Venice: March 1634

Pages 197-208

Calendar of State Papers Relating To English Affairs in the Archives of Venice, Volume 23, 1632-1636. Originally published by His Majesty's Stationery Office, London, 1921.

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March 1634

March 3.
Senato, Secreta. Deliberazioni. Corti. Venetian Archives.
260. To the Ambassador in England.
Acknowledge his letters of the 27th January. To charge the secretary if he has not time himself before leaving, to find out all that is likely to be useful about the claims of the merchant Suitin, whose case has been recommended by the Dutch ambassador at Venice. (fn. 1)
Ayes, 123. Noes, 1. Neutral, 2.
March 3.
Senato, Secreta. Dispacci, Inghilterra. Venetian Archives.
261. Vicenzo Gussoni, Venetian Ambassador in England, to the Doge and Senate.
They keep their attention fixed here on the progress of the French in Germany, especially since the capture of Haguenau and Saverna, not unmixed with jealousy, owing to the fear that by means of some arrangement they may pave the way to obtain possession of Udenein, to which they attach importance as one of the keys of the Palatinate. It is not difficult to see, from what the Lords here let out in their talk, how little acceptable at this Court is the news of French progress in Germany. Thus Cuch, the first secretary of state, whom I had occasion to see the day before yesterday, gave some very clear indications of this, although in the form of casual remarks, intimating that what he called the too great ascendancy of the fortune of France required consideration henceforward. I told him that so long as the plans of the Most Christian disclosed nothing that was not consonant with the public welfare it was very desirable they should be seconded by good fortune. He replied, That is all very well, but it is necessary to see that a proper equilibrium remains at the end and that the balance shall not incline more to one side than another. From the manner of his remarks I could perceive the secret passion and jealousy which is fomented, as I found out in another way, by the artful offices of the Spaniards, since he added soon after, It is necessary to keep our eyes open to find out thoroughly the designs of France. This Cardinal is the finest intellect in Europe. His ideas for the aggrandisement of his king are greater in reality than in appearance, although the appearance is great enough. We are advised here that that crown wishes to keep up three great armies, to be used for Germany, Italy and Flanders respectively. With respect to Germany he remarked that the genius of that nation was naturally antipathetic to the French, and they ought to be on their guard not to allow themselves, under the show of assistance, to become too much subjected to France. As for Italy he said it was only reasonable that the princes there, of whom he mentioned the most serene republic and the pope in particular, should reflect upon the consequences which Pinarolo (fn. 2) would involve in the course of time, especially if the French should succeed in realising their greater and more recondite ideas in Germany. Above all, he added, the Duke of Savoy, who is the most interested and nearest, ought to consider this, as he would be the first to feel the hurt.
While listening attentively to these novel ideas, seriously set forth by the secretary, I did not neglect, by suitable remarks and considerations to try with adroitness to remove these impressions of jealousy. I pointed out how usefully France had operated so far with such great advantage to the common cause, in Italy also, for whose quiet and liberty the most serene republic devotes its constant application.
He went on to tell me that so far as the interests of the Princes of the Union are concerned, they are constantly prospering more and more, and as regards the peace negotiations there was no further indication except that the sword would bring about the necessity for an accomodation, since he said that in the present state of affairs it was impossible to draw up articles which would give general satisfaction or which would prove suitable for a general peace. He further informed me that confirmation had reached him of news that had arrived here shortly before about a renewal of a closer intelligence between the French and the Landgrave of Hesse, to whom they had promised disbursements of money in addition to the monthly contributions.
I did not forget to seize this opportunity to tell him of the election of an ordinary ambassador by your Excellencies to reside here, for the furtherance of good correspondence. He seemed particularly pleased at this and said that he knew the friendship of your Excellencies was especially dear to the king, and he would inform his Majesty of what I had told him.
The Court is preparing to travel as the king wishes to depart to a pleasure resort more than three days journey from this city, and will not return until near the end of Lent. (fn. 3)
The Ambassador Cari, selected to reside as ordinary with your Serenity, (fn. 4) although in a bad state of health, is making his preparations with the utmost diligence so that he may set out at the earliest moment, as he has been told by the physicians that in the change of air and particularly in that of the Venetian climate, lies his chief hope of recovery from the chronic disease from which he suffers, which they call consumption here.
Colonel Douglas, who is here on leave from the Senate, desires that his leave may be extended for four months, as much because of the length of the journey as for his own affairs. He begged me to present his request and so I enclose the memorial he gave me. I must not omit to add that he expresses his willingness to return with all speed, even before the expiry of the time, if the state should express a wish to that effect.
London, the 3rd March, 1634.
[Italian ; the part in italics deciphered.]
Enclosure. 262. Petition of Colonel John Douglas to have his leave extended for four months, as owing to the length of the journey he has not time to attend to his affairs. Promises to return before if required.
Richmond, the 16th February, 1633.
[Signed] : Joanni Dowglas.
March 6.
Senato, Secreta. Dispacci, Signori Stati. Venetian Archives.
263. Alvise Contarini, Venetian Ambassador in the Netherlands, to the Doge and Senate.
I took an opportunity of calling upon the Ambassador Extraordinary Oxenstern. He told me that he had proposed to go straight to England without stopping here, but his father had given him some commissions to execute. His requests of England were so just and reasonable that he could not but expect a favourable issue.
The Hague, the 6th March, 1634.
March 10.
Senato, Mar. Venetian Archives.
264. That the Rectors of Zante and Cephalonia shall forbid, under severe penalties, the lading of foreign ships for the West with currants unless they have a guarantee (fede) from the Magistracy of the Five Savii and take oath that they have brought two thirds of their cargo from the West to this city. With this guarantee they shall pay ten per miara upon the currants. Those who have not the guarantee and wish to lade currants must pay 15 per miara. It is not intended that ships which bring goods from the West shall discharge them at any port in the Gulf at will before coming to Venice.
Ayes, 96. Noes, 2. Neutral, 7.
March 10.
Senato, Secreta. Dispacci, Inghilterra. Venetian Archives.
265. Vicenzo Gussoni, Venetian Ambassador in England, to the Doge and Senate.
During these last days the Dutch ministers here have had more frequent audiences with the king and the Lords of the Council. At length, after various delays the sole remaining difficulty has been satisfactorily adjusted with respect to the manner of effecting the levies for the service of the States. They represented the urgency of their masters' requirements because they were about to take the field and were preparing their army, and they pointed out the harm done by deferring the fulfilment. They are now devoting their most earnest application to the despatch of the troops they are enlisting, in conformity with the wishes of his Majesty whose aim is not to allow this favour to become a precedent for other occurrences, without it being surrounded by conditions which render it less obnoxious to the laws.
It has not yet been possible to conclude anything about the difficulties between the India companies. The Dutch commissioners, tired with their long and useless stay here, without their being able to settle a single point, are beginning to announce that they have orders to return. For this purpose it seems they are preparing a declaration and protest that the breakdown is entirely due to this side. The deputy, who came to see me as a testimony of confidence, told me of these commissions and said that the interested parties of the English companies, with their exorbitant claims, as he called them, were not sorry to see the negotiations broken off, as they might hope on the pretext of indemnification, to obtain permission to seize some Dutch ship. On the other hand, whenever they attempted this, the Dutch could easily manage to do the same and much more in the Indies, inflicting most notable losses on them here. Upon this suggestion I did not fail to point out how important it was to avoid any occasions for disputes between these two nations. I intimated that this was just what the open enemies of the Provinces and the pretended friends of England desired, and urged him to get some other expedient adopted.
He admitted there was good ground for what I said and took it in good part. He proceeded to unbosom himself further to me, remarking, with some bitterness, that he discovered more and more that the principles of the government here had greatly changed from what they used to be, when they were better for the service of the common cause and of this crown itself. He said he considered the king was excellently disposed, but he called him diverted and turned out of his course by the leading ministers, who had too much inclination to attach themselves to Spain. He enlarged upon this, telling me that while the Spaniards tried hard on the one hand to increase the jealousy of England against France over the progress of the Most Christian in Germany, so by the same devices by which they had captured the ministry here, they were placed in a very advantageous position to operate against all the interests of the United Provinces. Thus I gathered from his remarks that the above considerations united with others, have restrained the Dutch from making the communication at this Court about the negotiations of Sciarnase at the Hague, (fn. 5) which was expected here. This silence displeases the Lords of the Council, who intimate they have advices from France of progress towards the conclusion of that affair, which they do not like here.
From Brussels they write that Monsieur has consulted the theologians of Louvain about the forms of his marriage, (fn. 6) and has been assured by the faculty of that University of its indissoluble validity. The Archbishop of Malines when bringing him this opinion in writing, told him that the last shadow of objection would be removed by a fresh declaration by Monsieur and Madame that they would live and die in the said marriage. They both did this in the archbishop's presence, and he took the hands of each of them and said, I assure you that this marriage cannot be dissolved by any hand but God's, and I will make a public act of it, which I will sign. The same letters add that the quarrel between the queen mother and Montieur continues and this correspondingly increases the hopes of all her servants that an accomodation is at hand. She desires this beyond everything so that she may be able to return to France.
The king, accompanied by the queen, has gone to a pleasure resort some distance from this city, (fn. 7) so as to have more facilities for the enjoyment of his hunting. My last from the Senate are of the 10th of February.
London, the 10th March, 1634.
[Italian ; the part in italics deciphered.]
March 13.
Senato, Secreta. Dispacci. Signori Stati. Venetian Archives.
266. Alvise Contarini, Venetian Ambassador in the Netherlands, to the Doge and Senate.
With contrary winds still prevailing the Resident Bosuel has not been able to sail for England, whether they feel sure he has been summoned by the king about the affairs of Nidersolt.
The Hague, the 13th March, 1634.
March 16.
Senato, Secreta. Dispacci, Costantinopoli. Venetian Archives.
267. Pietro Foscarini, Venetian Bailo at Constantinople, to the Doge and Senate.
The ill will of his Majesty against the ambassadors has prevailed against the good intentions of the Caimecan, the Mufti and others. So they say nothing about indemnifying the merchants and declare that it is impossible to restore the arms, considering that they have made good all their offences by the demonstration about this apparel. The English ambassador does not look on it in this light. He has accepted the apparel but says that he does so as a token of honour and as an earnest of further satisfaction, more particularly the restoration of the arms, without which he declares he cannot rest satisfied. He insists upon this notwithstanding the difficulties raised by the Captain Pasha. As arranged between us, I will follow the same course when I am summoned to the ceremony, which has not yet taken place. The unfavourable turn of affairs is due to the Ambassador Marcheville.
The Vigne of Pera, the 16th of March, 1634.
[Italian ; deciphered.]
268. Pietro Foscarini, Venetian Bailo at Constantinople, to the Doge and Senate.
The English ambassador is labouring to release from slavery the captains and crews of the two ships of this last summer. Although he professes to claim this by virtue of letters from his king, he does not neglect recourse to purchase (non manca di passar all ingrosso) and the Captain at Sea has promised him not to offer any opposition.
The Vigne of Pera, the 16th of March, 1634.
[Italian ; deciphered.]
March 17.
Senato, Secreta. Dispacci, Inghilterra. Venetian Archives.
269. Vicenzo Gussoni, Venetian Ambassador in England, to the Doge and Senate.
The Court being for the most part dispersed by the king's departure, the Dutch ministers find it necessary to follow his Majesty for the continuation of the negotiations which they have in hand. By fresh commissions which have recently reached them by special despatch from their masters, they are especially charged, supposing the affair about maritime mercantile interests is broken off by the departure of the commissioners, to make it perfectly clear in the first place by suitable declarations and protests, that in a matter of so much importance, the failure to arrive at a proper adjustment proceeds entirely from the interested parties here. In order not to leave anything undone to prevent the evil consequences which may arise in the future from these rival claims remaining unsettled, it seems that as a last resort they are to agree, within certain limits, to refer the matter to the king himself, either to settle it definitely, or to afford a means to set the matter once more in a position for a suitable accomodation, not in the way of a payment due to the English companies, but as a token of the excellent disposition of the Dutch, who are anxious above all things to get this troublesome affair settled entirely to the royal satisfaction.
With respect to the contributions for the Palatinate nothing more is said and no business of any kind on the question will be taken up before the return of the king and the Court. Meanwhile the Agent of the Princess Palatine is still detained in the Tower, accused, according to what the ministry here say, of indecent and impertinent remarks and behaviour in soliciting the business, although he asserts that a malicious interpretation has been put upon his offices and letters.
They have advices from several quarters that negotiations for peace continue in Germany. But the Lords here persist in their idea that the conclusion can neither be easy nor at hand, and they state that they have information of a thorough agreement and disposition on the part of the Electors of Saxony and Brandenburg not to take up any settlement prejudicial to the common cause, or excluding the other interested parties.
The Spaniards are devoting themselves to powerful armaments in Flanders and seem determined to take the field soon. They write from Brussels to this Court that the Marquis of Aytona, puffed up by the supreme command, which he exercises with more satisfaction to the soldiers than the people, holds forth great hopes to the king in his letters, of being strong enough very soon, to compel the Dutch to remain strictly on the defensive for the whole of next year.
They are sending to Flanders, partly in letters of exchange and partly in specie, some 200,000 crowns, transported hither from Spain, partly in ryals and partly in plate, upon ships of this nation, which enjoy the advantage of security from the Dutch. They are expecting a further quantity, and from what has already arrived the merchants here have had a certain amount coined into English money. The Dutch protest strongly, but always without effect, so far, not only at the convenience afforded to the Spaniards, but for the advantageous position which they enjoy and still maintain, since while they are doing nothing here for the service of the public cause in Germany, they are doing precisely what is most essential for the service of Spain. The Spaniards never cease their artful offices in this connection.
Shortly before Cuch, the first secretary of state, went to join his Majesty I hear that in speaking of the reports that have frequently been spread about an ambassador extraordinary from Savoy coming to this Court, happened to remark that the book had reached him printed by that duke upon his royal title, but so far as my information goes, he did not enter further into the matter, and I have not succeeded in finding out if he made any further remarks about the book. I will keep on the alert for any comments that may be made about it here.
No public despatch has reached me by the ordinary from Italy who arrived this week.
London, the 17th March, 1634.
[Italian ; the words in italics deciphered.]
March 18.
Senato, Secreta. Deliberazioni. Corti. Venetian Archives.
270. To the Secretary Zonca in England.
News sheets forwarded for information and he is to observe what is said and decided about the crisis at Constantinople, (fn. 8) forwarding the fullest reports. Acknowledge receipt of the Ambassador Gussoni's letters of the 10th ult.
Ayes, 83. Noes, 2. Neutral, 18.
March 20.
Senato, Secreta. Dispacci, Signori Stati. Venetian Archives.
271. Alvise Contarini, Venetian Ambassador in the Netherlands, to the Doge and Senate.
The Resident Bosuel left for England last week, as the wind has changed, although it was not altogether favourable even then.
The Hague, the 20th March, 1634.
272. Alvise Contarini, Venetian Ambassador in the Netherlands, to the Doge and Senate.
The Ambassador Oxenstern, after taking leave of the States, left for England this morning. They say he is satisfied with the answers given him by the States. He takes with him, besides a good company of gentlemen, a Scottish Colonel named Ruuen, (fn. 9) who wishes to make a levy in Scotland and England, with the king's permission, of 10,000 men, for which the ambassador holds remittances for 150,000 crowns. The Germans, however, resent the levy being made in those realms, as it is not known if the king will grant it, and in any case the troops cannot reach Germany before the end of next summer, and they are afraid they are more likely to be sent to Prussia and Livonia against the Poles, although the money was supplied by the Circles and Princes of the Union.
The Hague, the 20th March, 1634.
March 21.
Senato, Secreta. Dispacci, Spagna. Venetian Archives.
273. Francesco Corner, Venetian Ambassador in Spain, to the Doge and Senate.
A courier has recently arrived from London who says he is sent in the interests of the merchants at Lisbon. But he has despatches to the Secretary here, who went to audience of the king a few days later. Some said at the palace that they had received good news from England, and I gather there was something about the interposition of that king to facilitate the truces with the Dutch, which they would welcome here. But I find no confirmation. What I hear is that the occasion of his audience was to complain that the Dunkirk ships chase those of Holland right into the ports of England.
Madrid, the 21st March, 1634.
March 27.
Senato, Secreta. Dispacci, Signori Stati. Venetian Archives.
274. Alvise Contarini, Venetian Ambassador in the Netherlands, to the Doge and Senate.
The Ambassador Oxensterna left for England with two ships of war of the States, but observing that some Dunkirk ships were waiting for them not far from Brille he decided to put back that evening. On the following morning he sailed with a fleet of merchantmen.
Rusdorf has been appointed by the King of England as his agent at the diet of Frankfort. He has already received his instructions and will leave shortly for that place.
The Hague, the 27th March, 1634.
March 27.
Cinque Savii alla Mercanzia. Risposte. Venetian Archives.
275. Seeing that we, the Five Savii, were in some doubt about the expediency of allowing ships from the West to export currants from the islands of Zante and Cephalonia, in accordance with the decision of the Senate of the 25th of August, 1626, because these same ships put in at divers places and afterwards came on here with their entire cargo, we made request in our paper of the 7th February last that a public pronouncement should be made as to whether ships which had discharged goods from the West at Leghorn or Genoa were capable of enjoying the benefit of currants free of the new impost, with other particulars contained in the paper. In response to this request we observe that your Serenity has made a pronouncement in the Senate's decree of the 10th inst. It seems to us that this does not correspond with that of the 25th August, 1626, since it is clearly stated that ships which desire the benefit of the currants must bring their entire cargo to this city, for four years, while by this new decision they are only obliged to bring two thirds, and upon this basis of two thirds it is announced that ships which satisfy this obligation shall enjoy the benefit of the currants without being subject to the new impost of 5 per thousand, debarring them from lading salt and excluding from the benefit ships which, have discharged goods in this Gulf.
Seeing that it is necessary to give notice to the merchants of the intentions of the state in this matter, about the refusal to allow the lading of salt and also about the limiting of the obligation to the bringing of only two thirds to this city, we think it desirable that we should be informed whether the decision is final, because we think that it is not to the advantage of the state to make any alteration in a matter which has been fairly launched and in which the merchants have preferred no petition, but that the original decision should be left unaltered, even although the four years have expired. If the object of the decision was to divert the westerners from the marts of Genoa and Leghorn, and constrain them to come here with the entire cargo, because of their need to have currants, if any concession is made without any move or petition on the part of the merchants, we believe that it will only encourage those marts still further and diminish trade here still more. If the English and Flemish merchants really need currants, it seems to us that they ought to be constrained to steer their business in this direction or to pay the 5 per thousand and not frequent foreign marts to their advantage, leaving a third of their most valuable goods at Genoa and Leghorn and coming on here afterwards with their superfluous or barely profitable merchandise. If it is the intention of the state to admit to the said benefit those ships which have touched at the marts aforesaid, it seems to us that they ought to bring their entire cargoes to this mart, as there is no lack of opportunity for them to provide themselves with cargoes before they arrive in the waters of your Serenity.
We would add that so long as western ships are allowed to bring diminished cargoes they will leave the "londons" at Ragusa, which will subsequently reach Turkey, damaging the state to that extent. It will not be possible to have any knowledge of this discharge of goods at Ragusa, and coming on to Venice they will achieve their intent. It is unlikely that the currant trade at Zante and Cephalonia will receive any hurt, because the English have already established their houses in those islands, with trade in woollen cloth and other goods for clothes, to assist the exportation of currants from those islands. Accordingly in a matter already fairly launched which has continued for four years beyond the original four without any complaint or grievance of any kind we do not think that a change of any sort should be made. We would refer the matter to the wisdom of the state whose decision we shall await, and then make it known to the merchants as the final decision on the subject of lading salt and the enjoyment of the benefit of currants by those who have discharged at marts outside the Gulf.
Dated at the office, the 27th March, 1634.
Niccolo Contarini. Savii.
Marin Querini.
Alvise Mocenigo.
March 31.
Senato, Secreta. Dispacci, Inghilterra. Venetian Archives.
276. Vicenzo Gussoni, Venetian Ambassador in England, to the Doge and Senate.
The son of the Chancellor Oxestern in the capacity of ambassador extraordinary for Sweden and the confederate princes in Germany, has arrived with the king away. He expressed the wish to go at once, without any delay, to find his Majesty, even in the country, but the courtiers here, in execution of the royal orders and in spite of some insistence on his part, have chosen to detain him in this city, possibly because he can be introduced to his first audience and received with more pomp here than elsewhere. This is appointed for the first day following the king's return, which is expected soon. Oxestern's commissions are supposed to be directed in the first place to strong representations for obtaining effective support for the common cause with offers of the best understanding that can be required with respect to the interests of the Palatine house. In the second place he is charged to ask permission for a great levy, for which end he has brought a good quantity of remittances from Germany. I know that one of the merchants here has orders ready and payable up to the sum of 120,000 crowns.
The news of Volestain's death (fn. 10) has come as a great relief to all those who openly side with the house of Austria, and they anticipate great advantage from that event to the imperial arms in the future. But the wisest, and those of the government in particular, seem to refrain from forming an opinion until they can see better what results such a great change is likely to produce, since the lords here are advised from several quarters that outbreaks of disorder have manifested themselves very strongly in the imperial army, in spite of the fall of Volestain and of those other commanders who depended on him.
They write from Brussels that the queen mother, while very anxious on the one hand to return to France, is equally distressed on the other because she does not know how to adjust her accomodation with what they claim in France against her confessor Father Sciantaluppe. (fn. 11) By the same letters they hear of the very active preparations of the Spaniards to take the field to which the Marquis of Aytona is devoting all his efforts.
The Dutch ministers have again assured the Lords here that nothing so far has been definitely settled with regard to the negotiations of Sciarnase. Some member of the royal Council intimates that they hear the French propose to get together a certain number of ships, and although, so far as I can gather, all the ministry do not credit this, yet it is true that the report is encouraged by the remarks of the Hispanophiles, who are always eager to increase jealousy here about anything that France may do. Here they are making arrangements for another armed galleon to leave these ports, which will go to join the few other armed ships of the king which are at sea just now. (fn. 12)
The Senate's letters of the 24th of February have arrived, with the favour of my return. To take leave in a proper manner I shall have to wait for his Majesty's return. At the latest that should be at the end of the present week or the beginning of next. I will do all that is required and present the Secretary Zonca. I will keep on the alert about the coming of the Savoyard ambassador, to prevent mischief, and Zonca will do the same after my departure, but as they have shown no approval whatever of the duke's claims so far, it is only reasonable to suppose that he will not receive any more encouragement in the future. The Resident of Tuscany here unbosomed himself to me on the subject with considerable confidence. He told me that he would make representations calculated to prevent any harmful innovation, but if, which he thinks most unlikely, they make up their minds here to some friendly and unaccustomed demonstration, in that case he will protest openly that the same procedure and advantages must be observed towards the Grand Duke, his master, upon every occasion.
London, the 31st March, 1634.
277. Vicenzo Gussoni, Venetian Ambassador in England, to the Doge and Senate.
With that punctuality which the commands of the Senate claim I will make every effort to find out about their disposition in the matter of the merchant Sautin. I must not forget to say that at the time of the wreck of the ship Stella with Colonel Suynton and all on board, the ship Stork was in its company, also with soldiers for Venice. (fn. 13) These also suffered misfortune, but not to the same extent, as they were able to make the port of the Texel safely. As soon as the news of that accident reached me, when I was at the Hague, I did everything in my power, also by writing to his Excellency Soranzo, who was nearer the spot, for some salvage or information about the wreck, while I sent the Secretary Zonca to Amsterdam and the Texel to collect information, charging him to make every effort for the recovery of the arms, munitions etc. The speed with which he was despatched led to good results, by making it clear that the arms etc. in the Stork were all right, and neither the colonel nor any other officer could have any claim against the state in this matter of the arms. He also brought to light that the storm did not cause the drowning of the soldiers on the Stork, but a mutiny among them as they left that ship in a shallop and went to land in England. He also made it clear that the Stork with some 33 soldiers and with Captain Dumazzon returned safely to the Texel. Thus neither the Colonel nor any one else can make out that the Stork was wrecked. It is true that according to the first reports both ships were wrecked with all the troops, but this proved to be incorrect as shown by the information obtained by sending Zonca.
London, the 31st March, 1634.


  • 1. See the ambassador's reply on 31 March, No. 277 at page 207 below.
  • 2. Taken from Savoy by the French in 1630 and retained by the Peace of Cherasco in 1631.
  • 3. The King went to Newmarket and proposed to remain away till Palm Sunday (April 9 N.S.), Salvetti news letters of 3 & 10 March. Brit. Mus. Add MSS. 27962.
  • 4. Thomas Carey, younger son of Robert Carey, Earl of Monmouth.
  • 5. Sent by Richelieu to negotiate the renewal of the alliance with the Dutch. His instructions are dated 13 Jan. 1633. Letters du Card. de Richelieu iv., page 421.
  • 6. With Margaret, sister of Charles III., duke of Lorraine.
  • 7. Newmarket
  • 8. The imprisonment of all the Christian merchants.
  • 9. General Sir Patrick Ruthven, governor of Ulm, afterwards earl of Forth and Brentford. Cal. S. P. Dom. 1633-4, pages 496, 518.
  • 10. Assassinated at Eger on 25 February.
  • 11. Père Chanteloube. He was the queen's most intimate confidant and chief minister, but not her confessor.
  • 12. Probably the Garland a ship of 500 tons built in 1620. Cal. S. P. Dom. 1633-4 pages 499, 500, 508.
  • 13. See the account in Soranzo's dispatch of 25 Oct., 1630, Vol. XXII. of this Calendar, page 430.