Venice: May 1616, 16-31

Pages 201-212

Calendar of State Papers Relating To English Affairs in the Archives of Venice, Volume 14, 1615-1617. Originally published by His Majesty's Stationery Office, London, 1908.

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May 1616, 16–31

May 16. Senato, Secreta. Dispacci, Francia. Venetian Archives. 284. Piero Contarini, Venetian Ambassador in France, to the Doge and Senate.
The English ambassador has returned to Court. He has worked hard upon the treaty with the prince, and certainly the greater part of the credit of the peace may be attributed to him. He told me that he had special orders from his king to speak here strongly in favour of your Excellencies in the affair of the Grisons, and he would do so very readily, as he knows how important it is for the common interest and the liberty of Italy that the pass there should remain open for help.
Paris, the 16th May, 1616.
May 16. Senato, Secreta. Dispacci, Svizzesi. Venetian Archives. 285. Gio. Battista Padavin and Christofforo Surian, Venetian Secretaries with the Swiss, to the Doge and Senate.
Sir [Henry] Wotton was at Basel on Tuesday week. He left there saying that he was going to Milan and Turin to arrange for the establishment of the treaty of Asti, and would afterwards proceed straight to reside with your Serenity.
Zurich, the 19th May, 1616.
Senato, Secreta. Dispacci, Spagna. Venetian Archives. 286. Pietro Vico, Venetian Secretary in Spain, to the Doge and Senate.
The Spaniards are much disturbed at the news of the league between the Dutch and the Hanse towns, as they fear that they will establish themselves in the Indies by this means. They have devoted much thought to providing some remedy, and have selected forty captains to enlist men, and will send them out as soon as possible. They have also ordered the Viceroys to send them all foreigners who are at present in their towns, an order which is to be rigorously carried out.
The secretary of England has made grave complaint because under pretext of a denunciation by an unknown person the property has been sequestrated of English merchants who bring to these kingdoms, against the orders of His Majesty, goods coming from the Indies. He has asked for restitution, saying that these reprisals are contrary to the articles of the peace, as the king well knows that the English may go to the Indies and deal freely with their confederates. They have given him fair words and said they will see to it, but I have not yet heard that any restitution has been made to the merchants, who are of considerable standing. The secretary has been driven to say that if they do not decide to show justice to his king's subjects His Majesty will be forced to give them licence to recoup themselves at sea from the goods of the Spaniards.
Madrid, the 20th May, 1616.
May 21. Consiglio di X. Criminale. Venetian Archives. 287. That the Inquisitors of State have power to confine Antonio Foscarini in the torture chamber provided that they have the physician's certificate declaring under oath that, by reason of his indisposition gaining ground, it be necessary to remove him from the place where he now is.
Ayes 12.
Noes 2.
Neutral 1.
May 21. Senato, Secreta. Dispacci, Svizzesi. Venetian Archives. 288. Simon Contarini, Venetian Ambassador at Rome, to the Doge and Senate.
I have been to congratulate the Most Christian ambassador on the settlement in France. He thanked me warmly. He said the Catholic king had written to his master to urge the duke of Savoy not to grow suspicious of the forces in the state of Milan, which are only to support the archduke in his dispute with your Serenity. He told me that he had always been of opinion that they should allow the war between the duke of Savoy and the Spaniards to continue in the interests of France. France had two enemies, the kings of Spain and England, who might harm her and on whom it was necessary to keep an eye.
Rome, the 21st May, 1616.
May 24. Senato, Secreta. Dispacci, Francia. Venetian Archives. 289. Piero Contarini, Venetian Ambassador in France, to the Doge and Senate.
The prince remains at Blois. Meanwhile the dukes of Mayenne, Bouillon and Tremouille have come to Court. I have called upon them. Bouillon with whom I spoke more particularly told me that he did not know the cause of the opposition to your Serenity in the Grisons. He asked me whether, if the Most Illustrious Bon does not obtain what he wishes here, he would go elsewhere. It might be good for him to go to England and Holland also, in order to vex the Spaniards, who fear nothing so much as a union between the republic and those powers.
Paris, the 24th May, 1616.
May 24. Senato, Secreta. Dispacci, Francia. Venetian Archives. 290. Piero Contarini, Venetian Ambassador in France, to the Doge and Senate.
Lord Dingwall, an Englishman, is here and has been to see me. He said he was going to offer his services to your Serenity. He asked me to present his excuses for not arriving immediately, as he had not been able to travel post at every stage.
Paris, the 24th May, 1616.
May 26. Senato, Secreta. Dispacci, Zante Venetian Archives. 291. Almoro Barbaro, Proveditore of Zante, to the Doge and Senate.
At the moment when we were most in need of a ship for transporting the remainder of the troops enlisted, an English ship called 'Unita' arrived here. Although it was not in the interest of the principals of Silvan Marcocs, a merchant of that nation, to neglect their affairs and take our troops, yet we succeeded in persuading him to consent, as I promised that your Serenity would not only pay the usual rate for each soldier, but a reasonable additional sum would be added. The company embarked is that of Thedoro Lascari and Domenico Mondino, consisting of 129 foot including the officers; they received the necessary biscuits.
Zante, the 26th May, 1616.
May 28. Senato, Secreta. Deliberazioni. Venetian Archives. 292. To the Ambassador in England.
With our letters of the 9th we sent you the first office of the Marquis Manriquez with the reply given. He has since repeated his offices twice; we send a copy of them with our reply. You will communicate the whole in confidence to His Majesty. You will draw attention to the variableness of the negotiations of the governor, as he has abandoned the second part of the treaty of Vienna to take up the first, rejected by us. He seems to desire to drag out the negotiations and must have other ends in view; thus in negotiating with the secretary Vincenti he let it be understood that he thought fresh orders might arrive from Spain to arm and raise fresh troops. He shows neither the necessary firmness to settle this affair, nor any readiness to meet our friendly disposition. There is no doubt that if we could make up our minds as to what the governor intends, it would be easy to find a remedy for the present disorders. But we cannot do this without having a due regard not only for our own, but for the public interest. You had better lay the whole matter frankly before His Majesty, so that he may be the more inclined to favour our interests by his authority and help, as he has said.
You will add that the ambassador Gussoni, destined for France, has taken the road through Germany by our orders, and amongst others he has visited the Elector Palatine out of respect for His Majesty. He has informed him about these disputes with the archduke and our readiness to accept an honourable settlement. His Highness received this office most graciously and undertook to write to the Emperor in the interest of peace. The same ambassador subsequently performed a like office with the marquis of Anspach, the prince of Anhalt, and the duke of Wirtemberg and received friendly replies from all with courteous offers of assistance. The duke in particular said that it behoved the princes of the Union above all others to intervene in favour of an accommodation, and he offered to help in this. That it might be advisable to send a special embassy in the name of the princes to the emperor and the archduke. The ambassador thanked him for his friendly attitude; we also must thank the princes for their friendship upon this occasion and assure them that we reciprocate those sentiments, informing them of the present state of the negotiations and that the acceptance of reasonable terms depends upon others than ourselves. You will inform His Majesty of everything with the usual confidence, assuring them that we know how great a part his friendship has played in obtaining this favourable disposition of the princes. If His Majesty approves of the idea of the duke of Wirtemberg, that the princes of the Union, of whom he is the head, shall intervene as mediators for an agreement, you will fall in with this, but you must not suggest it, only accept it if he moves spontaneously, as this may have numerous consequences in an increase of reputation, an increase of good relations and a stronger declaration in our favour.
You will inform the ambassador of the States in confidence of the above matters as a sign of our friendship.
Ayes 167.
Noes 1.
Neutral 5.
May 28. Senato, Secreta. Dispacci, Inghilterra. Venetian Archives. 293. Gregorio Barbarigo, Venetian Ambassador in England, to the Doge and Senate.
Besides the commissions sent to the French ambassador to inform the king of the accommodation with the princes and thank him in the name of His Most Christian Majesty for his intervention, M. de Courtenay has received instructions to perform the same office in the name of the prince; he will endeavour to do so as soon as possible and take leave. They are very eager here to see what will be the outcome of this accommodation in France, and whether the change of ministers will bring about any alteration of policy as regards the interests of Spain.
I have certain confirmation of what my secretary advised your Excellencies from the Hague that the States suspected that the movement made by the count of Vandenberg was not simply to take possession of Soest (Zoost) and Lippstadt (Sipstat), but to enter the bishopric of Elbrun at the instance of the archbishop of Cologne; this he certainly would have done had not the Landgrave of Hesse suspected that this might take place, and accordingly stopped the way. For this reason, therefore, all these Spanish troops, without doing anything further, have returned to divide themselves among their usual garrisons at Wesel and other places near by, removing for the moment all the anxiety that their movement caused to the neighbouring princes.
The Spaniards continue to assure His Majesty and the king of France that they are ready to restore Wesel and the other places which they hold in the states of Cleves to the princes of Brandenburg and Neuburg if the States will agree to do the same with Juliers and the rest, but not by virtue of the treaty of Santen, because to do so in execution of a treaty of the kings of France and England, who have nothing to do with those states, and in which neither the emperor nor the Catholic king has intervened, would be too prejudicial to the imperial authority, upon which those states are dependent; neither the king of Spain nor the archduke ought to be bound by that treaty, in which they did not intervene, and it should suffice if they do of their free-will the same things that are there agreed upon.
The king, upon this, has allowed himself to be persuaded to write very strongly to Holland, and has given orders to his ambassador to notify the States that if the Spaniards agree to restore the places which they hold, it seems to him that they also should do the same, and if they will not consent and the pretext is taken to break the truce, His Majesty washes his hands of the matter. These proposals do not satisfy the States, who will not allow themselves to be again deceived by the Spaniards for the satisfaction of others, as the most important place which they hold in the states of Cleves is the town of Juliers, very strongly fortified by them, and they know that all these negotiations are to get it out of their hands, because as they entered that place before the Spaniards entered Wesel, they would have to evacuate first, and that done the Spaniards would find plenty of pretexts and means for keeping Wesel, by involving other matters, and thus they could keep Wesel and break their promise to the kings of France and England, just as under a promise to the same they first occupied it. The Dutch say freely, and count Maurice made the same remark to me when I was at the Hague, that they allowed the Spaniards to take Wesel out of complaisance in order not to offend His Majesty. They say openly that the Spaniards had never kept their promise not to make any movement. The States add that if the possession of the Margrave of Brandenburg is not assured in virtue of the treaty of Santen by the two crowns of France and England assisting against whichever of the two princes should fail to keep the treaty, and if what the Spaniards desire takes place, namely, that only in case one of the princes is assisted by the king of Spain can France and England help the other, it will certainly happen that Neuburg or the Emperor will make himself master of the whole country, since the Spaniards, to effect what they desire, know quite well how to cover themselves under the cloak of another, and pass under the name of soldiers of the Emperor when it is not convenient for them to enter under the flag of Spain; beside this they can easily supply money to the duke of Neuburg to perform in his own name what they intend to do. It is not so easy for the margrave of Brandenburg to obtain this from the princes who favour him. For these reasons the States will use every effort to induce the king not to press the requests which he makes of them, and if he continues in spite of all, it is not altogether certain what they will decide, as although, by holding their forces ready, and by trusting to them more than to any other assistance they would be more willing to enter upon open war with the Spaniards that allow themselves to be despoiled of such important places by a trick, yet they would prefer to do so with the right clearly on their side, and the approval of the two crowns of France and England. However, in any case, if the restitution is made absolutely and without regard to the treaty of Santen, with which the Spaniards desire to have nothing to do, the kings of France and England ought to continue to stand fast to these obligations made by themselves, and assist whichever of the two princes, Brandenburg or Neuburg, should fail in his part. The outbursts in Italy and suspicions elsewhere supply additional reasons for not executing anything so suddenly not to lose hold of what is certain in a time so inopportune, in order to see afterwards what is going to happen.
An ambassador extraordinary of His Catholic Majesty has arrived in Flanders with orders that the archduke Albert shall cause the oath of fealty to be taken to His Catholic Majesty upon the death of the archduke, so that when he dies, and the weakness and feebleness of his person render his speedy decease probable, his subjects may be bound to the king of Spain without taking any fresh oath. This news has caused a great stir in those countries, as they fear that after the archduke's death they will return under the hateful Government of some Spaniard, and in Brabant in particular some difficulties have arisen, as at Antwerp they have not yet made up their minds to consider it, and at Brussels they have refused to take it; however they intend to push the matter and this week the archduke in person proposes to receive the oath in the name of the Catholic king. Some of those who raise difficulties advance as a reason, that if they are to take the oath, the prince himself should receive it, to swear on his part to all the things which he is bound to by the laws of the State and on that account he ought himself to be present.
From a very sure source I have learned that the league of the ecclesiastical princes in Germany, negotiated by the archduke Maximilian when he stopped at Cologne on his way back from Brussels, is not only true, as your Excellencies have heard from what my Secretary discovered at the Hague, but its special objects are as follows: to compel the Protestant princes to render themselves subjects and dependents of the emperor, so that they shall furnish His Majesty with such money as he needs, which they have not hitherto been willing to do, as for instance at the last diet at Ratisbon. Secondly to better dispose the affairs of religion. Thirdly to support the election of the archduke Ferdinand as king of the Romans and to all the hereditary estates of the House of Austria.
London, the 28th May, 1616.
May 28. Senato, Secreta. Dispacci, Inghilterra. Venetian Archives. 294. Gregorio Barbarigo, Venetian Ambassador in England, to the Doge and Senate.
Schomberg is arrived, sent here by the Elector Palatine to negotiate with His Majesty. He has some special affairs with regard to the princess and his own private matters with regard to the death of his wife, who was an English lady of the same princess. (fn. 1) This all serves as the principal pretext for his coming, but the substance of his affair is to give a reply to His Majesty upon the negotiations of Sir [Henry] Wotton with His Highness. At his arrival he stayed a day at Greenwich with the queen and then left to find the king at Newmarket; but His Majesty having heard of this, sent him word on the road to return to London, where he can hear him more conveniently and more at length than at Greenwich. He brings instructions to acquaint His Majesty with the posture of affairs towards war, and the danger of receiving some notable damage from the Austrians and the Spaniards, unless they oppose some strong resolution. They are now awaiting the reply of Spain to what His Imperial Majesty wrote in agreement with his brothers to arrange the succession to the empire and the hereditary States in favour of the archduke Ferdinand. If the Spaniards support this with the forces which they are setting on foot everywhere, and by the union of the Ecclesiastics, they expect to induce all the other princes to do what they desire. That the archduke Ferdinand is certainly not going to disarm or come to any settlement with your Serenity, and this is the reason why they have not arrived at any settlement in the negotiations with the ambassador Giustinian at Prague in order that they may have a pretext to levy an army in Germany and to keep your Serenity in a state of constant expense and anxiety; so that they may afterwards turn this army against Germany and against the princes of the Union. That it is always in their power to make peace with your Serenity while they mean to wear you out by war, and when they have crushed the others they can turn with greater force against you; that His Majesty must take a decision, the interests of all the princes united and leagued with him being involved; the Spaniards have hitherto abused his goodness, and the princes of Germany are most anxious to know what he proposes to do with regard to them, what with regard to your Serenity and the duke of Savoy, and what he would have them do, as they seem about to pass from a state of mere suspicion to actual evils and they can no longer build upon hope alone, but must have deeds which assure them against imminent perils. When His Majesty has replied, the princes of the Union will immediately meet and make provision for their safety and for the benefit of your Serenity and of the duke of Savoy in conformity with the intentions of His Majesty, but even if they do not know what he is going to do, they will be compelled to arrange as best they can. However, every effort will be made to induce His Majesty to make some movement.
The count also has instructions to perform offices with His Majesty so that he may not ask the States to restore Juliers, reminding him that the rain hopes in the past founded upon the promises of the Spaniards were the cause of the loss of Wesel and overthrew all good results in the states of Cleves.
He will also approach the king, and he hopes successfully, to restrain him from his inclination to marry the prince in Spain, which the ambassador resident here and very many of the court who belong to that party, consider as very near being concluded. They say that the Catholic king will give His Majesty a million pounds (lire), equivalent to four millions of gold, partly as dower and partly as a loan, 200,000 ducats a year as provision for the daughter, grant free navigation in the East Indies to the English, and innumerable benefits to the country. From a sure source I know that Lord Roos, who is ambassador designate for Spain to offer congratulations upon the marriage of the prince there, has hopes of acquiring great reputation by concluding this business.
Yesterday evening a gentleman arrived here sent by His Majesty's agent in Turin with information upon the state of affairs in Italy and of the needs of His Highness and asking that help may be no longer delayed. The ambassador of His Highness has also received orders to make strong representations to His Majesty to afford some substantial assistance to the duke. He also hears that especially since the arrangement of affairs in France, large numbers of French soldiers have been hastening to the duke, but they demand payment so soon as they arrive in Piedmont. His Highness has further sent him power to conclude the league with His Majesty, the States and the princes of the Union, so that the duke's decision may appear, and some instructions will come upon the proceedings to be taken in the negotiations. His Highness wishes first to hear something about the negotiations of Sir [Henry] Wotton at Heidelberg upon their affairs and what was said there in the name of His Majesty.
London, the 20th May, 1616.
[Italian; the part in italics deciphered.]
May 28. Senato, Secreta. Dispacci, Inghilterra. Venetian Archives. 295. Gregorio Barbarigo, Venetian Ambassador in England, to the Doge and Senate.
I have seen Schomberg and have given him detailed information about all that has taken place in the dispute between your Serenity and the archduke Ferdinand, both in the field and in negotiation, particularly since the departure of the ambassador Gussoni from the court of the Elector. He told me that His Highness had been most glad to see Gussoni, and had welcomed the representations made by him, and hoped that even if he had nothing to do but simply give information he had remained perfectly satisfied. He spoke to me very fully about the goodwill of His Highness and of the whole Union towards your Serenity, of how anxious they all are for the common liberty and how suspicious they are of the ambitions of the Spaniards to subject all. They think the time opportune, especially now that France is in a state of disorder. That the king here, who might do much will do nothing; he will speak to him with energy and frankness because things are in such a condition that it is necessary to take some resolution; that he knows the King's distaste for trouble and how easily he allows himself to be deceived by the words of the Spaniards, and that many of the court here have interests involved, but in spite of all he will not omit to do everything possible to make His Majesty feel that his reputation, the safety of the princes, his allies, and his chief interests are at stake.
To-morrow or the day after he will have audience of His Majesty and I will find out what takes place. I believe that His Majesty has been induced to come as far as Greenwich to hear him in order to obtain further information about the affairs of Italy, of what is being done and what they propose to do with respect to your Serenity and the duke of Savoy. I also will not fail to use every effort to induce His Majesty to take some good resolution. I will inform him, as your Excellencies command me, of what-took place at Lucinis, how the Austrians are always more determined upon war, and how they have gone so far as to sell the prisoners taken in Istria to the Turks, a thing which is heard here with great abhorrence.
The other letters of your Serenity of the 5th inst. about the banished has also reached me. So far as I can find out at present there is not a single exile in this kingdom from the republic, but I hope that the publication of the decree of the Senate may reveal some. I have, at any rate, arranged that the news shall go to Flanders where many have withdrawn, who by returning home can render the highest service to your Serenity. I will not fail to incite those whom I know to be in these parts, to go and serve your Serenity. Here, in Holland, and in every place well affected towards your Excellencies, there will certainly be no hindrance; if there be any in Flanders, where the greatest obstacles may reasonably be expected, I will employ every caution and diligence in the service of your Serenity so that not only the exiles, but all men fit for war, may be urged to go and serve your Serenity.
Since the departure of Lord Dingwall (d'Inquel), many others have been induced to offer their service to your Serenity. Lord Willoughby (Vilibi) has come to offer himself, who last year led 4,000 men to the king of Denmark. Sir Walter Raleigh (Sir Vate Ralo), who is destined to go to the West Indies to discover the country of Guiana, has let me know that if he could obtain permission from his king he would willingly go to serve your Serenity. The earl of Essex, although he does not speak so freely, would be very glad to go; and all this greatly adds to the reputation of your Serenity and I do not fail to respond to their good-will in a suitable manner, especially as they are English lords, expressing the greatest esteem for their nation, but the affection and good-will of the king are turned in a most remarkable manner towards Lord Dingwall.
I have received as a final decision about the gunpowder that it is not possible to find any quantity in Amsterdam, as all that goes there and all that is found in other places, such as Liege and elsewhere, is entirely appropriated and bought for those who are on the side of your Serenity, so that to buy in competition with them would prejudice both and would be rather disadvantageous than serviceable to your Serenity. Here, some merchants, at my instance, have bought all that they could obtain, and they continue to do so, but up to the present they have not been able to purchase more than about twenty thousand.
London, the 28th May, 1616.
[Italian; the part in italics deciphered.]
May 28. Inquisitori di Stato. Busta 155, Venetian Archives. 296. Gregorio Barbarigo, Venetian Ambassador in England, to the Inquisitors State.
Sir William Smith came to see me on Sunday, the 22nd inst. Before I had said anything he began to speak of Giulio Muscorno. Before returning to Venice he wished to take leave of the king, the queen and prince with whom he was very welcome chiefly owing to his abilities in music in which he excelled all in this kingdom, he thought in the world. Their Majesties, at his departure, gave him letters of recommendation to the republic. He understood these had done him more harm than good, though he could not believe it. Muscorno had been threatened by Lumsden (Lombsden), a servant of Foscarini. He went on to speak of the money lent by him to Muscorno. I told him that everything would be done to procure satisfaction for him. That the departure of Carleton might be the reason why he had not already been paid, but at all events he should receive justice.
May 30. Senato, Secreta. Dispacci, Savoia. Venetian Archives. 297. Antonio Donado, Venetian Ambassador in Savoy, to the Doge and Senate.
Sir [Henry] Wotton, English ambassador destined to reside with your Serenity, arrived here four days ago. On the following day he had a long audience of His Highness, and immediately afterwards came on to honour the house of the republic, accompanied by the same suite which had been with him to the duke. He dealt with matters of considerable importance as I shall relate in the following letters. He leaves by way of the Po, intending to take up his charge in six days.
M. de Bethune, the French ambassador, also arrived here yesterday evening.
Turin, the 30th May, 1616.
May 30. Senato, Secreta. Dispacci, Savoia. Venetian Archives. 298. Antonio Donado, Venetian Ambassador in Savoy, to the Doge and Senate.
The ambassador of the king of Great Britain (fn. 2) proposed to the duke what he will also propose to your Serenity, namely, a league with His Majesty, the States and the united princes of Germany, and possibly of the Swiss Cantons, as they are sure of the heretics and expect to have the Catholic ones also. His Highness replied that he was anxious for something of the kind as it would constitute a counterpoise to the Spanish power and would help towards a long and secure peace. He told the ambassador that he would await the decision of the republic and would govern his action by that, though he was inclined to join even if the republic did not.
The duke desired that this proposal should be repeated to him in my presence. He said a great deal about it, declaring that now was the time to consider it, if ever, owing to the ill behaviour of the French and the ambitions of the Spaniards, and he charged me to inform your Serenity of his strong leaning towards this. The ambassador was at great pains to persuade him that his king was not of the nature with which he is credited, namely, devoted to ease, to studies and pleasures, but that being in possession of so great a crown, in peace, he wished to preserve it, not only for himself but for his friends; but that if the Spaniards ever began to move to effect their vast ambitions, he would never stand and look on, but would draw the sword, and prove that he was not a superfluous prince, and that he wished to maintain a just balance in the world.
The ambassador spoke of the ease and quickness with which help could be supplied by English ships, of the slight cost of hiring them, and their skill.
He gave full information of the state and forces of the count Palatine and the other princes, his allies. He spoke of the power of the States, their skill in arms, the prudence of their counsels, the great counterpoise which is always offered to the Spaniards from that quarter. He praised the affection existing between the republic and His Highness, saying that it afforded the utmost pleasure to his king. He advised a union with Mantua and spoke against Verua as a minister who has the reputation of opposing everything good. He offered good advice and opportune persuasion to the duke, upon whom he made a good impression.
With me he dealt in terms of the highest honour, expressing his high esteem for your Serenity, and showing the most friendly confidence.
M. de Bethune has had audience and expressed the readiness of his sovereign to assist the duke in having the treaty of Asti carried out. He begged His Highness to be content that a small Spanish army should remain on foot until the affairs of the archduke Ferdinand were settled. The duke told me about all this and seemed greatly perturbed at such proposals. I have visited this ambassador and pointed out to him the wrong which is done to the republic by protecting such rascally thieves, and with the help of the English ambassador, who is most anxious to secure this disarmament, we shall perhaps obtain satisfactory results.
Turin, the 30th May, 1616.
May 31. Senato, Secreta. Dispacci, Zante. Venetian Archives. 299. Almoro Barbaro, Proveditore of Zante, to the Doge and Senate.
Notification of the sending of the company of Lascari and Mondino by the English ship “Unita.”
Zante, the last day of May, 1616.


  • 1. Ann Dudley married Schomberg in April, 1615, and died in December in the same year.
  • 2. Wotton arrived at Turin on the 24th May and left on the 31st. In his dispatch of the latter date Wake gives an account of this public audience, which took place on the 27th. State Papers. Foreign. Savoy. Wake to Winwood, 21 May, 1616 o.s.