Venice: May 1636, 16-31

Pages 561-572

Calendar of State Papers Relating To English Affairs in the Archives of Venice, Volume 23, 1632-1636. Originally published by His Majesty's Stationery Office, London, 1921.

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May 1636, 16-31

May 16.
Senato, Secreta. Dispacci, Inghilterra. Venetian Archives.
658. Anzolo Correr, Venetian Ambassador in England, to the Doge and Senate.
The Court continues to complain of the French for the seizure of his Majesty's barque, because when, from the information they received, they were expecting its return, the captain arrived without it, reporting that they have detained it owing to some claims of the wife of the deceased French captain. The efforts of the French ambassadors to appease the king are vain. He declares, practically to their face, that he wants to see it avenged. He is thus displeased with the Earl of Northumberland, because he only sent six ships to sea and remained behind himself with the rest of the fleet to take part in the funeral of the Earl of Carlisle, his brother in law. Yet he says that with a favourable wind he will sail to-morrow at latest, all ready and full of spirit for carrying out his Majesty's orders. Unless these are revoked these are to fight any French ships they meet, and if this happens the consequences may be imagined. Dreading this the French ambassadors have sent an express to the French Court and also to the Governor of Calais not to let any vessel put to sea until the affair takes a more favourable turn. To make matters worse the Master of the Posts has chosen to put in his spoke, representing to his Majesty that no English barque will venture to leave Dunkirk from fear of the French, and so it will be beyond his powers to keep the couriers going unless two ships of war are assigned for their passage.
Meanwhile we experience the effects here, as no despatches came last week and none have come this. All the merchants and the ministers of the emperor and Spain complain bitterly. The Resident Nicolaldi, indeed, hopes that these quarrels will go on, and he has employed his artifices to foment them. He has spread a report that the French have determined to contest the sovereignty which the king here claims over these waters. He declared that the numerous force they have collected is certainly with this object, while on the other side he expresses the disposition of Spanish subjects to gratify the king's wishes. But they do not make an open declaration, for fear of committing themselves, and only touch the subject distantly in order to prejudice their enemies without cost to themselves. The antipathy to France renders this flattery most acceptable, although the English probably place no great faith in it.
The Earl of Leicester has left for France. Besides his other commissions he is to make the strongest representations and remonstrances about the seizure and detention of the barque in question. M. de Ferte left with him, having completed his compliments with their Majesties about the birth of the last princess. He takes away for himself very liberal presents of jewels, and a certain number of saddle horses to present to the Queen of France in the name of her Majesty here.
On the day before yesterday Cæsar's Councillor had his second audience of the king. It transpires that in a long discourse he spoke of the languishing state of Germany and the emperor's wish to obtain for it some breathing space by means of peace. He said nothing about the interests of the Palatine, but stated that he had another and more particular charge which he could set forth better in writing. The king answered in general terms, though full of his desire to see the agitations of Christendom reduced to quiet and secure repose. The slowness of this minister about opening the business of the Palatine is noted with some jealousy, because they think his proposal to negotiate by writing is only a device to gain time ; although in any case he cannot do much here because the Earl of Arundel on the other side holds absolute powers.
The earl writes that the Spanish governor, who was in the fort of Schenel Scant, refused him a passport to go safely to Cologne, apologising because he could not do so without express orders from the Cardinal Infant. This irritated his Majesty as much as the news that Count William put an escort at the earl's disposal gratified him.
Both the Dutch ambassadors called here yesterday to inform me of the surrender of the fort. I congratulated them and thanked them for the communication. As regards their negotiations here they declare that they are pending in their original state without making the least movement, and I have been assured of this from other quarters as well.
News has come of the arrival in Holland of the Polish ambassador (fn. 1) together with Gordon, and they will cross to here in a few days. They are most eagerly awaited and the Palatine brothers in particular seem very pleased. His Majesty has already ordered a house to be prepared for them and it is said that they will be received and entertained with the greatest honour.
Letters from Hamburg of the 2nd inst. relate that the Chancellor Oxistern has written to the Most Christian that he will very soon have three powerful armies under him, to wit, the Swedish, for which he expects good reinforcements, that of the Duke of Luneburg, who has decided not to observe the articles of the peace previously violated by the emperor, and the third that of the Landgrave of Hesse. Accordingly Duke Bernard is hastening back to the Rhine, where he feels sure that he will find considerable reinforcements.
London, the 16th May, 1636.
May 17.
Senato, Secreta. Dispacci, Germania Venetian Archives.
659. Giovanni Battista Ballarino, Venetian Secretary in Germany, to the Doge and Senate.
An ambassador from England is expected at this Court. It is thought that he will have full powers to make a settlement about the Palatinate. Teller had letters from Brussels from the ambassador himself directing him to proceed to Nurenberg and to go on from there to Ratisbon.
Vienna, the 17th May, 1636.
May 17.
Senato, Secreta. Dispacci, Spagna. Venetian Archives.
660. Giovanni Giustianian, Venetian Ambassador in Spain, to the Doge and Senate.
The insistence of the imperial and English ministers about the Palatinate has had no result so far except the confirmation of the commissions to the Count of Ognat. It looks as if they did not wish to proceed to more open declarations before the young Count of Ognat has gone to England and given a better shape to the negotiations with that crown. The ambassador knows the circumstances quite well and he confided to me that while they are disposed here to satisfy his master, it is impossible for the Austrians to deprive Bavaria of what he holds.
Madrid, the 17th May, 1636. Copy.
May 22.
Secreta. Secreta. Dispacci. Haya. Venetian Archives.
661. Francesco Michiel, Venetian Ambassador in the Netherlands, to the Doge and Senate.
The Polish ambassador left yesterday for Brussels. He saw the Princess Palatine several times, but concluded nothing, because he only spoke about religion, saying that once this point was arranged she should have complete satisfaction. He took away the reply that no change could be made in this, reputation could not permit it, and if the king persisted in his opinion the marriage will certainly not be arranged. The ambassador most fully confirms the king's sentiments and sighs that the estates of the crown refuse their consent on the score of religion. He showed the king's portrait, dressed in green in the French fashion. He said his Majesty's devotion was coupled with hopes of obtaining the lady. He assured the mother that the eminent qualities of her daughter would assure her affection, esteem and incredible influence over the whole kingdom, and she fully came up to what report said of her.
The lady is indeed very well made. She is not more than seventeen. Her complexion is not entirely white, but tinged with brown, forming a very pretty and attractive tint. Her eyes are full of sparkle. Her speech is full of grace ; her dancing astonishes every one. Her beauty stands of itself and she abhors extremely all womanish artifices. She speaks many languages German, Italian, French, English, Flemish, Spanish, and it is supposed Polish also. She would not let this appear, because she never wished to betray hopes of being queen.
The ambassador said that he hoped, through the Queen of England, to bring this lady to the Catholic faith, and to console the king, his master, who sighs for her. Thus he left a report that he would come back here after his journey to France. But the Princess mother remains obstinate and it is not thought that any consideration will move her. The ambassador showed her the portrait of the king's sister, (fn. 2) and the princess asked him if the report was true that they were negotiating about marrying her to the Cardinal Infant. The ambassador replied that it was not impossible, so it is supposed that he is going to Brussels about this.
On the ambassador's departure the States gave him a chain worth 2000 florins. Gordon, the English resident in Poland, accompanied him here, and yesterday he left for London.
The Hague, the 22nd May, 1636.
May 23.
Senato. Secreta. Dispacci, Inghilterra. Venetian Archives.
662. Anzolo Correr, Venetian Ambassador in England, to the Doge and Senate.
This week the imperial envoy had another audience of his Majesty, who expected him to say something about the Palatines. As he again indulged in generalities and did not make the slightest allusion to the subject the king conceived some suspicion at this unusual way of treating. Wishing to clear matters up he invited the envoy then and there to tell him about the other particular business which he mentioned at preceding audiences that he had instructions to represent to him. But this proved useless as he was determined not to enter into particulars, and only repeated confusedly the things already said, whereby he pretended to fulfil all his duty in the matter, letting it be understood that he had nothing more to explain. His Majesty was observed, full of wrath and astonishment, to speak immediately to the Prince Palatine and some of his councillors, who were present, as not one of them all knew what opinion to form up on the objects of this mission, since it gives rise to nothing substantial and they can only imagine consequences full of uneasiness and suspicion. The Palatine than said openly that this was one of the usual tricks of the Austrians, and they will go on playing until they are compelled to do something proper by force of arms. He expressed himself even more definitely to the Marquis of Hamilton and the Earls of Pembroke and Holland, the only ones he believes to favour his party, concluding that all the negotiations will end in words, and if they want to obtain any real satisfaction for him they must make up their minds to draw the sword.
Some think that the councillor may be awaiting news of Lord Arundel's negotiations, but the general opinion is that the real object of the Austrians is to gain time with regard to granting the satisfaction which England claims ; employing mild inducements in order not to compel her to have recourse to force, as that, in any case, could not fail to be most harmful to their interests and aims, unless they succeeded in arriving at a solid alliance. In that case it is probable that they would not look too closely into all the details, in the hope that with the progress of time they would gain some most important advantages, with respect to sea traffic in particular and to disturbing the trade with France.
But so far as present appearances go one can discern little inclination that way in this quarter, as they do not attach so much importance to the interests of the Palatines that it is likely they will purchase them at the price of a league which will directly compel the crown to involve itself in the war, to the manifest disarrangement of domestic affairs, to the successful control of which his Majesty's thoughts are entirely directed. It is therefore improbable that he will abandon them merely for this affair, and he would hardly do so even if he could lay his hands on money more easily, to avoid disturbing the happiness and repose which his dominions enjoy amid the agitations of the world, to go deliberately to share the miseries of others instead of being a looker on. Yet the Spaniards are trying very hard to involve him, and although it is not difficult for them to find out all about the most secret principles of the government here, in spite of all the obstacles mentioned they employ their most subtle artifices in the hope, if not of inducing them to serve them openly, at least to make sure that they will not side with their enemies.
I have tried to find some evidence of offices being passed with the pope from this quarter for his interposition in favour of the Palatine house, as I observe that the idea is current in more than one place. In spite of every effort I have only succeeded in discovering that they have never thought of touching on this matter either through Panzani or by the mission of the queen's resident. The latter, certainly, has not left yet and might receive some instructions, although it is thought unlikely, as it does not behove the king to have such open correspondence with the pope, because besides the general opinion current here that he is mistrustful of the Spaniards, it is also well known that although the offices would be performed in the queen's name, it would not be possible to make the world believe that she would have been willing to take up such a big matter alone without instructions from her husband.
The king is annoyed at the news of the pregnancy of the Electress of Bavaria, which destroys all hopes of the Palatine recovering his possessions and the electoral dignity through the lack of an heir. The duke's replies to the emperor on the subject have always been given in the form quoted below, which I have received from the Court to wit : Electoralem dignitatem quem Carolus IV. a domo Bavariae ademit in lineam Palatinatinsem transtulit, illam jure belli recuperavit propterea nequaquam consentire potest in petitum Regis Britanniae quo ad Provincias ad Palatinatum pertinentes se libenter restituere velle, quando primo linea Rhenensis Palatini refundet fructus perceptos a tempo Caroli IV. Secundo quando domus Palatina refundet damnum Bavariae per Regem Suediae illatum. Tertio, quando Imperator refundet domum Bavariae sumptus quos pro Imperio Romano impendit. Itaque domus Palatina nullam habet expectationem nisi per arma. The imperial councillor says nothing about giving the Palatine territory in Flanders or elsewhere, as the Spaniards suggested, the king seems to detest the idea and the prince himself says that he would not accept it, considering the arrangement servile and unworthy of his birth.
They are daily expecting the arrival of the Polish ambassador Zaraschi, as they hear that he has already left the Hague. They greatly dislike his taking the Brussels route, as they cannot see the object, since he could easily have facilities for his safe passage on the seas of Holland and of England also.
London, the 23rd May, 1636.
663. Anzolo Correr, Venetian Ambassador in England, to the Doge and Senate.
The Earl of Northumberland has been unable to put to sea owing to a strong contrary wind. This distresses the king, who would like his arms to achieve something against the French ships in revenge for the seizure of the barque which they still detain at Calais. The French ambassadors, seeing that their firm promise to his Majesty of restitution is not fulfilled, are much dashed and do not know what excuse to offer. They have no resource but to urge the despatch in the most pressing manner. The determination which the king shows in this resolution, if France does not make proper amends, gives cause to fear something dreadful, which will give rise to the worst and most dangerous results in corrupt minds, which are only too easily led to the most ruinous resolutions. In proof of this they gladly seized the opportunity to order some of the ships which put to sea last week, to accompany to Dunkirk a very large amount of money, which recently came from Spain, in spite of the vigorous remonstrance made on the subject a short while ago by these same ambassadors, to deprive the Spaniards of the convenience of this safe passage. In order to render the blow more sensible the ministers here announce that they will go on doing the same thing, a clear sign how much passion is stirred and how ready they are to make trouble.
Last week the Dutch ambassadors informed the king of the surrender of fort Schench Scians, and of the hope of further successes against the Spaniards. The office pleased His Majesty who said he was always glad to hear of their successes. M. di Beveren, intent on pushing his negotiations, took the opportunity to remind his Majesty of the desire of the United Provinces for a closer union with him, for the better support of their common interests, especially as regards his nephews. He added that as a sign of friendliness to his masters he hoped they would grant the just requests made on behalf of the Dutch fishermen. The king made no definite reply, but merely expressed his good will in general terms, and so closed the audience, leaving the ambassadors with scant hope of obtaining the end they desire in either affair. M. Beveren spoke to me especially about this matter of the fisheries trying to make me see the validity of their claims. He further said that an answer will soon be made to the book "Mare Clausum" as someone has been ordered to undertake the task. As he will print this in Holland the Ambassador Michiel will relieve me of the duty of supplying a copy speedily to your Excellencies.
A Colonel Fleetwood, (fn. 3) an Englishman employed in the Swedish service in Germany, has arrived here with letters to his Majesty from the Chancellor Oxestern. These contain invitations and exhortations to induce him to undertake the recovery of the Palatinate by arms. He declares that the moment is more favourable than it has ever been, and offers to do everything in his power to help. He further asks permission to levy troops, for which the colonel has commissions; he is working hard with the ministers here, but he finds them disinclined and has no hope. He reports that he found the Swedish party very strong and receiving reinforcements every day; that they are getting a force ready to invade Silesia and they will very soon be in a position to cause the emperor considerable trouble from every direction.
The Earl of Arundel wrote from Cologne on the 5th that he was making great progress with his journey. They reckon that he will have reached the Court by now, and they are waiting with great impatience to hear of the beginning of his negotiations by extraordinary despatches.
Rolanson, who was secretary of the English embassy at Venice, arrived here last week in ill health. He hopes to obtain his arrears of salary and then return to Venice, where he has left his household. I have not seen him yet.
The Court will start on Tuesday for Hampton Court, being driven by the violence of the plague, which has spread to almost all the parishes of this city and the surrounding villages, appearing even in more than one house of the nobility. His Majesty had accordingly intimated to all the ambassadors and foreign ministers that if they wish to have communication with the Court they must leave the city and go somewhere which is not suspect. Owing to this declaration, so soon as his Majesty has gone, I shall proceed to some place as near as possible to the Court, and shall continue to follow it or to stay according as your Excellencies command me.
I have received the Senate's letters of the 10th and 18th April. I will represent the unpropriety of Hider's demands if any of the ministers speak on the subject. I have examined one of Hobson's witnesses I will do the same with the other when he comes.
I shall not fail to renew the congratulations to the new treasurer on his appointment in your name, although I have already done what I thought proper, so that he may be the more ready to do what may be required for the public service, for which he has readily offered himself.
London, the 23rd May, 1636.
May 23.
Senato, Secreta. Dispacci, Spagna. Venetian Archives.
664. Giovanni Giustinian, Venetian Ambassador in Spain, to the Doge and Senate.
An English galleon has arrived at Coruna. It will take to Flanders 200 cases of reals and to England the young Count of Ognat. (fn. 4) The ministers here cherish great hopes from the negotiations with that crown. They say that the Count and his father have very full commissions about the Palatinate to give every possible satisfaction to England and to encourage the best relations with that crown. The English ambassador informed me that this is intended to place his master under an obligation to the most resolute action in the interests of this crown, in a general settlement, for which, he informed me in a confidential manner, he is about to apply himself with all his will.
The twenty four ships at Coruna with the remainder of the money and troops for Flanders, the latter reduced to very small numbers by great mortality, will be convoyed by the English galleon. This is an obvious device for the protection of the fleet and also for committing England in case of an action with enemy squadrons.
Madrid the 23rd May, 1636. Copy.
May 27.
Senato, Secreta. Dispacci, Costantinopoli. Venetian Archives.
665. Piero Foscarini, Venetian Bailo at Constantinople to the Doge and Senate.
The dispute between the English ambassador and the Count of Cesy about the goods in the ship from Smyrna was decided by the Dutch ambassador and myself in favour of the former, as there was no indication whatever of any fraud in the papers. Among the bales of cloth I noticed some which they call "Antivenetian" which means in imitation and for the destruction of ours, a prejudice which is increased by many other advantages which the English have in trading in these parts, both from the capitulations which they have with the Porte and because their trading is done by means of a company, by which, on the arrival of the goods, they establish the prices in cash by agreement, without trusting to any one soever. In this way no one can give a piece of London or of anything else at any time or for a jot less than has been determined, in the presence of the consul and with the consent of the ambassador of their nation (con che all arrivo delle robbe stabiliscono li prezzi d'accordo a cotanti senza fidar a chi si sia, in maniera che uno non daria una pezza di Londra o qualsivoglia altra oosa a tempo ni per un aspro meno di quello viene deliberato con la presenza del console e assenso dell ambasciatore del loro natione). Thus tin, which used to sell at 34 reals the ton (cantaro)now sells at 65 and it is the same, in proportion with all other goods. In addition to this they are not bound to discharge their ships and are at liberty to take away a part or the whole of their goods wherever it pleases them best. They are not only exempt from half of the duties, which may be remitted to them, but they have a thousand chances of smuggling, which assuredly they do not miss.
The Vigne of Pera, the 27th May, 1636.
May 29.
Senato, Secreta. Dispacci, Haya. Venetian Archives.
666. Francesco Michiel, Venetian Ambassador at the Hague, to the Doge and Senate.
The Court here cannot believe that the Polish ambassador spoke only of religion and think that other difficulties were covered under that mask. The Princess says not a word, so curiosity remains unsatisfied. It is considered unlikely that she will upset the marriage though much sympathy is felt for her on the score of religion since it seems that honour obliges everyone to believe his own the right one and not to forsake it lightly.
The Hague, the 29th May, 1636.
May 30.
Senato, Secreta. Dispacci, Inghilterra. Venetian Archives.
667. Anzolo Correr, Venetian Ambassador in England, to the Doge and Senate.
His Majesty left London on Tuesday. To fall in with his wishes I proceeded on the following day to this village, only two miles away from his house of Hampton Court, where he has decided to stay with the Court about three weeks. Before leaving I went and kissed his Majesty's hand. He expressed great satisfaction at my following him, and said he always preferred to have me near rather than at a distance, especially under existing circumstances. The queen also was very gracious. She seems very nervous about the plague and told me that when she was away from the king she certainly would not permit any one who lived in a suspect place to be admitted where she was staying.
The ambassadors of France and Holland and the Residents of Savoy and Florence have also left the city. All the other foreign ministers will soon do the same, as his Majesty has again published very resolutely that whoever has not left London in fifteen days at longest, shall not have access at any place in the country. To make himself still safer he has commanded those of his household whom he does not especially need to withdraw and pass the remainder of the summer at their country houses. The queen has done the like, thinking that the safest expedient to escape the danger entirely is to keep a small number of persons about them. Upon such occasions the greatest precautions cannot fail to be helpful, but personally I do not think matters are bad enough to require them. In a city like London, which contains hundreds of thousands of souls, there is nothing dreadful in hearing that fifty or sixty persons die of plague in a week, and the number has not exceeded this so far. There are certainly indications that it may increase greatly, as the heat, which does not usually trouble this country over much, has become very great, accompanied by so great a drought that no one remembers the like. This is the third month that not a drop of rain has fallen. As a consequence, with the plague in addition, this will certainly cause a great scarcity of everything, much greater than is experienced at present, owing to the shortage of water last year, but even that was not nearly comparable to this.
Before leaving London I called on the Treasurer and fulfilled your Excellencies' commands, telling him I was specially charged to express your satisfaction at his appointment. He received this most courteously. He went on to talk of other matters, dilating on his Majesty's sentiments, which, he told me, were all turned towards peace, for which he was disposed to devote all his efforts by offices and interposition, as he had been solicited from more than one quarter. He touched briefly upon the quarrels with France, which indeed keep growing worse, as I shall relate. I replied in a suitable manner and so the interview ended.
Totnen, the 30th May, 1636.
668. Anzolo Correr, Venetian Ambassador in England, to the Doge and Senate.
The Earl of Northumberland, after having waited many days in port for a favourable wind, sailed yesterday, when it had at length become favourable, with the remainder of the fleet. Altogether it does not yet exceed twenty seven sail, although they are busily equipping others, which will be sent to strengthen it in a few days. As already mentioned the earl has three commissions, to maintain the sovereignty claimed by this crown in these waters exacting obedience from all without distinction ; second to prevent all those who have not first obtained permission from the king, from fishing, and third to try and secure a free passage for everyone. He also has orders to exact some considerable indemnification at the earliest moment from the barques of Calais, because of the seizure of his Majesty's barque when coming from Dunkirk. This has not yet been restored. They have become most sensitive on the subject here, and it may easily lead to some notable disorder, if the French do not hurry up to avoid it. My grounds for this is what the Secretary Windebank said to me the day before yesterday.
Enlarging upon the subject of the French treatment of his Majesty's subjects and ships, he assured me that his king would not tolerate it any longer, but would seize an advantage by avenging them. To smoothe matters somewhat I pointed out that the question of the barque might be settled without detriment to the royal dignity, especially in the present state of the Palatine's affairs, which would suffer from any differences between the two crowns. In short I stuck to the point that friendly relations with France could not fail to be advantageous to his Majesty's interests and to those of Christendom. This seemed to strike him and he admitted the force of my contention, but said that perhaps the French did not look on it in that light, as if they did not feel ill will against England they would abstain from showing it in their actions. He then referred to the fleet recently equipped in France, giving details of the number of ships, the soldiers and the munitions of war, and guns carried, ready to embark on some considerable enterprise. I reminded him of the assurances given by the Most Christian that this force was aimed directly against the Spaniards, his enemies, and this was borne out by the facts, since the fleet had arrived at San Sebastiano.
With this I terminated the interview, remarking that I had entered upon this confidential discourse as his private friend and not as minister of your Excellencies. During it I had occasion to observe that as he is a strong partisan of Spain, so he is one of those who supports her advantage at every opportunity, especially with his Majesty, who seems to value his counsel very highly. This shows how true it is that the private passions of those who conduct the counsels of princes often lead them to decisions which they might never take of themselves.
The Dutch ambassadors, aroused by the departure of the fleet, have repeated their instances in favour of their fishermen ; but the king remains firm in his original resolve, thinking that might may prevail over what the States consider right. The ambassadors, however, remain undaunted, and continue to negotiate, but if any mischief happens in the mean time, neither words nor good advice will avail to repair the hurt. The projected alliance has also completely fallen through, as at present their attention is fixed solely upon the results of the negotiations of Arundel in Germany. This is the reason why the French ambassadors confine themselves to ambiguities and do not venture to make overtures for fresh negotiations, from fear lest the Spaniards know about them before they get the slightest consideration here, and so their having opened out will tend to prejudice rather than to advance their ends.
The emperor's minister has allowed the king to go away without seeing him again and without having declared himself with any of the ministers about what he has come to negotiate, upon any point. Thus he leaves every one in suspense, because no one can see what were the objects of his mission. On Sunday he went to kiss the queen's hands. He made her a Latin speech lasting an hour and a half, setting forth what she did not understand, and what the secretary, who should have interpreted, could not explain to her, possibly because he was tired of listening. He had a very concise and almost voiceless (mutole)answer, with which he took leave. He possibly went away with scant satisfaction, but he left occasion for merriment at the Court and among the ladies for all the rest of the day.
The resident of Savoy has been most openly refused permission to export powder and musket and cannon balls. As he very indiscreetly made another request immediately after for some levies of troops he only got another refusal. Many consider both these attempts as the outcome of a superfine sagacity in order to give the French to understand that the duke on his part, will neglect no means in his power to fulfil his obligations, but opinions which are the emanations of imagination are not always in confirmity with the truth.
I have received this week the state despatches of the 2nd inst.
Tetnen, the 30th May, 1636.
[Italian ; the part in italics deciphered.]


  • 1. John Zawadski.
  • 2. Anna Catherina Constantia, daughter of Sigismund III. king of Poland, at this time 16 years of age. Ferdinand of Spain, the Cardinal Infant, was ten years her senior.
  • 3. George Fleetwood.
  • 4. The Victory. Capt. Walter Stewart. Cal. S.P. Dom. 1635-6. page 557,Id. 1636-7. pages 54, 62.