind. His pretensions will go with him and there will be an end of the disputes.
I understand it is true that when the Countess of Arundel arrived here on her return from Italy the ambassador Foscarini sent word to say that he would call on her. She excused herself the first and the second time on the ground of indisposition, and he never went to see her. However, he called on the earl, who returned the visit about twenty days later. I have heard this from various persons and it was confirmed by the interpreter Odoardo Guazzo. Of many persons whom I have asked no one knows whether the Countess of Arundel had any cause of offence against the ambassador or against this house or any other reason, and up to the present I have not been able to ascertain anything further. I might state that it was due to the ill offices of Lady Hay or other ladies, egged on by somebody, but that would be mere conjecture though a probable one, and not my idea alone but that of others also. When I have something better established I will inform your Excellencies.
I beg to announce that I have sent letters on the 11th, 18th and 25th ult. with duplicates of each. The bearers of those letters have all been paid here, the expense is not so small a matter that account should not be kept of it. This I do with the merchant who sends them, from time to time.
London, the 2 July, 1615.
Answered the 31 July.
[Italian; the part in italics deciphered.]
July 2. Cl. VII. Cod. MXLIX. Bibl. S. Marco, Venice. 903. Pietro Contarini, Venetian Ambassador in France, to the Doge and Senate.
Every day they are more active in preparing for the journey of their Majesties for Bayonne, the departure being fixed for the 15th inst., and orders for the body guard have already been issued.
They are trying to induce the prince of Condé and others to accompany the king by making bountiful promises, but up to the present without success. The duke of Nevers has seen the queen, who wished to know the intentions of the princes. It is thought that they simply wish to begin negotiations in order to delay the journey some days and give time for those of the religion to assemble and offer opposition, which they hope will be very considerable, because without them every attempt would prove fruitless. The English ambassador is at present more actively engaged upon this matter than on any other, and is dealing in particular with the Huguenots. His Majesty has directed Nevers to go to the princes and satisfy all reasonable demands. The Huguenots are especially offended that the Spaniards wish to show the queen an auto da fe before her departure.
Giulio Muscorno has arrived here from England. When he was proposing to continue his journey in great haste, he was overtaken by a severe sickness, which has stopped him for the present.
Paris, the 2 July, 1615.
July 4. Senato, Deliberazioni, Secreta. Venetian Archives. 904. To the Ambassador at Rome.
Yesterday evening we heard from our Ambassador Zen the news of the conclusion of peace. You will inform the pope and Cardinal Borghese of this happy event.
We may add for your information that although we ordered our ambassador to sign a promise to assist the duke in case of need, he did not sign such a promise or make any declaration of what would be done, as the other ambassadors have not signed hitherto. We hear that the Abbot Scaglia wrote to the count of Verua his father that the pope had expressed his intention to sign, but now that the agreement is made His Holiness is unwilling to bind himself.
Ayes 157.
Noes 0.
Neutral 1.
July 6. Senato, Seoreta. Dispacci, Germania. Venetian Archives. 905. Zorzi Giustinian, Venetian Ambassador in Germany, to the Doge and Senate.
When I arrived here I found all the other ambassadors getting ready new liveries, banquets and other things to celebrate the coming delivery of the queen and her coronation, as Cæsar had given them to understand that he would like them to do so.
Prague, the 6 July, 1615. Copy.
July 7. Cl. VII. Cod. MXLIX. Bibl. S. Marco, Venice. 906. Pietro Contarini, Venetian Ambassador in France, to the Doge and Senate.
No reply has as yet been given to the English ambassador with regard to the representations recently made by him in the name of his king. (fn. 1) They are about to send the ambassador who is to reside at that court, (fn. 2) with instructions upon this particular, and to find out whether it is true that the king there has promised 6,000 paid infantry to the princes and to the Huguenots if they will oppose the marriages with Spain, as is reported here. Villeroi complained about this to the ambassador, who professed complete ignorance.
The deputies of those of the religion are daily arriving at Grenoble for their assembly, to begin on the 15th. It is said that they all bring instructions to discuss some method of preventing the alliances with Spain, which they fear will turn greatly to their prejudice.
Paris, the 7 July, 1615.
July 8. Senato, Secreta. Dispacoi, Spagna. Venetian Archives. 907. Francesco Morosini, Venetian Ambassador in Spain, to the Doge and Senate.
Four ships of the royal fleet have arrived in the port of Lisbon which have been very roughly handled by an English pirate, so much so that they were glad to withdraw from the contest. New depredations in these seas are reported hourly. (fn. 3)
Madrid, the 8th July, 1615.
July 7. Senato, Secreta. Dispacci, Savoia. Venetian Archives. 908. Ranier Zen, Venetian Ambassador in Savoy, to the Doge and Senate.
I sent to congratulate the nuncio, the French ambassador, and England, upon the conclusion of the peace, giving to each the praise which I thought belonged to their good offices. I paid special compliments to France, who professes to have done everything, although he admits the great part paid by your Serenity. All have responded in complimentary terms.
Turin, the 7 July, 1615.
July 7. Senato, Secreta. Dispacci, Inghilterra. Venetian Archives. 909. Ranier Zen, Venetian Ambassador in Savoy, to the Doge and Senate.
The Senator Goveani has returned, sent by His Highness to the princes of Germany. He brings word that the Count Palatine told him that he did not think the duke needed troops any longer as he heard from England that peace was settled, but if necessary he would send 3,000 men. The other princes had been equally ready. He afterwards went to the States, where war is certain. They complain of the king of England, who is too credulous and allows the Spaniards to gain time, and he neither carries out the treaty of Xanten nor helps them for war. He is a prince of pacific intentions and the Spaniards have bribed all his ministers.
I have some fear that the presence of the Spanish army in the state of Milan may prove prejudicial to the interests of your Serenity. The other day I contrived to induce England to see that the terms of the article ran thus: that the Spaniards should reduce their forces to such a position that they should give no cause for alarm to any prince, republic or power, so as to include the Swiss and Grisons. He agreed willingly but France objected, and the words were removed. This shows the punctiliousness with which this document has been drawn up, because someone has always been raising objections. It was first proposed that there should only be one deed, with the pope's name first. Both England and France objected. I suggested a preamble with the names of the princes in the order of their negotiations with the duke. This was adopted for two or three days, but then the nuncio refused to be in the same document with England, and so they decided to make two, exactly alike, except the substitution of England for the pope. The nuncio raised various other objections and the two documents were made differently, but it was finally settled they should be alike. There is now some difficulty between England and France, but as it is a long matter I will reserve it for another despatch.
Turin, the 7 July, 1615.
[Italian; the part in italics deciphered.]
Enclosed in the preceding Despatch. 910. Acknowledgment of Pietro Francesco Costa, bishop of Savona, papal nuncio, that the documents signed by the ambassadors have been deposited with him with the letter of the French Ambassador to the governor of Milan and the reply.
The camp outside Asti, the 21 June, 1615.
July 9. Senato, Secreta. Dispacci, Inghilterra. Venetian Archives. 911. Antonio Foscarini, Venetian Ambassador in England, to the Doge and Senate.
The agent of the duke of Savoy left for the States at the Hague on the same day that I sent off my last, as I wrote that he would do. As the weather proved favourable it is thought that he will have crossed in two days and arrived opportunely at the beginning of the conference.
I am told that the pirate who asked pardon of the States has with him fourteen well armed ships.
I hear in letters from the Hague of the 24 ult. that count John of Nassau is at Padelborn with the cavalry. There he is awaiting the horse whom the son of the duke of Mecklenburg is levying with the money of the Palatine, Wirtemburg, Baden and others of the union.
Four days ago the ambassador of Savoy saw the king's secretary, and asked for assistance. The reply given was that if the duke is compelled to continue at war, assistance will be rendered to him even greater than was promised, but that peace is coming, that is what they are working for. When the ambassador reminded him of the repeated promises of the king and the imminent peril of his master, the secretary grew angry, saying that his Majesty had done more for His Highness than all the other princes put together although he had no interest in Italy; that all the princes of that land stand and look on, and the entire burden rests upon His Majesty alone. He enlarged upon this and finally emphatically promised that if the duke could not have peace he should be assisted by the king in war. Three days ago he sent a copy of the articles of the league between His Majesty and the United Princes, so that if they please His Highness he may enter, otherwise it is in his power to ally himself with the king and afterwards with the others, as I reported. If the duke accepts I hear on good authority that they will propose the same thing to your Serenity, with the same conditions, at your choice. The king aspires to include the great Swiss Cantons and the three leagues of the Grisons in the same union, this is set forth, at least as regards your Serenity, in the first point of the document which I said the secretary had given to the ambassador, which he has not yet authorised. I will make every effort to obtain it, or at least to see it, to send a copy or the substance to your Excellencies. I will also endeavour to obtain the confederation between His Majesty and the princes. It is in French, and I will forward a translation with the copy. The end and aim of the king is to obtain peace everywhere and a defensive union to secure all parts from attack by the Spaniards. Here, up to the present, they are surprised at receiving no news of the affairs of the duke of Savoy beyond what I have transmitted. The reports of peace, which are heard on every hand, delay the departure of many who would have gone thither ere now as adventures to serve His Highness. The three ships which are already under sail have not yet received the patents from the ambassador, who declares that he must first have certain news either of war or of peace.
London, the 9 July, 1615.
[Italian; the part in italics deciphered.]
July 9. Senato, Secreta. Dispacci, Inghilterra. Venetian Archives. 912. Antonio Foscarini, Venetian Ambassador in England, to the Doge and Senate.
In the general assembly which the States are now holding at the Hague, they will in a few days certainly come to a decision upon the affairs of Savoy and of Cleves, which are the greatest moment to them. It is considered certain that they will shortly send here an extraordinary ambassador to inform the king of what they have decided to do, and to learn the final decision of His Majesty.
The ambassador of the States in France, in letters of the 28th which I have seen, writes that although they are well aware of the artifices employed by the archduke with regard to Cleves, yet when he asks for assistance from their Most Christian Majesties to cause the places occupied by Spinola to be restored by force, he receives nothing but fair words in reply.
The ambassador of Brandenburg has letters from his master commanding him to importune the king strongly. He also charges him to make known to His Majesty that on the first of September the principal towns of Pomerania are to meet at Stettin, deputed by the kings of Poland and Sweden to treat upon some settlement of their differences; that France has said that she will send expressly to intervene, and he is to beg His Majesty to do the same. The ambassador has seen the secretary upon both of these points.
The ambassadress of Flanders has taken leave of the queen and will leave in a few days, and at the same time the ambassador will send away all his moveable goods, a sure sign that he will not stay long here. The agent will take his place and in the future the archduke will not send an ambassador here. The same ambassador told me that his master would not sign the treaty of Santen because it is injurious to the authority of the emperor. He remarked that for the differences of Cleves the proper course was sequestration and the annulling of the treaty, and that judgment must remain with the emperor.
The negotiations of Cleves remain in the state which I reported in my last without the slightest sign of any restitution of the places. Nevertheless, the king continues to assure the ambassadors of the States and Brandenburg that restitution will be made and peace will ensue everywhere. But while he speaks thus he is thinking of again summoning the parliament of the kingdom, as the sole means of providing a great sum of money for present emergencies. The proposal has been submitted to the Council of State, where opinions are various. The Spaniards, whom it does not suit to see the king in funds, while the people, constituting the most important part of the parliament, is ill disposed towards their interests and inclined to war, get their partisans to go to the Council in considerable numbers and oppose this. The treasurer, the chamberlain and some others, to whom the king has given enormous amounts, fear the summoning and therefore oppose it, and they have a following. (Ma mentre parla cosi, pensa di convocar da novo il Parlamento del Regno, come unico rimedio a proveder di grossa somma di danari per le occorenze presente, et è passato dal pensare al proporre al Consiglio di State ore varie son l'opinoni. Spagnioli a quali non comple veder il Re danaroso mentre vedono l'inclinazione del popolo, la parte più importante del parlamento mal disposto verso i loro interessi et inchinato alla guerra, fano con i loro fautori he vengono anco nel consiglio in numero considerabile, contrasto. Il Thesoriero, il Ciamberlano et qualche altro a chi ha donato il Re somme eccessive temono la convocazione, et però la contrastano, et hanno chi li segue). They have revived, in order to obtain money, a certain imposition, for once only, upon all houses built since the king's accession to this crown, but it amounts altogether to no more than 400,000 crowns, an insignificant sum, by no means adequate to the necessity. The sole remedy is believed to be the summoning of parliament, and it is thought certain to take place. It is undoubted that if the king will shut his eyes somewhat in this particular he will obtain a sum of five or six millions, and if he shows himself resolute for war it will notably facilitate matters, and he may easily find a way to make himself formidable (è certo che chiudendo il Re in qualche parte gl' occhi, caverà la summa di cinque e sei millioni; et mostrandosi risoluto alla guerra faciliterà notabilmente, et havera facilmente modo di rendersi formidabile).
London, the 9 July, 1615.
[London; the part in italics deciphered.]
July 9. Inquisitori di Stato. Dispacci, Inghilterra. Venetian Archives. 913. Giovanni Rizzardo, Venetian Secretary in England, to the Inquisitors of State.
As the ambassador of the archduke recently came to call on His Excellency, I had the opportunity of asking and learning how visits took place between them in the past in accordance with my instructions. I was told that the ambassador had not fulfilled his duty in returning visits, sometimes delaying and sometimes omitting it altogether, so that they have now been many months without calling on each other, just like the Spanish ambassador, whom they say that the ambassador of Flanders has always followed, doing nothing without his consent. This appears in the present case, as now the one has been to call the other has followed soon after.
I hear that the origin of the misunderstanding with Spain was a matter of ceremony. Sig. Foscarini went to call on Don Alonso, the late ambassador, after the arrival of Don Diego, the present one, to return a visit. He met both of them and the former told him that Don Diego had come to succeed him, and would be his servant as he had been himself. Sig. Foscarini replied that he would be very welcome, without adding anything more. They say that Don Diego was greatly offended that he should accept his service so simply and afterwards pretended that Sig. Foscarini ought to pay him a special call to himself, at another time, while His Excellency considered that he had done his part. Although they have met each other since, at the visitation of the sepulchres, on Good Friday, and have called on each other, yet he has always been on the look out for some opportunity of gaining a ceremonial advantage, by delaying his visits and in other ways in their mutual intercourse.
They say that the ambassador of Flanders took offence because Sig. Foscarini, in speaking about him in his house to his own familiars, in referring to his claims to precedence, gave utterance in the heat of the moment to some expressions which were not too respectful. This was all reported to the ambassador by the people of Sig. Foscarini's household. Moscorno also said that the ambassador of the archduke was jealous for his wife, who, owing to the proximity of their dwelling, was courted by the ambassador, after the custom of the country, but I have not been able to verify this.
I apologise to your Excellencies for proceeding in such apparent confusion; I have promised to set down the truth as I discover it, with my usual sincerity. I have gathered these particulars from Moravio, the chaplain, Guazzo, the interpreter, Sig. Alfonso Negretto, a Ferrarese gentleman, and others. In this respect I will say more to your Excellencies when the ambassador of Flanders leaves, within two months as I understand.
The news sent by His Excellency is all gathered from the other ambassadors during exchange of visits and particularly from Savoy, as I understand.
London, the 9 July, 1615.
[Italian; the part in italics deciphered.]
Answered 31 July.
July 13. Cl. VII Cod. MXLIX. Bibl S. Marco, Venice. 914. Pietro Contarini, Venetian Ambassador in France, to the Doge and Senate.
The nearer the approach of the Spanish marriages, the more apparent becomes the general opposition to them. The people, the nobility, the princes and all everywhere, abhor the idea; only those few who continually see His Majesty have not the courage to oppose or to warn him of what disturbances may ensue.
Paris, the 13 July, 1615.
July 13. Cl. VII Cod. MXLIX. Bibl S. Marco, Venice. 915. Pietro Oontarini, Venetian Ambassador in France, to the Doge and Senate.
Many various opinions are held here of the peace made in Italy. Their Majesties are sending a courier to confirm the articles drawn up by the marquis of Rambouillet and to pardon the French who entered the duke's service. The English ambassador is in some uncertainty because he has not hitherto received any news from the ambassador, his correspondent at Turin, or the courier, whom he previously said he would send for the king, so soon as ever the treaty was made. The news has caused great dissatisfaction to those who hoped that the difficulties in Italy would hinder the marriages with Spain, and they have given out that skirmishes have taken place between the Savoyards and Spaniards.
Paris, the 13 July, 1615.
July 13. Senato, Secreta. Dispacoi. Germania. Venetian Archives. 916. Zorzi Giustinian, Venetian Ambassador in Germany, to the Doge and Senate.
With regard to the peace of Savoy, those who are not interested speak highly of the duke of Savoy. Many others on the contrary speak otherwise because the dependents of the Spaniards are numerous in this court. I know, however, that the emperor is not contented with them about this peace because he thinks they have had little regard for his dignity in the cold mention which they have made of it, very different from what they promised when they utilised his authority against the duke.
Prague, the 13 July, 1615. Copy.
July 14. Senato, Secreta. Dispacci, Savoia. Venetian Archives. 917. Ranier Zen, Venetian Ambassador in Savoy, to the Doge and Senate.
The duke summoned all the ambassadors to sign and got England and myself to come a little earlier. England read his declaration and I read mine, and the duke made his agree with mine. England, seeing that France was expressly named and his king only included among other princes, asked that France should not be named or any other or else that the king of England should also be expressly mentioned. The duke concurred, but I objected to any change in the wording. The English ambassador told me in a low voice that he attached great importance to this point and he did not believe that the republic would refuse to give satisfaction to his king in a matter of so little moment to them. Accordingly I agreed to the form—France, the king of England and other princes; but I told him I would tell them privately the reasons which moved me to take this course. The ambassador of France arrived later. Among other things he objected to signing after Gueffier, I believe simply for the sake of raising a difficulty. England and the duke pointed out that something similar had been done in the agreement of the States. He said he wished to have a new copy because Gueffier had nothing to do with these negotiations, and so it was decided that every one should read and publish his own document, that fresh copies should be made and taken to the house of each ambassador to sign, without having a fresh meeting. The French ambassador agreed and so the meeting ended.
Turin, the 14 July, 1615.
July 14. Senato, Secreta. Dispacci, Savoia. Venetian Archives. 918. Ranier Zen, Venetian Ambassador in Savoy, to the Doge and Senate.
To understand the present letter your Serenity must first read the enclosed declaration of the English Ambassador. (fn. 4) The French Ambassador, prompted I believe by Marini, raised a difficulty over some words in this declaration. Accordingly England went to see him and France asked for a copy, saying he had found something prejudicial to his king. England said that the time had passed for that and he would simply read it over. France insisted upon having a copy, and angry and bitter words passed between. Finally, England said: I will give it to you as something already established and published, from which I will not withdraw a syllable. He left the copy, saying that if the duke had sent him the articles that evening he would have signed. He came straight to me and related what had passed, and I think in order to get me to persuade France not to persist in this.
On the following morning I was going to France but he was coming for me and so we went to mass together and he told me of this dispute with England on the way, much as that ambassador had already related it. He confined himself to two things: he objected to the words, in view of the promise made by the governor of Milan, etc. The second was he objected to the word protection as prejudical to his king, who had taken the duke into his protection so that no other protector was needed. This was what he said, but in his heart I am sure he was thinking of the Spaniards, who have never wished to treat with the duke or to promise to disarm, while the words he objects to involve both. With regard to the second point I believe that he does not wish for any signed declarations. I read him my declaration, to which he made no objection, except that he did not wish England to be specially named. I gave some reasons, but I did not press the matter, as I had a plan for satisfying both ambassadors. Afterwards when I saw the English ambassador I represented that it was not necessary to show each other the declarations, but only to treat with the duke, and if France removed England from his declaration, England could remove the name of France, in the part where they speak of defending the duke together. With regard to the words in view of the promise made by the governor of Milan, I pointed out that his acceptance covered the whole declaration and not this part alone. His king had instructed him to advise the duke to peace but on condition that the Spaniards disarmed. The form of words had been arranged in concert, and it was an extraordinary thing to raise this point after everything had been settled and published.
The duke, seeing these difficulties between France and England, did not trouble about the copies. So on the following day the document itself which was read in public was taken to the house of the English ambassador and signed by him. It was brought to me to do the same, but I wished first to see England and assure him that my manner of signing was not to his prejudice, telling him specially that as the words other princes included the pope and Venice he ought to be satisfied.
When the French ambassador heard that England had signed the form of words to which he objected he told Father Isidore to inform the duke that he considered it null as it was prejudicial to his king. The duke is very angry and told me one evening aside: I will unmask this man and find out what he means, otherwise I will keep my troops. Accordingly on the following day he summoned all the ambassadors as well as Montigni and the Marquis of Urfe. The duke related what had taken place, France stated his objections, while England gave his arguments, speaking very sharply and saying that among gentlemen it was customary to keep a promise, and it should be much more so with the king's ambassador, who had promised and approved this declaration; he would not alter a word except with the approval of His Highness. He finally turned the matter into a jest saying: I see how this will end, hitherto the ambassador and I have been labouring to bring about peace between the Spaniards and your Highness, and it will now be necessary for your Highness to try to bring about peace between us. The French ambassador did not deny that he had accepted this declaration, but said that many things appeared at a second consultation, and as His Highness had often changed things agreed upon, he could do the same. The duke denied that he had ever altered anything, and England said that changes might be made even after signing but always provided that the parties were agreed, otherwise it was not permissible. They then set about persuading the French ambassador that the words about protection were not prejudicial to his king, showing that peace had been brought about by joint efforts and not by France alone. The duke said that the States were under the protection of France and England, while Mantua was protected by Spain and France, and there was no difficulty. I added other reasons, speaking of the friendship and alliance between the courts of France and England. I instanced the case of Venice which was originally under the protection of St. Theodore and had afterwards placed itself under the protection of St. Mark, but had not abandoned St. Theodore, so that now it was protected by both saints together. The example was apt and the ambassador had nothing to say in reply. The duke began to laugh so much that he could not stand and had to withdraw to a window. All the ministers and the prince did the same. The ambassador remained in confusion, but at length said he would write to France. He said: I confirm the treaty of peace and consider it settled, and I hope the ratification will soon arrive. He afterwards transmitted to France the arguments of the duke and England as well as his own. The duke immediately sent an account to his ambassadors in France. England has written to his ambassador by the same courier. (fn. 5)
Turin, the 14 July, 1615.
July 14. Senato, Secreta. Dispacci, Savoia. Venetian Archives. 919. Ranier Zen, Venetian Ambassador in Savoy, to the Doge and Senate.
A courier has arrived from France bringing the ratification of the articles for the ambassador, accordingly the duke continues to disarm. The ambassador says he will leave soon, to take part in the journey for the marriages. The English ambassador will also leave soon with his wife, travelling by water on the Po, but he does not wish to touch the state of the Church and so he thinks of landing at Ostia, a place of Mantua, and proceeding to Legnago or Rovigo, stopping in some palace two or three days, and then embarking again for Venice. He asked me if there were good houses in those parts. He leaves with great shows of favour and friendship from His Highness, who gives a festivity every third day and hunting for the ambassadress, now in the park now in other pleasure resorts, where the Infanti accompany her. (fn. 6) Owing to the singular friendship which the ambassador has unfailingly shown to me I gave a banquet to him and the ambassadress and twenty ladies, at a country house, according to the uses of the country. When we were about to sit down, the prince of Saxony and the baron of Tornon, prime favourite of the duke arrived to dine with us. They told me that the duke was not able to come as he had intended, and had sent the duke of Saxony in his place. The feast lasted until two in the morning. The duke was most gracious, and to-morrow I shall call upon him, and so will England.
Turin, the 14 July, 1615.
July 15. Senato, Secreta. Dispacci, Savoia. Venetian Archives 920. Ranier Zen, Venetian Ambassador in Savoy, to the Doge and Senate.
This morning the duke sent me the enclosed copies of the documents upon the peace, and he has also sent copies to the English ambassador to send to his king.
Turin, the 15 July, 1615.
Document containing promises of the duke of Savoy; (1) to disarm within a month, retaining only troops for garrison and of foreign troops only four companies of Swiss; (2) not to attack Mantua, and disputes with him shall be tried before the emperor.
The Marquis of Rambouillet promises protection to the rebel subjects of Mantua.
Places taken and prisoners shall be mutually restored.
Provision made for disarming.
The French king will order the Marshal Lesdiguieres to assist the duke without further order if the Spaniards break their word.
The Swiss and Valais shall recover the free commerce with the state of Milan, which they had before the war.
The French king will pardon all his subjects who have gone to serve the duke.
Signed, Carlo Emanuel.
E. Gueffier, agent of His Majesty.
Ranier Zen, Ambassador Extraordinary of Venice.
921. Ratification of the treaty by the King of France.
Dated at Paris, the 4th July, 1615.
922. Duplicate of the articles, signed by the duke of Savoy, D'Angennes and Gueffier, with confirmatory declarations by Dudley Carleton and Ranier Zen.


  • 1. Edmondes reports that M. de Puisieux had brought him an answer to his remonstrances, in his despatch of 12 July, 1615, o.s. The reply is preserved among the state papers at the Public Record Office. State Papers, Foreign, France.
  • 2. Desmaretz.
  • 3. 'Two or three of the king's ships were employed about Mamora. Four of them were lately sent out of Cales against the Pirates, who meeting with three ships of the company, as they say, of Manering, were so beaten by them, that with loss of many of their men and great hurt done in their ships were fain to use all diligence for the recovery of the port of Lisbon.' Digby to Winwood, 14 July, 1615. State Papers, Foreign, Spain.
  • 4. See No. 897 at page 502 above.
  • 5. Carleton gives a somewhat fuller account of this conference of the 10th July. State Papers, Foreign, Savoy.
  • 6. Wake suspected that there was a purpose behind these attentions shown to Lady Carleton. 'They do here very easily believe what they wish, and they desire nothing more than a match with England, in which hope they do so much flatter themselves that the duke did as seriously treat thereof with my Lady Carleton as if he conceived her coming hither to have been expressly to take a view of these ladies and to make a choice for the prince.' Wake to Winwood, 21 July, 1615, o.s. State Papers, Foreign. Savoy.