Venice: October 1634

Pages 282-292

Calendar of State Papers Relating To English Affairs in the Archives of Venice, Volume 23, 1632-1636. Originally published by His Majesty's Stationery Office, London, 1921.

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October 1634

Oct. 3.
Senato, Secreta. Dispacoi, Fiancia. Venetian Archives.
359. Giovanni Soranzo, Venetian Ambassador in France, to the Doge and Senate.
The English Residents here display their usual resentment at the progress of His Majesty in Germany. They say that the Princes there ought to have a good understanding with each other, as if they have not the Swedes will sell them one by one. They use this as an excuse for refusing the levies lately to the Ambassador Oxestiern, saying that these might have been used against the Princes themselves and if they had granted levies to the Princes the Swedes might have been jealous, so as the lesser evil they would not grant them to either.
De Vic recently returned from England, as the Secretary Zonca wrote, but his colleague Oger certainly assured me on his oath that it was not so, to prove that he had not deceived me, and he seems to suspect that I have done them some ill turn in communicating this.
I find nothing to add to what the Secretary Zonca writes about the proposed alliance between the two Crowns' and England, though I believe it will serve as a counterpoise, possibly of slight value, to the negotiations of the Spaniards. From what I learn from Sig. Cornaro these are being pressed, forward, and I propose to see one of the ministers here on the subject. This will serve two purposes, to discover their attitude to these negotiations, and to warn them to be on their guard against the dealings of the Spaniards with that king.
Paris, the 3rd October, 1634.
[Italian ; the part in italics deciphered.]
Oct. 8.
Secreta. Senato. Dispacci, Inghilterra. Venetian Archives.
360. Francesco Zonca, Venetian Secretary in England, to the Doge and Senate.
As the king was engaged upon more serious concerns last Sunday, he was unable to receive Lord Fildin's offices of leave taking as had been arranged. This function has been postponed until the day after to-morrow and meanwhile Lord Fildin has come to London in order to put the finishing touches to what he needs for the first stages of his journey, which is arranged for next week. I seized the opportunity to go and pay my respects, bid him farewell and wish him all good fortune on the road, as is usual. I also took occasion to congratulate him on the distinguished post for which his Majesty has selected him and told him of the gratification of your Excellencies that the embassy at Venice would be sustained by so worthy a personage, and one so closely connected with the Lord Treasurer, for whom you have a cordial regard. I told him he was eagerly awaited there, so that you might prove to him your good will and the devotion of your Serenity to this crown. The ambassador was much gratified at what I said as he clearly showed by his reply. This in substance amounted to thanking your Serenity with all his heart for the good opinion you have of him, which he would endeavour to deserve by his deeds. He had the particular commands of the king to demonstrate his extreme friendship for the republic, which had never been interrupted. No servant with better intentions had ever left England for the Venetian state. Finally, in concert with his father in law, equally devoted to your Excellencies, he had chosen this embassy by preference to any other employment elsewhere, asserting that he had received peculiar courtesies and distinctions at Venice on previous occasions.
He takes with him powers to direct the English ministers in France, Switzerland and Savoy to the extent that he finds to be requisite for his Majesty's service. He also has the power to dispose of Rolandson as he thinks best. For this end he takes with him a royal letter of credence for your Serenity, so that in case of need he can make use of that secretary, who will remain to serve you, and to ask that he may have audience and credence. He will only stay a short time in France, so he told me, and even shorter at Turin, and he will hasten his journey as much as the season permits, so as to get to Venice.
A letter has been written to a minister of the Court here by a person of quality of the Lower Palatinate, expressing the apprehension of the people there of the victorious arms of the King of Hungary. With a touch of resentment and remonstrance he declared that he fears they will soon be compelled by a surrender of their native country to the Most Christian to relieve the English of the tiresomeness of their demands, and themselves of impatiently awaiting in vain the succour promised so often. To avoid the risk of being once again and for ever driven away from their afflicted country if it should fall once more into the hands of the Austrians, they would prefer to recommend themselves to the French king ; and the majority of the princes of those parts would come to the same decision if their party does not regain strength to resist the forces of the enemy. When a summary of this letter was presented to the king it seems to have aroused some spark of generous feeling in his Majesty's breast and possibly some compunction in his conscience. Or perhaps, as many say, he was not personally altogether averse from some demonstration for the support of the Palatine family, his sister and nephews. Accordingly he sent for some of the chief men of his Council to ask their opinion as to what he might be able to do for the defence of the Palatinate and for the support of the Union in Germany. They all agreed, one after the other in telling him that these affairs have nothing to do with England. They ought to consider it a piece of good fortune that they had not pledged themselves in the past, and consequently that they were not at present bound to make any open demonstrations. It would be very unfortunate in his Majesty's present difficulties ; that the interests of the Palatine can only be upheld by large forces, and his Majesty was in no position to prepare them. In the end the angelic goodness of the king was persuaded to attend peacefully to his diversions and to let the differences which divide others be settled by those whom they concern more nearly. All the same, they anticipate here, and with great vexation that France will profit in Germany out of the misfortunes of the Swedish party. Everyone is watching to see what she is going to undertake with such large forces gathered together.
The Spanish partisans here already menace that kingdom as if the war in Germany was already ended. Others believe that the plan will be forestalled by carrying the war abroad instead of waiting for it at home in their own country. Such is the nourishment upon which men feed their curiosity in the profound ease of this island.
The orders published in the Parliament of Paris against the Lorraine princes (fn. 1) has made a bad impression upon everyone here, but the king and Court have shown more feeling than any others. The Ambassador Poygni parries the attack with the arguments supplied to him, but they do not meet the point. He also has instructions from his Court to demand the expulsion from this Court of the Vantelletta, favourite of the queen here, who had a hand in the intrigue carried on here in the time of the Ambassador extraordinary Castelnovo, afterwards Garde des Sceaux in France and of the Chevalier di Giar. (fn. 2) This office is displeasing to their Majesties, and so the ambassador is beginning to be looked at askance, without any hope of being able to obtain what he asks, the king being unwilling, as Poygni was told, to order his household for the satisfaction of others.
As I have fully and punctually carried out the state's instructions touching the Savoyard ambassador, I have nothing further to answer in your Serenity's letters of the 14th ult. which I received to-day.
London, the 8th October, 1634.
[Italian ; the part in italics deciphered.]
Oct. 9.
Senato, Secreta. Dispacci, Inghilterra. Venetian Archives.
361. Anzolo Correr, Venetian Ambassador designate to England, to the Doge and Senate.
Count Galeazzo Gualdo accompanied me to the confines of Swiss territory so that he might suffer no further impediment on his journey. I left him at the entrance into France, where he took the road for Nancy, on his way to Germany, there to continue the employment of his talents in accordance with the public commands. (fn. 3)
The Duke of Rohan has been to see me, in confirmation, he said, of his devotion to your Excellencies. This morning he went to find the king, who is engaged in the delights of hunting some leagues from this city. (fn. 4) For this reason I have had no opportunity of seeing him and presenting your Serenity's letters. The Ambassadors Soranzo and Contarini have kept me with them, wishing me to participate in the splendour with which they uphold the majesty of the state. To-morrow I shall continue my journey towards Calais, in order to cross the sea while this good weather continues.
Paris, the 9th October, 1634.
Oct. 10.
Senato, Mar. Venetian Aichives.
362. In the Pregadi, on 10th October, 1634.
The decision of this Council of the last day of January 1633 not having taken effect, namely that John Hobson, English merchant, should present himself before the Inquisitor Basadonna to hear his appeal against a sentence pronounced against him on the 17th April, 1633, by the Governor of Cephalonia, leave having been given to that merchant to return to England :
That the appeal upon the said sentence and any other sentence against him, both civil and criminal, for smuggling, be referred to the Five Savii della Mercanzia, to be decided by them, with power to inflict such penalties as they see fit on the guilty parties.
That the Resident of England be informed of this decision, and told that the concession has been made to please His Majesty.
Ayes, 68. Noes, 3. Neutral, 12.
Oct. 10.
Senato, Secreta. Dispacci, Francia Venetian Archives.
363. Giovanni Soranzo and Alvise Contarini, Venetian Ambassadors in France, to the Doge and Senate.
De Vic the English agent, when asked pointedly, denied absolutely that he had been to London. With the definite information supplied by the Secretary Zonca, this practically justifies the suspicion that their secrecy covers some prejudicial transaction. The arrival of the Ambassador Corraro at that Court will therefore be most opportune. He only stayed two days here and left to-day accompanied by Signori Giovanni Alvise, Andrea Valieri and Giovanni dei Cavalli.
Paris, the 10th October, 1634.
Oct. 13.
Senato, Secreta. Dispacci, Inghilterra. Venetian Archives.
364. Francesco Zonca, Venetian Secretary in England, to the Doge and Senate.
The Ambassador Fildin took leave of their Majesties last Sunday at Hampton Court and fully discharged all his duties in the matter of compliments at the Court which is staying there for some weeks longer. As a testimony of his respect for the republic he thought fit to come to the embassy here before leaving, to return my visit. He told me that he had everything ready for his start, which was absolutely fixed for the present week or next Monday at latest. He spoke to me with the usual courteous expressions and declared his utmost esteem for the republic. He seemed anxious to go and take up his post with all possible speed. I made a suitable response and aimed more particularly to increase his existing good will towards the continuation of cordial relations. The king, who is very fond of him, both for the still living memory of the late Duke of Buckingham and out of regard for the Lord Treasurer, his father in law, had placed at his disposition a sideboard of the royal plate to use on this occasion, the narrowness of his fortune joined to a generosity exceeding it, being well known to his Majesty. But Fildin, with modest excuses, refused the offer, declaring that he was sufficiently provided.
He will leave with a most distinguished suite, according to all accounts, and among them there will be a brother of his own wife, a brother of the Treasurer, and a brother of the Duke of Lennox, who is at present in Italy. (fn. 5) They may accompany him to Turin and afterwards stay with him at Venice. Colonel Douglas, who with the permission of your Excellencies came here on his affairs, is returning in the ambassador's company to take up his service. Lord Fildin proposes to hasten his journey so that he may be able to reach your Serenity soon after Christmas. He is somewhat apprehensive about the passage of the mountains for his wife and the other ladies of his household, and he has some idea of taking the route by Marseilles to avoid those districts, tiresome, so he calls them, in that season, and inconvenient at any time.
The Ambassador Joachimi toils incessantly sometimes with the king and always with the Lords of the Council to obtain an answer to his proposals, which were referred by his Majesty to Hampton Court. But whereas at the first blush he persuaded himself that he would find it easy to obtain some assistance for his masters, or else feigned to do so, in order to induce the Ambassador Poygni to support his demands openly, he now, in the progress of the negotiations, encounters the usual insuperable difficulties, which he has experienced before. The king himself told him seriously that he was resolved to live at peace with every one and to keep himself a general friend, and he did not wish to be more partial to one side than to the other. He did not want the House of Austria to advance to excessive power, but neither was the increase and too evident aggrandisement of France a thing to desire. He would be glad to see a universal adjustment, and would much rather employ himself upon that than in fomenting a war which had been carried on too long in Christendom. Joachimi replied that a secure peace would be preferred by every one to the uncertain events of the war. But it was more difficult to arrange this than the world believed. If through the present successes of the king of Hungary, favoured by good fortune, the emperor succeeds in recovering Germany, as there is every appearance that he will since there is no one to resist him seriously, his power will become more formidable than ever, and will cause anxiety to many princes, hinting that even this kingdom will not be safe, so wide is the reach of Spanish ambition. Joachimi goes about spreading these and similar ideas among the leading lords of the Court, in order to arouse the members of the government here, if possible to more sincere resolutions, but they answer in the same way as the king, or with little change, while some add that things have not gone so far as he states, and that in any case England has France and Holland as bulwarks beyond the sea, and the forces of this kingdom are adequate to defend it against any attack that may be made upon it. Nevertheless in the Council they have not yet settled upon their reply to him. But he despairs all the same of making any impression on the ministry here, grown drowsy, as he says, in the delights and commodities of the country and in the charms of peace.
The Ambassador Poygni, who carefully watches the interests of his king, discovered the other day that a Frenchman named Oliset, who acts here for the Queen Mother and Monsieur, (fn. 6) was sending letters to Flanders by Calais, under assumed names, but directed to the companion of Father Sciantalupe, to arouse less suspicion. Poygni wrote to the governor there, providing him with excellent indications by means of which he was able to possess himself of several packets of these letters of which he sent copies to the ambassador here and the originals to Paris.
The French agents at Brussels advise the ambassador here that a certain number of soldiers are passing one by one from Ireland to fill the ranks of Monsieur's forces, but their number is not considerable and he is receiving no increase of any consequence from other nations.
The parliament of Ireland has at last met amid universal satisfaction. Of their own accord they voted six subsidies to the king, to be raised in six years, amounting to about 120,000 crowns a year.
I have received the state dispatches of the 22nd ult. to-day with the sheet of advices.
London, the 13th October, 1634.
[Italian ; the part in italics deciphered.]
Oct. 14.
Senato. Secreta. Dispacci Germania. Venetian Archives.
365. Antonio Antelmi, Venetian Secretary in Germany, to the Doge and Senate.
They are very anxious about France. The Spaniards are always telling everyone of their disposition towards peace, while they are making the most of the time in increasing their forces and their allies. They are already pressing for levies for Monsieur in England and Flanders. They are urging the emperor to send an ambassador to the king of Great Britain to make an alliance with him, and they talk of employing for this the Count of Pukan, who was ambassador at Constantinople.
Vienna, the 14th October, 1634.
Oct. 20.
Senato, Secreta. Deliberazioni. Corti. Venetian Archives.
366. To the Secretary Zonca in England.
Your letters of the 22nd ult. have arrived. We are entirely satisfied with your services and especially with your diligence with respect to the offices of the Savoyard ambassador. We enclose advices for your information.
Whereas we understand from your letters that the king does not wish to declare himself more favourable to one of the two crowns than to the other, and as it seems likely that an alliance has already been signed between the emperor and the Catholic king, while they seem to cherish some hope of advantage from a good understanding with England also with the House of Austria, you should be more alert than ever to find out and inform us of all that you can find out about such notions and above everything else, what are the real leanings of that crown.
The Duke of Crequi, ambassador extraordinary of France, left here on Monday without anything being arranged about the affair of the frontiers. (fn. 7) This is for information.
Ayes, 74. Noes, 0. Neutral, 4.
Oct. 20.
Senato, Secreta. Dispacci, Inghilterra. Venetian Archives.
367. Anzolo Correr, Venetian Ambassador in England, to the Doge and Senate.
After I had waited four days at Calais for a favourable wind, which I found stormy and contrary, it at length calmed down and allowed me to cross comfortably to the shores of this realm. I came on yesterday to this city incognito, in order to arrange the more urgent affairs of the house, and to settle about my public entry upon this charge. Hardly had I set foot in Dover than Lord Filden, the ambassador designate to your Serenity, who had only arrived a few hours before, came to call at my lodgings. We exchanged compliments mutually. From what I could see he is a gentleman of most sincere disposition, very quiet and modest by nature. He said he would stay some days at Paris and Turin for his own private convenience and to carry out his Majesty's commissions. He has his wife with him and a good number of gentlemen, most of whom will follow him to Italy. (fn. 8) Some will remain this side of the water, including his brother in law, Lord Weston, eldest son of the Treasurer, who went to your Excellencies as ambassador extraordinary. He paid his respects to me in friendly fashion, and I tried to win his confidence as much as possible.
The Ambassador Poygni has recently presented to his Majesty the first overtures for an alliance between the two crowns and the States of Holland. He spoke circumspectly and in general terms, in order to find out their disposition here and conduct the future negotiations accordingly. At the first mention the king said he should like the proposal in writing ; but the ambassador, who had limited commissions, took it up and read it, never letting it out of his hand. He apologised for the commissions he held and said that if the king approved of his going on he should obtain commissions whereby he could explain his instructions freely and with advantage. The king replied that he might carry the whole, without misgiving, to his Council, which he knew to be loyal and sincere. The ambassador said he was sure of its loyalty in matters pertaining to his Majesty's service. This would not be prejudiced if the substance of foreign affairs was revealed outside the Council. If this were known in Spain before the matter was established it would prejudice the interests of the Most Christian without any advantage. He would show to those commissioners the means of concluding that alliance, as well as the articles concerning the service of the public cause and he would arrange with them all the details for the common satisfaction of the allies.
The king remarked that he perceived the ambassador had no authority except for the Most Christian and Holland. He thought that it was necessary the united princes in Germany should be joined with them, in order to form a stronger party. The ambassador replied that the union of these three nations was strong enough to resist all the efforts of the Austrians. In any case they could leave a place for those who wished to enter, in the assurance that the adherents of each one would concur without the slightest difficulty. However the king persisted that nothing secure could be done without them, so that the ambassador was compelled to write to France about his interview with his Majesty and to wait for fresh commissions from thence. He is aware, meanwhile, that this pretext is nerely to gain time, and as evidence of their intention to do something, although they do not mean to commit themselves to anything soever. These particulars were communicated by the Ambassador himself to the Secretary Zonca, with his usual friendly confidence, which I will not fail to preserve and increase.
The Marquis of Aytona has recently sent word here by extraordinary despatch of the flight to France of Monsieur with the favourite Piloran and others, without the queen mother or his wife knowing anything about it beforehand. (fn. 9) This blow has staggered the Spanish partisans here, who promised themselves great things from him. On the other hand the French ambassador, in gladness of heart, has been to inform the king, queen and ministers about it, many of whom have not been over pleased to hear of this blessing from Heaven upon France. This event was freely discussed in France after I left Paris, and I noticed that it was followed by every sign of relief on the part of that monarch's subjects, as even in the public streets men were seen giving thanks for that blessing from God which had been so much desired.
The Secretary Dolce, after suffering from indisposition for some days, against which he struggled hard, was finally obliged to give in to the fever and remain on the other side of the water. I left him at Calais in good quarters, attended by faithful persons, and so I hope he will recover in a few days.
In the mean time the Secretary Zonca will remain with me. He has shown himself very willing to continue for these few days to exercise the powers by which he has earned the favour of your Excellencies during a long period of time.
London, the 20th October, 1634.
[Italian ; the part in italics deciphered.]
Oct. 23.
Senato, Secreta. Dispacci. Francia. Venetian Archives.
368. Giovanni Soranzo and Alvise Contarini, Venetian Ambassadors in France, to the Doge and Senate.
News has come from England that the Duke of Lorraine has written very friendly letters to the king there, begging him not to allow troops to be raised in that kingdom to his prejudice. That upon this they not only refused absolutely the Scottish recruits to Colonel Ebron, (fn. 10) but even stayed the officers who are there to get them, refusing them leave to return under their chief.
Paris, the 23rd October, 1634.
Oct. 27.
Senato, Secreta. Deliberazioni. Corti. Venetian Archives.
369. To the Ambassador in England.
Commendation of his diligence upon the road and note that he has reached the Court at London, to begin his charge. Zonca's despatch of the 29th September has been received. To express to him satisfaction of the Senate at his conduct of affairs. Forward advices from Italy upon the intention of the Spanish forces to pass. According to the general opinion they will go to Marseilles or Toulon. To observe what is said at the English Court about the return of Monsieur to France and what they think about it. The Cardinal Infant has informed the republic by his own hand of his victory at Nordlingen, as well as of the progress in Wirtemberg and towards the Rhine, To observe what is thought about this in England and what is their attitude to the affairs of Germany.
Ayes, 78. Noes, 0. Neutral, 1.
Oct. 27.
Senato, Secreta. Dispacci. Inghilterra. Venetian Archives.
370. Anzolo Correr, Venetian Ambassador in England, to the Doge and Senate.
The Resident Nicolaldi has complained so bitterly and so freely about the sentence upon the ship, adjudged to the Dutch, that it has caused them to send a person named Teller to Spain to try and get Nicolaldi recalled, and have some one else sent here speedily in his place. Teller did this with extraordinary despatch and informed his Majesty that out of regard for his offices the Catholic had nominated the Count of Humales as ambassador for this Court, and charged Nicolaldi to proceed to exercise his duties as secretary to the Cardinal Infant so soon as the ambassador arrived. (fn. 11) It is thought that his departure will be hastened, in order to satisfy them here by the prompt removal of the other minister. Meanwhile the Resident, who had heard of this decision with bitterness, tries to parry the blow which he sees about to fall upon his reputation, upon the pretext that the Infant has desired to profit by his services.
The French ambassador here has been straightly charged by the last letters from Paris, to repeat his instances for recruits for the regiment of Colonel Hebron, which his Majesty once refused. He carried out these orders at once and vigorously, but could obtain no conclusion or hope. The king's reply was limited to saying that it was first necessary to wait and see what was decided in the matter of the alliance proposed to him, and after that they could decide this matter also. He added that he might possibly need them himself, possibly wishing to show the king that if the alliance is not concluded, this crown may send some troops to Germany, even without France.
Some pieces of silver gilt to the value of 800 crowns have been taken to the Ambassador Joachimi, in order that he may transmit them to Holland to the Deputy Brasser, who left here without the ordinary present, as was reported.
At the beginning of next month they are expecting his Majesty back in this city together with all the Court. It is believed that they propose to stay here some weeks.
When I have made my public entry, which I hope will take place within a week, if no fresh difficulties arise, I shall certainly not fail to avail myself of this opportunity to have my first audience immediately. In the mean time the papers consigned to me by the secretary Zonca, which are those left with him by my predecessor Gussoni, will serve to instruct me for public events, just as the results of the remarkable prudence of so distinguished a senator have increased the memory of his splendour and distinction.
Two packets have arrived from Italy this week, but neither of them contained letters from the Senate.
London, the 27th October, 1634.
[Italian ; the part in italics deciphered.]
Oct. 28.
Senato, Secreta. Dispacci, Germania. Venetian Archives.
371. Antonio Antelmi, Venetian Secretary in Germany to the Doge and Senate.
I am assured that the Duke of Bavaria is not a little disturbed about the negotiations of the Austrians with England, for fear of some agreement prejudicial to him about the Palatinate. Because of this and because it was occupied by the Swedes last year he has intimated that as he enjoys that state in place of Upper Austria, given him in pledge by Cæsar, he claims compensation in Wirtemberg. However he finds considerable support from France, which has shown its confidence in him by appointing him governor over their garrisons recently introduced into Philipsburg. It may be inferred that the Austrians will have to move very cautiously about the disposal of the Palatinate. In any case the Austrians are cultivating Bavaria.
Vienna, the 28th October, 1634.


  • 1. An arrét of the 5th September declaring null the marriage between Gaston of Orleans and Margaret of Lorraine, pronouncing Duke Charles of Lorraine as guilty of high treason and rebellion and banishing him, his brother Duke Francis and their sister the Princess of Pfaltzburg from the kingdom of France in perpetuity. Le Vassor ; Hist. du Regne de Louis XIII. Amsterdam 1707, Vol. xiii. pages 118, 119.
  • 2. Mme de Vantelet, the lady who dressed the queen, the only woman of her original French attendants whom Henrietta Maria had been allowed to keep, Vol. XIX. of this Calendar, page 507. If the French government desired her expulsion. they soon changed their minds for when Senneterre came over a few months later he evidently brought instructions to conciliate her good graces, if not to use her as an agent of the secret service. "Je vous avois escrit par ma première du retablissement de la pension de Mme, de Vantelet, que par mes instructions je luy doibs faire esperer." Senneterre to Bouthillier, 12 April, 1635. P.R.O. Paris Transcripts. For the intrigues of Chateauneuf and de Jars, See Vol. XXII. of this Calendar, pages 450, 527, 585.
  • 3. Count Galéazzo Gualdo Priorato the historiographer. He was on his way to serve in the Swedish armies under Count Horn, who gave him a regiment of cuirassiers. Zorzi ; Vita del Conte Galeazzo Gualdo, p. 340.
  • 4. St. Genevieve aux Bois (Seine et Oise). "Lettres etc. du Card, de Richelieu," Vol. IV. page 623.
  • 5. According to Salvetti it was Portland's youngest son Benjamin Weston, who accompanied Fielding. News letter of 27 Oct. Brit. Mus. Add MSS. 27962. Considerations of age make it probable that the brother of Lennox was George Stuart Sieur d' Aubigny.
  • 6. Pougny in his dispatch of the 22nd Sept. calls him M. de Closet and says that he served the Duke of Rohan P.R.O. Paris Transcripts. It would seem that his correct name was du Clausel (S.P. For. France, 6 Oct.) See also Vol. XXII. of this Calendar, pages 24, 25, 40, 108.
  • 7. A dispute with the pope about the frontier near Ancona, in which the French had offered their meditation. Nani : Historia Veneta ed Bologna 1650, p. 267.
  • 8. Fielding crossed with his train in the Charles on the 9th Oct., landing at Calais on the morning of the 10th. O.S. Cal. S.P. Dom. 1634-5, page 234.
  • 9. Monsieur had come to an agreement with his brother, the articles of which were signed on the 1st Oct. He left Brussels on the 8th of that month. Le Vassor : Hist. du Regne de Louis XIII., Vol. xiii., pages 296-304.
  • 10. Sir John Hepburn, a Scottish soldier of Fortune who had served under Gustavus Adolphus He went later to France and on 26 Jan, 1633, obtained a commission as colonel of a regiment composed of the remains of various old Scottish companies in that country. They were incorporated into one corps known as the "Regiment d' Hebron." Jas. Grant : Memoirs of Sir John Hepburn, pages 210, 230, 231.
  • 11. John Taylor arrived in Madrid on the 5th Aug., and sent his first dispatch on the 14th N.S. S.P. For. Spain. The appointment of the Count of Humanes was known on the 1st Sept. See No. 345 at page 269 above.