Venice: April 1635, 16-30

Pages 373-379

Calendar of State Papers Relating To English Affairs in the Archives of Venice, Volume 23, 1632-1636. Originally published by His Majesty's Stationery Office, London, 1921.

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April 1635, 16-30

April 18.
Senato, Secreta. Dispacci, Ceffalonia. Venetian Archives.
464. Alvise Lippomanno, Venetian Proveditore of Cephalonia, to the Doge and Senate.
There remain in this island about two millions of currants unsold (fn. 1) for lack of foreign ships to take them away, to the great loss of the inhabitants, as this fruit is their sustenance. In consequence of this there is a great scarcity of money. The farmers of the duty are in arrear to the extent of 5000 reals, and it will be a difficult matter to recover from some of the debtors.
Cephalonia, the 8th April, 1635, old style.
April 19.
Consiglio di X. Parti Comuni. Venetian Archives.
465. In the Council of Ten.
That Domenico Ruzzini have permission to show the statues in the study of his house to the English Ambassador, who has earnestly desired to see them, according to the usual practice in such cases.
Ayes, 14. Noes, 1. Neutral, 0.
April 20.
Senato, Secreta. Deliberazioni. Corti. Venetian Archives.
466. To the Ambassador in England.
We have received your letters of the 16th and 23rd ult. The negotiations for an alliance between the Dutch and the Most Christian seem to be far advanced. You will watch these carefully as well as the attitude of the King of England towards them, using your prudence to serve the state.
Ayes, 158. Noes, 0. Neutral, 1.
April 20.
Senato, Secreta. Dispacci, Inghilterra. Venetian Archives.
467. Anzolo Correr, Venetian Ambassador in England, to the Doge and Senate.
The French ambassador extraordinary has been to this house to return my visit. After we had exchanged compliments he began to repeat to me the same ideas which I have reported to your Excellencies. But seeing that I confined myself to the formality of my first answer he went further and asked me if I thought in the event of an open appeal to arms and an attempt to liberate that province from the Spaniards that the most serene republic would remain a tranquil spectator of the efforts of others rather than take a share in the glory. I replied that there was no immediate opportunity for magnanimous action, and if one arose I could not presume to divine the purposes of the Senate ; and contrived to evade the question in other ways. Shortly before the ordinary ambassador also had spoken to me, and added this much more that the Most Christian was determined on a rupture with the Austrians in every quarter.
The answers to the proposals of these ambassadors have not yet been drawn up. They importune his Majesty for them every day, but he excuses the delay on the ground of the considerable affairs upon which the commissioners have been incessantly engaged since the death of the Lord Treasurer, which have postponed action, but it is much more probable that the real reason for all this delay is for no other purpose than to keep the world in doubt of what they will do and not to offend France by an open negative, with the deliberate object of committing themselves to no one soever in the end.
The naval force will be ready, in accordance with report, to sail on the 10th prox. It is considered certain that it will not go outside these waters, as his Majesty is absolutely determined that the trade both from here for Holland and Flanders as well as that of Holland and Flanders for here shall remain secure for all freely.
Letters of the Ambassador Anstruther report a new alliance, defensive and offensive, concluded between the Duke of Luneburg and the Landgrave of Hesse, who are shortly to collect a joint army of 30,000 combatants. This ambassador has at last received orders to return to England. (fn. 2) He will travel through Holland and stay some days at the Hague to inform the Princess Palatine of the state of her affairs in Germany.
The ambassador Douglas sends word of the extension of the truce between the King of Poland and the kingdom of Sweden for another six months, to give time for the progress of the negotiations there. The hopes of satisfactory progress towards a happy conclusion of that affair, which he expressed in other letters, are now in great measure dashed. However he does not lose hope that with the benefit of the six months matters may be brought to a settled condition. In the mean time the Swedish ambassador extraordinary has arrived here who has been expected. (fn. 3) He is bringing back to his Majesty the order of the Garter, and it is expected that he will ask for money and levies of men. He has not yet seen the king and he will not have his first audience before to-morrow. I will not fail to visit him and in the mean time I have sent to pay my respects.
An Agent of the Duke of Savoy is expected shortly to remain here as resident in ordinary.
A gentleman of the Ambassador Fildin, Who arrived here this week, brings word of the death of the ambassadress. They are very sorry for this at the Court here and her relations in particular have shown the deep grief they feel.
The courier from Italy has been delayed by contrary winds. I am sending the present despatch by an extraordinary to the Ambassador Fildin.
London, the 20th April, 1635.
[Italian ; the part in italics deciphered.]
April 21.
Senato, Secreta. Dispacci, Spagna. Venetian Archives.
468. Giovanni Giustinian, Venetian Ambassador in Spain, to the Doge and Senate.
The negotiations with England remain as stated. The ministers hear that the alliance is greatly desired by that crown which will provide ships even without a concession of free trading, and will agree to the other conditions which are proposed here, with the principal object of effecting the marriage between the daughter of that king and the prince here, (fn. 4) a thing in which no one believes.
Madrid, the 21st April, 1635. Copy.
April 21.
Senato, Secreta. Dispacci, Germania. Venetian Archives.
469. Antonio Antelmi, Venetian Secretary in Germany, to the Doge and Senate.
The Austrians are employing all their energies to prevent the marriage of the King [of Poland] with the Palatine princess. They have remonstrated with Prince Casimir about his negotiations at the Hague and in London. They point out that the promises of naval assistance from those two powers, the one fully occupied and the other averse from complications, will be the more ambiguous because considerations of religion and common interests will always attract them strongly to the Swedes. This has induced the pope to declare that he will not grant a dispensation for such a marriage. Prince Casimir assured them that his brother would not consent to take a bride of another faith.
Vienna, the 21st April, 1635.
April 26.
Senato, Secreta. Dispacci, Ceffalonia. Venetian Archives.
470. Alvise Lippomanno, Venetian Proveditore of Cephalonia, to the Doge and Senate.
The inhabitants of this island are very anxious to be assured of a market and to establish a fixed price for their currants, of which this year a great quantity has remained unsold, even at low prices, the crop having suffered from the rain. For this purpose the Syndics proposed to send an ambassador to your Serenity, to go on to England and Flanders and make a permanent manent bargain about this fruit. The Council met on the 12th inst. to choose some one, but the Advocate Fiscale intervened, saying that the citizens and the Zantiots must also be consulted in a matter of such importance. This did not meet with general approval and led to some disturbance which had to be forcibly suppressed.
The question is one of importance and I have thought it right to inform your Serenity in order to have your instructions. In the mean time I shall not permit any meeting about an ambassador upon the exportation of currants until I have your Serenity's decision.
Cephalonia, the 26th April, 1635, old style.
April 27.
Senato, Secreta. Deliberazioni. Corti. Venetian Archives.
471. To the Ambassador in England.
We have received your letters of the 30th ult. We commend your reply to the French ambassador about Seneterre's coming. Their negotiations will be well worth observing, as it seems that there are still rumours of the estrangement of that king from France and of offices and declarations against her, with the idea that the death of the Treasurer may lead the way to the summoning of parliament and the reconciliation of the people with the king.
Ayes, 104. Noes, 0. Neutral, 9.
April 27.
Senato, Secreta. Dispacci, Inghilterra. Venetian Archives.
472. Anzolo Correr, Venetian Ambassador in England, to the Doge and Senate.
The Swedish ambassador extraordinary had his first public audience of the king and queen last Sunday. His office was performed in Latin and although very long did not go beyond the usual compliments. I went to see him the day before yesterday, to perform the proper confidence. He made a suitable response. I asked him if in his audience of his Majesty the day before he had performed the function of restoring the order of the Garter. He said he had intended to do so, but by order of the king the ministers here had let him know that it would be much more appropriate, decorous and satisfactory to his Majesty to do it at a special public ceremony. Accordingly the function will be postponed at least until Sunday. He said he had some other business as well to negotiate, touching the interests of Germany, but he would not explain himself any further. Nevertheless, from another quarter I have discovered that it will be a request for some help in money and for levies of troops. Moreover, from what I have been able to conjecture from his conversation, he is to make some complaint to the king about the behaviour of the Ambassador Douglas, who, when he should be assisting with the negotiations for peace with Poland, shows a strong partiality towards the king of that country, so the ambassador says, and it is not proper that mediators should have any particular bias or be dependent on either of the parties. He will find it easy to excite the king on this subject, because his Majesty is anxious to offer the most energetic assistance to secure an adjustment of those affairs. With regard to this point it is not likely that he will meet with much difficulty, as the king is naturally excessively inclined to peace and quiet ; for the rest, if he gets fair words it is the most that he can count on obtaining.
The French ambassadors keep importuning for an answer upon their affairs, but they are unable to get any conclusive reply, at which Seneterre shows himself highly incensed.
The preparations for the naval force go forward busily and the orders about the time of it sailing are confirmed. The conviction still gains ground that it will not leave these waters.
The Duchess of Buckingham, having tired of leading a widow's life, and knowing that his Majesty would object to her marrying again, as he preserves the tenderest affection for the children and every other memory of the late duke, decided, without informing him, to approach her own relations to arrange a marriage for her with the son of the Earl of Andelus, an Irishman, twenty two years of age, of handsome appearance and perhaps more remarkable for his bodily than his mental qualities. (fn. 5) After this had been arranged and carried out she went before the king to obtain his permission. Although she had kept it as secret as possible, he was already informed about it. With a very angry look he asked her if she had come to ask his advice about something that was to do, or merely to tell him of something already done. At this direct question the duchess was covered with confusion, and did not know what answer to give on the sudden. His Majesty then turned away and left her without another word, with every appearance of being very angry. In speaking afterwards with his familiars about the audacious step taken by the duchess, he blamed her severely. He said he would take out of her hands the administration of the revenues of her children, and for the future he did not wish to see her at Court. The queen, who on this occasion is resolved to support the weaknesses of her sex, has taken up the defence of the duchess. She is trying to mitigate the king's heat and hopes to have pacified him entirely in a few days. Meanwhile the duchess, in the assurance of such high patronage, is cheerfully enjoying her felicity with hopes of better to come in the future.
I have received this week the state despatches of the 17th March.
London, the 27th April, 1635.
[Italian ; the part in italics deciphered.]
473. Anzolo Correr, Venetian Ambassador in England, to the Doge and Senate.
On receiving your Serenity's letter of the 23rd ult. which only reached me yesterday, I betook myself to the quarters of the chief secretary of state, to ascertain the king's intentions concerning the funeral of the English ambassadress, as decreed by the state, and also to repeat my assurance of unalterable readiness to give every possible proof of devotion to this crown. As I am in the habit of visiting the secretary often, I made it appear that I had merely come to him as usual, and he forthwith began of his own accord on the very topic to which I had intended to lead him in due course. I found that Lord Fielding had written a very proper letter, and for such repeated courtesies to his minister the king expressed his great indebtedness to your Excellencies, and that this last one had afforded him especial gratification. The ambassador had instructions to ask for a special audience of your Serenity in order to express his Majesty's thanks ; but as the ceremonies decreed are at variance with the usages of the religion professed in this kingdom, Lord Fielding will at the same time receive orders not to permit anything to take place with regard to these obsequies. Such was the announcement made to me by the secretary in the most gracious language possible. I answered becomingly and we then proceeded to discuss the news of the day, he asking me most earnestly for some intelligence from Italy.
I told him what I knew, and going on to talk of the affairs of Germany, I alluded adroitly to the question of the Palatinate. I let myself go in demonstrating to him how necessary the vigorous assistance of this crown was for the maintenance of that prince in the possession of his dominions. That the intentions of the Most Christian and of the states of Holland in this particular could not be better, but that if separated from the king here their forces might not prove quite adequate for the requirements in every direction, especially as everyone may consider that fortune is showing herself very favourable to the Austrian arms. He told me that they were meeting the ambassadors constantly for the purpose of arriving at some appropriate decision, and that everybody might rest assured that his Majesty would always be most zealous to prove himself as devoted to the common cause as any other prince of Christendom.
Meanwhile the French ambassadors labour every day without ceasing to obtain some reply to their negotiations, but by constantly raising new and frivolous objections they contrive here to delay anything being done as long as they can.
Before proceeding any further the commissioners here desire to await the decision of the States of Holland about the mission of an ambassador extraordinary to this Court. It seems that opinion is divided on the subject in that country, but even if they decided to send one they know full well that their only reason for doing so would be to avoid breaking away from France in a matter they wish for, and that as a matter of fact the new ambassador would have no other powers and no other commissions than those already given to Joachimi. Owing to this irresolute behaviour the hopes of M. de Senneterre are beginning to fade, and he perceives that if he has to wait here for the completion of such an affair it will be necessary for him to make a very long and possibly a fruitless sojourn.
The Dutch ambassador, as regards his share of the business spares no pains, frequents the Court every day for this object and importunes the ministers, but so far all his toil and labour have been in vain.
A fresh painful incident has overtaken the house of the late Treasurer, which has already suffered so much from the repeated blows of adverse fortune, happening only yesterday. The second son of the Treasurer, uttered some sharp words to the son of the Earl of Cleveland who thereupon challenged him, and in the ensuing duel he received more than one wound, so that it is believed he has only a few hours to live. (fn. 6)
The extraordinary courier who is going to Lord Fildin has been delayed, so I have added these few lines.
London, the 27th April, 1635.
[Italian ; the part in italics deciphered.]
April 28.
Senato, Secreta. Dispacci, Germania. Venetian Archives.
474. Antonio Antelmi, Venetian Secretary in Germany, to the Doge and Senate.
The King of Poland is insisting on his proposed marriage with the Palatine princess and aspires thereby to achieve great aims, though the ends are actually in conflict with each other. He hopes to have the marriage recognised by the emperor as well as by the heretics. He will use it as a means for the restitution of the Palatinate to the bride's brother and to obtain honourable terms. To the other side he points out that as the marriage will oblige England to employ her naval forces to recover the crown of Sweden for him, it will unite the arms of Great Britain with those of Poland against the most bitter enemies of the House of Austria. He has sent to get a promise of restitution from the emperor and the Spanish ministers and suggests a compromise with Bavaria, namely, to share the title. Here they are suspicious about his ambitions. Poland, on the other hand, is afraid that when the marriage is concluded, the English, who are averse from committing themselves and very favourably disposed towards Sweden on the score of religion, may find excuses for holding back their forces from the subjugation of that kingdom, and the Austrians will then find pretexts for not restoring the Palatinate. The English declare that they will not expose themselves to the risk of contributing their naval forces in favour of Poland against the Swedes, without the certainty that the King of Poland will go through with the marriage.
Vienna, the 28th April, 1635.


  • 1. At the Court of the Levant Co. held on the 9th April, 1635, it was suggested that in order to lower the price of currants "a constant course should be held for leaving a million of currants each year upon the Greeks' hands." S. P. For. Archives, Vol. 149, Levant Co. Court Book.
  • 2. He was back at Court on 26th April O. S. Certificate of Coke of 5th June S. P. For. Germany, States.
  • 3. The Ambassador Skytte arrived on the 7/17 April. Howell to Wentworth. Strafford Letters, vol. i., page 410.
  • 4. Baltasar, eldest son of Philip IV., at this time five years old.
  • 5. Randall MacDonald, Viscount Dunluce. He was born in 1609 and was therefor older than the Ambassador reports.
  • 6. Thomas Weston and Thomas Lord Cleveland. Cal. S.P. Dom. 1636-7, page 66.