Venice: November 1632

Pages 21-39

Calendar of State Papers Relating To English Affairs in the Archives of Venice, Volume 23, 1632-1636. Originally published by His Majesty's Stationery Office, London, 1921.

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November 1632

Nov 1.
Senato, Secreta. Dispacci, Padova. Venetian Archives.
35. The Rectors of Padua, to the Doge and Senate.
The Resident of England has seen me, the Captain, this morning, and after the usual compliments, as he knew me when I was ambassador in that kingdom, (fn. 1) he told me that the ambassador extraordinary of his king was coming here, as we knew from another quarter. He had mounted horses yesterday expecting him here that evening. He dilated on the rank of the ambassador, who came with a suite of quite sixty persons. He could not tell me the object of the embassy, except that he did not think it could merely be for compliments. He told me of the extraordinary honours the ambassador had received from the Duke of Savoy and the Governor of Milan. I cannot feel quite sure whether the resident claims or wishes any honours to be shown to the ambassador here. However we cannot pretend not to know about it and so we have thought proper to advise your Excellencies.
Padua the 1st November, 1632.
Postscript : the ambassador has just arrived and is lodging at the hostelry. We fancy he means to stay here to-morrow to dine.
Nov. 4.
Senato, Secreta. Dispacci, Signori Stati. Venetian Archives.
36. Alvise Contarini, Venetian Ambassador in the Netherlands, to the Doge and Senate.
The Palatine, besides writing to England, has recently despatched a gentleman thither, who is now here. (fn. 2)
The Hague, the 4th November, 1632.
Nov. 5.
Senato, Secreta. Dispacci, Inghilterra. Venetian Archives.
37. Vicenzo Gussoni, Venetian Ambassador in England, to the Doge and Senate.
With the proposals from this quarter abandoned and the negotiations with Sweden entirely broken off, they sent instructions to the Ambassador Vane to withdraw to Ulm and thence proceed to Strasburg, where he now is, quite without employment, merely watching what is happening in Germany. This suspension or rather manifest rupture of negotiations seems the more important to some of the government, with the hope of beginning again more remote, since they half admit that it happened, as indeed one knows, not without some bitterness between the parties. Here they break out at times into complaints that the king there has shown little regard for the one here, with a contempt for the proposals offered to him by England, so one can see they would like to make people believe that the failure to establish any agreement was not their fault here. The Spaniards, on the other hand, who rejoice to see all negotiations for a closer union between the Swedes and English broken off and remote, do not hesitate to avail themselves of the opportunity of reviving it is said, the encouragement of hopes about depositing Franchental in the hands of this crown ; but they propose at the same time that here they shall make a declaration that they will help and defend the coast and ports of Flanders. Whatever the truth of these transactions of the Spaniards may be, which so far one only knows superficially, Fontane, who has heard the same rumours as have reached me, has reported it in France in this vague, general way, adding that he has no more light on the subject at the moment. The Dutch ministers also, with great friendliness, have confided to me their interest in this matter. They are the more inclined to suspect that the English will give ear to such proposals because it is known that the day before yesterday a courier arrived from Madrid, after spending ten days on the journey, sent with all speed by the English Secretaryat that Court. What he brings is not yet known with any exactness, as he went straight to find the King at Newmarket.
The announcement of the Marquis of Hamilton about the powerful force which was to assist and follow the Palatine, finds no more definite confirmation from the last advices from Germany. The general opinion is that that Prince will have the less to hope from here for his relief the more England allows herself to be deceived once more by entering again upon negotiations to obtain it by the interposition of Spain.
When this courier left it is known that the Regent Villani had not started for Germany. They are curious here about his commissions, but so far they have not heard any information about them at all. (fn. 3) The report that the Cardinal Infant will soon be going to the government of Flanders is confirmed from every quarter. The Dutch reflect on the statement that he will take with him a great provision of money. I understand that the Spanish Resident here announces that a certain Centurioni, a Genoese, has concluded an arrangement with his king for more than five millions, payable in six yearly instalments.
The French ambassador has communicated to the ministers here in conversation the successful completion of the accomo dation between Monsieur and the Most Christian. He remarked to me in strict confidence that he knew quite well that some of them did not like it, out of jealousy or rivalry to see France in such a state of felicity and so united in herself.
Two young princes of Silesia, sons of the Duke of Lignaz (fn. 4) have arrived. They went recently to kiss his Majesty's hands, but we did not hear that they have any business beyond curiosity to see the country. They seem to have information about burning and notable damage inflicted by Volestain's troops in Saxony.
The galleons arming for war will not number more than four (fn. 5) so far as one can discover at present ; the exiguity of their numbers shows that they will not do much. An idea seems to be abroad that they intend to equip twelve more, but one knows of no definite resolution and sees no sign of preparations.
They talk of Fabroni, who left here for Brussels, being about to return to this Court. The French do not cease to persist in their offices to thwart what he has attempted or what he may again try to do for the queen mother who still continues desirous of coming to this kingdom.
Advices have reached the royal Council here by the last letters of the Agents Carleton and Bosuel of the request for a truce made by the deputies of the Assembly of Brussels and of the proposals sent by the Dutch to each of the Seven Provinces. I hear that those agents have received instructions to observe very carefully the progress of this matter, without proceeding to offices of any kind.
With respect to what your Excellencies refer to in your despatches of the 7th ult. about Anstruther, I have to confirm what I wrote on the 3rd of September, namely that he has been recalled from Vienna, with the intention of sending him as ordinary ambassador to France, but before he goes there he has orders, so the Lords here say, to come to London. Owing to his delay in appearing here some believe that he may possibly postpone his return, especially as all negotiations with Sweden have vanished away.
The Ambassador d'Avo writes that he has taken his conge of your Excellencies and professes to be leaving highly satisfied owing to the remarkable honours and presents he has received.
London, the 5th November, 1632.
[Italian ; the part in italics deciphered.]
Nov. 6.
Senato, Secreta. Deliberazioni. Corti. Venetian Archives.
38. This Council resolved on the 11th September, 1630, that the cost of lodging and entertaining ambassadors extraordinary of crowned heads should not exceed 300 crowns a day. Now that we have an ambassador extraordinary of the King of Great Britain, his high rank and dignity, the very leading lords with him with others, his suite amounting to over a hundred persons, the scarcity and doubled cost of everything makes it impossible for 300 crowns to suffice with due regard to honour and decency ; that the said decision of the 30th September be suspended and that the lords of the Rason Vecchie be empowered to expend from 400 to 500 ducats a day, and as much less as they can having due regard to what is required for the service and reputation of the state.
Ayes, 69. Noes, 26. Neutral, 18.
Second vote : Ayes, 57. Noes, 37. Neutral, 19. Pending.
On the 2nd November in the Collegio :
Ayes, 19. Noes, 0. Neutral 2.
Proposal of 400 ducats per day.
Ayes, 77. Noes, 22. Neutral, 20.
Second vote : Ayes, 78. Noes, 22. Neutral, 18. Pending.
Proposal of 500 ducats a day.
Ayes, 72. Noes, 45. Neutral, 4.
Second vote : Ayes, 68. Noes, 43. Neutral, 4. Pending.
Proposal for 400 ducats current per day.
Ayes, 90. Noes, 25. Neutral, 4.
Second vote : Ayes, 90. Noes, 26. Neutral, 2.
Third vote : Ayes, 84. Noes, 33. Neutral, O. Pending.
Proposal somewhat later for 400 ducats current per day.
Ayes, 77. Noes, 33. Neutral, 1.
The voting was then abandoned and the Senate separated.
On the 9th the proposal was again brought forward for 450 ducats a day.
Ayes, 114. Noes, 25. Neutral, 5.
Second vote : Ayes, 119. Noes, 20. Neutral, 6. Carried.
Nov. 11.
Senato, Secreta. Dispacci, Signori Stati. Venetian Archives.
39. Alvise Contarini, Venetian Ambassador in the Netherlands, to the Doge and Senate.
There is no news of the Palatine since his arrival at Mayence. If England decided to help him with men or money he might easily obtain some assistance from the States also, but without that they do not seem inclined to do so.
The Hague, the 11th November, 1632.
[Italian ; the part in italics deciphered.]
Nov. 11.
Collegio, Secreta. Esposizioni, Principi. Venetian Archives.
40. The ambassador extraordinary of the King of Great Britain came into the Collegio accompanied by a good number of Senators. He uttered a few complimentary phrases in French in a very low voice in presenting his letters of credence to the doge. After the letters had been read the ambassador spoke as follows, always in French and without raising his voice.
The king, my master, who greatly loves and esteems this republic, has always tried to show it and to increase this sentiment. That the continuance of his friendship may be apparent he has decided to send this special embassy, which he has entrusted to me. I rejoice that it is my good fortune to be chosen for this honour, and in his Majesty's name I assure you that he, like his father, only seeks for opportunities to gratify you, in order to give further proof of his good disposition towards this republic, for which he desires every prosperity.
The doge replied, We have always had proof of his Majesty's friendliness, and we thank him. We also had signs of true friendship from the late King James, who upon divers occasions showed how much he loved the republic. We thank his Majesty for affording this further proof by his letters and by sending your Excellency. You are dear to us as the minister of so great a king and for your own singular qualities. We also rejoice to see you accompanied by so fine and worthy a company of cavaliers, which increases the indebtedness of the republic, owing to the quality of such leading noblemen, who are disposed to honour this city by their presence.
The ambassador said, I thank your Serenity for this honour and esteem myself happy in being able to render you some service. He said some more about the affection of his king for the republic, and asked leave to introduce the cavaliers and lords who accompanied him, to pay their respects. He signed to them to come one by one to his Serenity ; who received them graciously but with gravity and dignity. On the completion of this ceremony the ambassador took leave and departed.
Carolus Dei gratia Magnae Brit. etc. Rex, fidei defensor etc. Serenissimo Principi Dom. Francisco Erizzo, Venetiarum Duci, consanguineo et amico nostro charissimo, salutem et felicitatem. (fn. 6)
Ser. Princeps etc. Et colendae amicitiae quae nobis cum aliis principibus intercedit, Et publicae salutis maxime studiosi virum nobilem nobisque perquam dilectum et fidelem Hieronimum Weston ad aliquos Principes et Status nostrum extraordinarium misimus Legatum. Hune qui imprimis vestram Serenitatem et inclytissimam vestram Rempublicam nostro nomine venit salutatum, sicuti vobis gratum affere minime dubitamus ; sic ut quaecumque a nobis in mandatis habet expositurum solita vostra humanitate audiatis, ejusque dietis integram adhibeatis fidem amice rogamus atque V. Serenitati et Ser. Republicae felices prudentissimorum consiliorum successus. Et omnis prosperitatis incrementum ex animo precamur.
Datae e regia nostra Otlandiae decima quinta Julii anno Christi MDXXXII. et nostri regni VII.
Vestrae Serenitatis bonus consanguineus Carolus R.
Nov. 12.
Senato, Secreta. Deliberazioni. Corti. Venetian Archives.
41. To the Ambassador in England.
We have your letters of the 6th ult. You will have seen the articles proposed by the deputies of the States sent to Brussels. We shall wait to hear what they think at the English Court about this. The Ambassador Weston made his public entry last Wednesday and yesterday morning he was at public audience in the Collegio. He seemed quite satisfied with his reception and lodging, and we shall, do every thing possible to show our esteem We enclose a copy of his exposition. You will express to the Lord Treasurer our gratification at having his son here.
Ayes, 99. Noes, 0. Neutral, 2.
Nov. 12.
Senato, Secreta. Dispacci, Inghilterra. Venetian Archives.
42. Vicenzo Gussoni, Venetian Ambassador in England, to the Doge and Senate.
The affairs of Germany occupy their attention here in so far as the fortunes of the Prince Palatine must depend upon the turn they take. The remonstrances and offices of that Prince, although supported by incessant pressure from the Agent Edersolt. have not availed to produce the effect at this Court which is so much desired by those interested in the good cause namely the establishment of a good understanding between the crowns of Sweden and Great Britain. They have repeated their instructions to the Ambassador Vane not to leave the city of Strasburg, as the members of the Council will by no means consent to his approaching that monarch just now, who, as the Lords here say, has shown little or no appreciation of the offers already made to him from this quarter. With the negotiations with Sweden in their present languishing and half dead condition, the members of the government here consider that they will not altogether let drop that sort of shadow of support and hope from the Court of Vienna. Although the Ambassador Anstruther should have taken leave there a report has since got abroad that his departure is postponed, in order not to cut absolutely the thread of the negotiations at the Imperial Court as well, useless as it is. When I was conversing on this very question with a great minister of this kingdom he opened his mind freely and said that with the Austrians England had been unable and with the Swedes unwilling to do what circumstances required for the interests of the Palatine.
The royal orders have at last reached the Ambassador Fontane to communicate the accomodation with Monsieur. Whether the reason be jealousy or the usual rivalry with that crown, one can clearly see that the generality of the government here have not heard it with the sentiments that it ought to excite everywhere because of the interest of the common cause in the union and internal felicity of France. Fontane, who is aware of this and laughs about it, did not conceal from me that he had given them a full account of this at the Most Christian Court. The feelings of the Dutch on the subject are the exact opposite. Bosi writes that the particulars he gave their Assembly in the king's name proved most acceptable, and the States wished to express their sentiments to the extent of making capital of the news for a greater reserve in considering the Spanish offers which aim at the establishment of the truces. The same letters state that he passed a special office in that Assembly against those treaties, and was not followed by any one except the Swedish ambassador, who had agreed to make a similar remonstrance with the States General, out of regard to the interests of his king. At the end of the letter he writes these words, England and Venice have not made themselves felt in this, the latter owing to the suspended subsidy, and the former owing to the peace formerly concluded with Spain without the knowledge of the Dutch. I congratulate myself in having been able to see the original of this letter so that your Excellencies may have knowledge of the ideas circulated by these ministers.
The news from Germany by the last despatch is very contradictory. The whole household of the Spanish minister here makes much of a great defeat inflicted by Papnain on Baudesin on the banks of the Weser, but at the palace they are informed that he was not so roughly handled as the Spaniards give out ; indeed it is said that the flower of the Swedish forces under Baudesin withdrew with slight loss and no danger beyond the Weser, (fn. 7) and that they are helping to forward by acting together, the designs of Duke Bernard of Weimar and Arnheim. Meanwhile, according to the last letters to the royal Council, the King of Sweden was trying to secure the passages over the Danube, in order to make a double diversion in Bavaria and the patrimonial estates of the emperor, with the idea of spreading fear right up to Vienna. He has already retaken Rhein, which had been lightly abandoned a short while before by a Swedish officer.
Valestain, continuing the march of his troops towards Saxony, has arrived within a few league of Leipsig, where the neighbourhood of the imperial forces seems to have occasioned disturbance and considerable fear. Those who write agree at least in this, that with the warmth of the armies on either side spreading to divers parts of Germany, there is little sign of the Spaniards having to yield to the rigours of the approaching winter.
The Ambassador Joachimi and Deputy Brasser seem to be waiting anxiously to hear what has been done by the sixty three cornets of horse and the 1500 foot armed with wheel arquebuses sent by the Prince of Orange into Little Brabant ; and they speak very soberly about the negotiations for the truces. This increases the suspicion here of their continuation, the more so as Carleton and Bosuel write to the king that the Provinces of Zeeland and Friesland recently refrained from sending their vote, which they have not yet declared, and to persuade them the Pensionary of Amsterdam had gone to the one and M. Beveron of Dordrecht to the other. They add that the dispute between truceists and antitruceists goes on very vigorously, for so they call the supporters and opponents of the truces in their letters.
Two days ago they celebrated the usual early but stately ceremony of the Mayor, the first magistrate of London. It is usual to invite all the ambassadors, but France could not go, being in mourning for his mother, recently deceased, and so it fell to the minister of your Serenity to take the first place at the head of that rich and sumptuous procession, followed by the two Dutch ministers, by the great lords of the realm and by other lords of the royal Council. Everyone noticed that Nicolaldi and Teller, although invited, did not choose to appear.
The Court is preparing for the dancing and festivities which are to take place within a few days upon the occasion of a comedy in which, for the gratification and pleasure of the king, the queen herself will perform publicly. (fn. 8)
The last despatches of the Senate of the 14th October have reached me.
London, the 12th November, 1632.
[Italian ; the part in italics deciphered.]
Nov. 13.
Collegio, Secreta. Esposizioni, Principi. Venetian Archives.
43. The ambassador extraordinary of England came into the Collegio to private audience accompanied by the Resident of his king and by his secretary. He spoke as follows in the French tongue.
Words fail me to express my king's good will towards this republic. He rejoices that it has preserved itself by its prudence amid all the recent troubles in Italy. As he would like to see peace established everywhere, he has heard with peculiar satisfaction that the prudence of the republic has brought peace to this province. He assures your Serenity that he will do all in his power to secure the preservation of this peace for the advantage of the republic. I have commissions to assure you once more of his constant affection and he wishes you every good.
The doge replied, We thank his Majesty for this new testimony of his affection. We value it highly and have always endeavoured to respond in our own sentiments towards his Majesty. This repeated office is most gratifying to us and we value your lordship personally and always desire your gratification.
The ambassador made further complimentary remarks to which the doge replied, and then he took leave and departed.
Nov. 15.
Cons. di X Parti Comuni. Venetian Archives.
44. That the halls of arms and jewels of the sanctuary be shown to the English ambassador who has come to this city.
Ayes, 16. Noes, 0. Neutral, 0.
Nov. 16.
Senato, Secreta. Deliberazioni. Corti. Venetian Archives.
45. That the ambassador extraordinary of England be summoned to the Collegio, and that the following be read to him : We cannot adequately express our satisfaction at this further confirmation of his Majesty's friendship, responding to our esteem and to the mutual understanding between that crown and our republic which has lasted for many centuries. We appreciate this the more from his sending such an embassy extraordinary in the face of the world. Your lordship has fully represented his Majesty's friendship for the republic, and we have experienced it from his predecessors, notably from King James, of glorious memory, who showed that he esteemed our interests as his own. His Majesty continues his father's generous ideas. We thank him warmly, as well for his pleasure at seeing this province quiet after so many storms. It is generous of him to declare that he will do all that he can to maintain that quiet. You will express our obligations and our appreciation of this embassy. You will always find us eager to favour you.
Ayes, 126. Noes, 5. Neutral, 5.
46. To the King of Great Britain.
We were confident of retaining your Majesty's affection, but are deeply gratified at its confirmation by an embassy extraordinary. The office was punctually performed by Mr. Jerome Weston. We can only respond by saying that our hereditary affection is deeply rooted in our hearts, and that this perfect understanding cannot suffer any change. Mr. Weston will express our thanks, and we wish your Majesty the summit of all prosperity.
Ayes, 126. Noes, 5. Neutral, 5.
47. That a gold chain worth 2000 crowns of 7 lire each in mint money be presented to Mr. Jerome Weston, ambassador extraordinary of England and another of 300 ducats to his secretary, as is customary with other ambassadors extraordinary of crowned heads.
Ayes, 126. Noes, 5. Neutral, 5.
Nov. 17.
Senato, Secreta. Dispacci, Milano. Venetian Archives.
48. Giovanni Antonio Sarotti, Venetian Resident at Milan, to the Doge and Senate.
The Resident of England at Turin, taking the opportunity of asking for the forwarding of some luggage, invites me to enter upon some correspondence. I shall not do so without the good pleasure of Your Serenity.
Milan, the 17th November, 1632.
Enclosure. 49. Antony Hales, English Secretary in Savoy, to Giovanni Ambrosio Sarotti.
Mr. Stuart, an English gentleman of the suite of the English ambassador recently passed through Milan. He left a valise with me with orders to forward it to Venice. I take the liberty to send it to your lordship, asking you to send it to the Resident Rowlandson. I have paid for it to Milan, Rowlandson will pay the rest. With a thousand thanks.
I should be very glad to have some correspondence with you, since there is such a good friendship between the princes we serve. Give me your opinion and I will not fail to serve you Sig. Cerbellone, ambassador of Milan, left here in great disgust, because he could not visit the duchess covered. They laugh at his behaviour here. I called on him, but he did not return the visit. Anger blinds the eyes. He claimed everywhere to be treated on a par with the ambassadors of the princes of Italy.
Turin, the 6th November, 1632.
Nov 17.
Collegio, Secreta. Esposizioni, Principi. Venetian Archives.
50. The ambassador extraordinary of England came into the Collegio, and after the Senate's deliberation of the 16th inst. had been read to him, he spoke substantially as follows :
My king will be satisfied with what your Serenity has had read to me. and will appreciate the good will of the republic towards him. I assure you that his affection could not be greater and he will always be on the look out for opportunities for serving the republic. I will report to him as you wish, and in the best manner possible.
I thank your Serenity for the honour done me personally, and for accepting my service. I will try to give all possible satisfaction, while I shall preserve a memory of the favours and honours done to me, of which I will make a full report to my king.
The doge answered, The Senate has expressed its cordial affection and esteem for his Majesty, which will always be the same, as merited by the affection shown by him and his predecessors, the king, his father in particular. We are especially indebted to his Majesty for sending such an honourable embassy, filled with so much splendour by your Excellency. We offer you our best good will, as due to your worth and nobility.
The ambassador thanked the doge, with further expressions of affection and regard, to which his Serenity replied. The ambassador then rose and withdrew to the room before the segreta, in order to take notes of the office. As they were going out the English resident said that the ambassador had not taken leave, but he would come to do so on the morrow or the day after.
Nov. 18.
Senato, Secreta. Deliberazioni. Corti. Venetian Archives.
51. To day the eight days expire during which the English ambassador extraordinary has been defrayed at the public charge, and whereas by the decision of this Council of the 13th September, 1630, no such ambassador can be defrayed for more than eight days, and the ambassador not having taken leave at his last audience, but expressed his intention to depart next Saturday or Monday, that our officers of the Rason Vecchie shall continue to defray that ambassador for four days longer beginning from to-morrow.
Ayes, 125. Noes, 4. Neutral, 4.
On the 18th November in the Collegio :
Ayes, 23. Noes, 0. Neutral, 1.
52. To the Ambassador in England.
The Ambassador Weston was at audience on Saturday morning, but merely confirmed his king's goodwill to the republic. We send our response. We were glad to see him and havetried to give him every satisfaction, and indeed he seems to appreciate all that has been done. We enclose the letter we shall give him for his Majesty. You will perform offices in accordance, to prove our esteem for his Majesty. You express very prudently the sentiments of those who think rightly in present affairs, and we consider your reflections sound. You did well to evade the suggestion of our doing anything to divert the employment of this ambassador extraordinary, as the nature of the affair itself and present events will smooth the way to better resolutions at that Court. We are glad that you obtained the opinion of the ministers about the affairs of the Netherlands and Flanders. We are fully satisfied with your diligence. We enclose the advices to use for the public service.
Ayes, 127. Noes, 2. Neutral, 4.
Nov. 18.
Senato, Secreta. Dispacci, Signori Stati. Venetian Archives.
53. Alvise Contarini, Venetian Ambassador in the Netherlands, to the Doge and Senate.
They say Frankenthal is beginning to parley, and when the Palatine sent some armed peasants that way, those within asked permission to send a messenger to the Infanta to consign the place to her or to the King of England.
The Hague, the 18th November, 1632.
Nov. 19.
Senato, Secreta. Dispacci. Inghilterra. Venetian Archives.
54. Vicenzo Gussoni, Venetian Ambassador in England, to the Doge and Senate.
They continue to arm ships with extraordinary diligence. The report is confirmed that in addition to the four already written of (fn. 9) they will add some fifteen or possibly twenty ships to the fleet, though this will include some merchantmen which they propose to arm for war. Every one comments on these preparations, as the report put about that it is merely to secure the coasts of Ireland does not appear probable. A few days will disclose what the government does not at present wish to make known. Meanwhile various opinions are formed, Some believe that if the Cardinal persists in his decision to proceed to Flanders by sea, this new English fleet may serve as an escort for him, at the instance of the Spaniards. Others affirm that the real object is to snub the Dutch, against whom bitter feeling seems on the increase about the question of the fisheries in particular, besides some spicy and unpleasant incidents in the matter of navigation.
The Ambassador Joachimi, an old and wise minister, admits that with all his adroitness he cannot steer his negotiations clear of disagreeable things. He complains bitterly, remarking on the advantage to the Spanish ascendancy in the disposition and character of some who hold the leading positions in this government. He talks of leaving in a few days for Holland, but says he is going on private affairs. The truth is that no successor has been appointed as yet. He leaves Brasser, however, who in the capacity of Agent will attend to current affairs. What the reason for his departure may be has not yet clearly transpired. One hears'a whisper, and the Ambassador Fontane has spoken to me about it, that the Dutch, to revive the benefit, which was once so considerable but is now just as lukewarm of a union with this crown, are considering the renewal of negotiations for a defensive and offensive alliance, such as England already proposed to the States through Burlamachi, and possibly Joachimi's journey is ordered for this purpose. I have not yet all the materials for forming a certain judgment, although the last letters of Bosi, the French minister at the Hague, imparts this information to the Ambassador Fontane, who communicated it to me in confidence. I have not neglected to bring it to the knowledge of his Excellency Contarini.
The results expected from the raid of the Dutch cavalry into Brabant have not been realised, as they did not succeed in achieving anything beyond placing in neutrality the two little places of Hanuye and Lauden. But the Dutch ministers here show more regret at the last news of the attack made by their forces upon Orzoi, since the place was already won, but the assailants by taking to plunder gave the Spaniards an opportunity of regaining courage, with the arrival of succour from Rinberg. In this way the victors became the vanquished, and in the disorder of the retreat some 200 Dutch were cut to pieces. It is not known whether Colonel Ghent remained a prisoner. After this event, which the Spaniards make a great deal of, they say the Prince of Orange proposed to distribute his army in garrisons. From the Spanish side comes a report that during the negotiations between the deputies of Brussels and those of Holland no fresh major operations will be undertaken by either side, which some here interpret as a sort of armistice.
The Marquis Parella, a Piedmontese, who has stayed here for several months, has had no affairs beyond presenting the king here, in the name of the Duke of Savoy, with a suit of armour, handsomely decorated with delicate engraving in silver. He is on the point of leaving any day. Mons. di Vantelet is destined to go to Savoy in response to the despatch made by the duke about the birth of his son, and on this occasion he will take to present to his Highness in his Majesty's name, a number of the finest hackneys in the kingdom.
London, the 19th November, 1632.
[Italian ; the part in italics deciphered.]
55. Vicenzo Gussoni, Venetian Ambassador in England, to the Doge and Senate.
Two days ago Fontane went to the palace on purpose to communicate the news of the execution of the extreme penalty on Momoransi at Toulouse. He showed me the king's own letters on the subject. They set forth the necessity for removing occasions of disturbance from the realm and of keeping every one to the obedience he owes by the example of the punishment due to a great fault. He told me also that a messenger had reached him, sent express by the Marshal di San Sciomon, who is still helping to govern Calais, reporting that Monsieur had fled from Tours for Flanders, or to go on to England. As no news of this has reached this Court from any other quarter they are waiting for confirmation. I enclose a copy of the letter in question. (fn. 10)
The deputy of Hamburg has been here on purpose to see me, and paid his respects with every sign of reverence and esteem for the most serene republic. I responded suitably. He told me that the more important differences between his masters and the King of Denmark were already assuaged, but that some matters, which were rather thorny remained for negotiation with that sovereign on questions of navigation. He said he had obtained the principal thing he desired at this Court about the withdrawal of the letters of reprisal granted by the king here to some Scots against Hamburg ships, (fn. 11) his Majesty having received a bad impression about an incident that had occurred in the parts of Norway to a ship of Scotland, that had fought and been defeated or captured by another of the Hamburg merchants.
With respect to events in Lower Saxony he told me that the country was open, with only a few places fortified, so one might say it was exposed to the imperial forces. They would have destroyed everything had not the Duke Elector and the Princes of the Circle brought troops to the defence of their own states, all in good order. He remarked at the end that owing to the difficulty of crossing he was without letters and advices from those parts. From Germany also the couriers only arrive after the usual delay. They have heard no news here this week and are waiting with interest to hear what has happened in the empire. The family circle of the Ambassador Anstruther are making strenuous efforts at the palace to prevent the postponement of his departure from Vienna, which has been whispered.
The last letters from the Senate are dated the 22nd October.
London, the 19th November, 1632.
Enclosure. 56. Copy of a letter from the Marshal St. Chaumont to the Ambassador Fontane, upon the execution of Montmorency and the flight of Monsieur.
Dated at Calais, the 16th November, 1632.
Nov. 20.
Senato, Secreta. Dispacci Svizzeri. Venetian Archives.
57. Moderanti Scaramelli, Venetian Secretary to the Swiss, to the Doge and Senate.
The resident of England is going to meet the Duke of Rohan at Coire. He is very silent and secret with me, although he acts the confidant and intimate in telling me what he hears, by express royal command, but he does not tell me that he has instructions to keep his eyes open for what is going on in Germany. I do not know if his offices turn upon the interests of religion, or if, in case of the recovery of the Palatinate, they mean to introduce free Lutheranism there or only Calvinism as before, since the Chancellor Oxenstierna has declared himself on the subject. As for matters of state, here among the Swiss in particular they pay little attention to any proposals from that pompous and ease loving Court since the losa of La Rochelle.
Zurich, the 20th November, 1632.
Nov. 20.
Collegio, Secreta. Esposizioni, Principi. Venetian Archives.
58. The Ambassador extraordinary of England came into the Collegio and spoke substantially as follows :
I have seen the (friendship of the republic for my king during my stay here, and I will report the excellent treatment I have received as a token of the continuance of good relations, which my king will always try to keep up, because he knows that your Serenity desires to preserve the quiet of Italy. The king will cultivate this friendship by selecting an Ordinary ambassador, and he is contemplating some one in particular. Meanwhile the resident Rolandson will remain in charge here. I commend to you our merchants and Colonel Douglas, who is in your Serenity's service. I know him as an honourable gentleman worthy of your favour. I thank you for the great favours I have received, which I shall never forget, and I shall consider it a great honour if you will give me some command.
The doge replied they were sure he would tell the king of their cordial affection, and they hoped the good relations would always be preserved. They would gladly welcome an ordinary ambassador, as they would the resident, while he remained. The merchants would always have suitable favour, and they would treat Colonel Douglas as his merits deserved. They were glad the ambassador was satisfied with his reception. If it was not all they would have desired, the short notice and the season were accountable. They wished him a pleasant journey and all prosperity.
The ambassador repeated his appreciation of his treatment, and said he hoped to have an opportunity of serving the republic. He then rose, made a deep reverence to the doge and Collegio and went out.
The Resident and secretary went out with the ambassador. The secretary subsequently sent for me, the secretary, and gave me a memorial saying it was about merchants and he would come and perform the necessary offices upon the subject.
Christoforo Surian, Secretary.
Nov. 24.
Collegio, Secreta. Esposizioni. Principi. Venetian Archives.
59. The Resident of England came into the Collegio and spoke substantially as follows :
The ambassador extraordinary received such great favours from your Serenity that he has commissioned me to come and express his great indebtedness. He would esteem it a great honour to have some command from your Serenity which he could fulfill. The ambassador is still here waiting for the Duke of Lennox, his brother in law, who should arrive soon. If he could have some commands from your Serenity in the mean time, he would value it highly. The doge replied, We are glad that the ambassador is pleased with what we were able to do. It was only due to his personal merits and to our esteem for his Majesty. We thank him and wish him every felicity.
The Resident added, The ambassador told me to commend to your Serenity the interests of merchants of our nation trading at this mart and who have business at Zante in particular. They have on previous occasions encountered difficulties which greatly disturbed their trade. The Ambassador Wake presented a memorial, and it was then decided that when the General was sent to those parts he should have authority to take the matter in hand and set things in order. It now seems that the same merchants have been troubled again for some time, and an account of it has been given in a memorial which I presented. Some cases of silk and one of gold buttons were sent to Hider, an English merchant, from Messina. These goods, which do not serve for Zante have been detained, and Hider was arrested with two others. Hider was afterwards released, but the others are still in prison. Your Serenity is asked to order their release and in general that the merchants of our nation may be well treated, so as to preserve the trade with this nation.
The doge replied, The English nation is greatly beloved and we shall not fail to do everything possible for their relief. The republic also desires in the interests of this mart and of our other marts, that the merchants shall have every advantage and facility, and when their requirements are stated we shall try and give them every possible satisfaction.
With this the Resident thanked his Serenity and asked for the despatch of the memorial already handed in. He then took leave and departed.
Nov. 25.
Senato, Secreta, Deliberazioni. Corti. Venetian Archives.
60. To the Ambassador in England.
The Ambassador Weston took leave on Saturday the 20th ult., expressing his obligations and thanks. The Secretary Rolandson also thanked us and renewed his application for the English merchants and Hider in particular. We shall make enquiry in order to give our reply and such satisfaction as we can for the relief and content of the whole nation. The ambassador has not left yet, but is staying privately, waiting for the Duke of Lennox, his brother in law, who should soon arrive here. Your letters of the 22nd October arrived that same Saturday. We are pleased at your diligence in penetrating to the bottom of affairs at that Court, and you should try and obtain the soundest information about the treaties and all the more recondite affairs. To this end we send you the advices to use for our interests.
Ayes, 137. Noes, 0. Neutral, 3.
Nov. 25.
Secreta. Senato, Dispacci, Signori Stati. Venetian Archives.
61. Alvise Contarini, Venetian Ambassador in the Netherlands, to the Doge and Senate.
Letters from Brussels state that Monsieur is shortly expected there. The Queen Mother was leaving Brussels to see Antwerp, Ghent and other towns, though it was also said she was going to Ghent in the hope of proceeding to England, but was stopped by the news of Monsieur.
The Hague, the 25th November, 1632.
Nov. 26.
Senato, Secreta. Dispacci, Inghilterra. Venetian Archives.
62. Vicenzo Gussoni, Venetian Ambassador in England, to the Doge and Senate.
Gerbier, his Majesty's Resident with the Infanta, in his last despatch by an express courier who arrived at Court two days ago, assures the king that whatever reports may be spread to the contrary, the deputies of Brussels have nothing to negotiate with the Dutch which does not agree in every respect with what the Infanta agrees to, founded upon the full powers which she has from the King of Spain. He adds that the principal aim of the Spaniards is to secure in the mean time this certain benefit, to console their subjects in Flanders to some extent with the inducement and hope of peace, as they are excessively distressed by the burden of taxes and by war. He further asserts that the Infanta has information from several quarters that even in Holland they have had enough of the trouble and expense, and it is known that the numbers of those who desire an accomodation is not small among those who govern in all the Provinces. He concludes that according as matters go in Germany and the trend they take so the Spaniards will tighten or slacken their grasp in the matter of the truces, while in the mean time they will enjoy the advantage of amusing both their enemies and their own subjects by the appearance of such negotiations. The ministers here in their private conversations sometimes intimate that in their opinion it does not behove this crown to show any desire to interest itself either for preventing or for assisting these treaties, and the instructions to both the English agents in Holland, which I have already reported and which have been renewed, are precisely to this effect. I supply the Ambassador Contarini with the necessary information.
Fontane remains on the qui vive to thwart any offices made by the queen mother with the ministers here. With the publication of the news of the flight of Monsieur, which first reached him and afterwards everyone else in this kingdom by way of Calais, from M. di Sansciomon, in the letter of which I sent a copy, everyone is waiting to see the issue, while reports circulate about his having gone towards Lorraine or to Franche Comte. The Ambassador Joachimi has postponed his departure because of some fresh commissions which have reached him from his masters. He announces that the Prince of Orange, having well fortified and strongly garrisoned Maastricht, has passed the Meuse with the remainder of his army, as he does not wish to lose time or any opportunity that may present itself even in the winter. But here they believe that the unsuccessful attempt upon Orsoi will put a full stop to any further operations of importance for this season.
Bosi writes to the French minister here that the offices passed by him by commission of the Most Christian have greatly relieved and consoled the Elector of Cologne, since that authoritative intercession has made it easier for him to obtain from the Prince of Orange an order forbidding all officers in the service of the States to hurt the country of that Electorate on the score of infringement of neutrality, because he allowed Papenain to pass when he tried to bring relief to Maastricht. On the other hand the Duke of Neuburg has not been able to avoid fresh sufferings for his subjects, who have been obliged to billet the Dutch troops who have taken possession of Carpen near Juliers. The French take occasion from this in their talk to draw attention to the great benefit received by the Elector. Some boxes of reals to the amount of some 100,000 crowns have arrived here these last days, on account of assignments already made from Spain for Flanders. These will be transmitted from this mart to that of Antwerp by way of exchange.
They are rigorously enforcing the royal edicts recently published which forbid those born in other parts of this kingdom to continue to live in London, if they enjoy a certain amount of property, and who are called foreigners of this city. The enforcement of this and similar laws as well as the dispensations granted naturally result in the flow of cash into the royal Chamber, the exiguity of which, as has been said, makes them resort to every means in order to obtain money. (fn. 12)
The state despatches of the 23rd and 28th ult. have come by the courier of the present week. I will use the first, about the ecclesiastical commissioners, not to raise the subject myself, but for answering if the subject is raised by others. With regard to the Ambassador Weston the English Resident at Venice writes to the same effect about the orders issued for his reception and particularly about the house for his quarters. His father, the treasurer had already informed me of his arrival at Bergamo, where the state representatives honoured him, and apologised for not having known before about his coming. I expressed the desire of the state to treat him as became a minister of this crown and son of his Excellency. I told him that the latest from your Serenity only stated that you had some news of his arrival at the Court of Milan, but that his Majesty's Resident had not made any move, yet in spite of this, suitable orders had been issued for his worthy reception. London, the 26th November, 1632.
[Italian ; the part in italics deciphered.]
Nov. 27.
Senato, Secreta. Deliberazioni. Corti. Venetian Archives.
63. To the Resident Antelmi at the Imperial Court.
You will keep yourself informed of what is going on and advise us carefully in detail. You will also let us know if the English ambassador has really left, and if there is any minister from the Palatine at present at that Court.
Ayes, 110. Noes, 0. Neutral, 3.


  • 1. Alvise Valaresso, at this time Captain of Padua, had been ambassador in England from 1622—1624.
  • 2. Colonel Peblitz. See Boswell's letter of 23 Oct. O.S. S.P. For. Holland. Vol. 145.
  • 3. "I take it for no ill sign that they are presently sending the Senator Villan to the Emperor, who always carries an olive branch in his mouth." Hopton's despatch of 20 Oct. S.P. Foreign. Spain.
  • 4. Presumably two sons of George Rudolph, Duke of Liegnitz.
  • 5. See note to page 18 above.
  • 6. Original in the filza.
  • 7. Pappenheim succeeded in dislodging Baudissin from Höxter in Westphalia, where he was entrenching ; but the Swedish general drew off his forces in good order and unmolested, to Munden. Mercure Français Vol. 18 pp 633, 634.
  • 8. The play was the "Shepherd's Pastotal" by Walter Montagu, and it was to be produced at Somerset House on the King's birthday, the 29 Nov. N.S. : Bitch : Court and Times of Charles I., Vol. ii page 176. Salvetti, news letter of 29 Oct. Biit. Mus. Add. MSS. 27962 F.
  • 9. Victory, Dreadnought, Bonaventure and St. Dennis.
  • 10. Montmoiency was executed at Toulouse on 30th Oct. Gaston of Orleans fled from Tours to Brussels on 6 Nov.
  • 11. The deputy of Hamburg, Berthold Muller, had been sent some months before on this affair affecting a Captain David Robertson ; his letters of credence are dated 11 May. S.P. For. Hamburg. Particulars of the case are in a paper dated 26 March. Id. See also Cal. S.P. Dom. 1631-3 pages 466, 557.
  • 12. The reference is to a proclamation of 20 June commanding the gentry to keep their residence at their mansions in the country, and forbidding them to make their habitation in London and places adjoining. Cal. S.P. Dom., 1631—3, page 357. The reference is no doubt due to the stir caused by the fine of £1000 imposed upon Mr. Palmer, a Sussex gentleman, by the Star Chamber, for infringing this proclamation, on 15 Nov. Birch : Court and Times of Charles I., Vol. ii. page 192. Salvetti writes on this date (26 Nov.) "Questa citta e hoggi quasi senza nobilta, la quale s'è retirata in campagna, cosi commandata da un proclama o bando Regio, non senza molto lor regretto et anche disgusto, per essere soliti la maggior parte di essa di ritirarsi qui nell'inverno." Brit. Mus. Add. MSS. 27962 F.