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Venice: August 1640

Pages 61-72

Calendar of State Papers Relating To English Affairs in the Archives of Venice, Volume 25, 1640-1642. Originally published by His Majesty's Stationery Office, London, 1924.

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Citation:

August 1640

Aug. 3.
Senato, Secreta. Dispacci, Inghilterra. Venetian Archives.
89. Giovanni Giustinian, Venetian Ambassador in England, to the Doge and Senate.
His Majesty remains at Oatlands with the majority of the ministers. Their most anxious concern is to facilitate the success of the decision to introduce copper money into this kingdom. But the difficulties in the way, which constantly increase, retard the execution. In addition to the keen remonstrances of the merchants this city has expressed in a very open manner its own dissatisfaction and the disorder that this decree will produce. If it is put in force it will certainly affect the trade of this mart, and for this reason every one is waiting with curiosity to see what will happen. Those who are best informed believe that the king will be compelled to change his mind, or, if he persists, he will run the risk of not being obeyed, with consequent loss of reputation.
Among the troops quartered at Berwick disorder has spread to such an extent that a regiment has mutinied, the soldiers hanging a lieutenant, denouncing him as an open professor of the Catholic and an enemy of the Protestant religion. Abandoning their colours they have since withdrawn to their homes, openly announcing that they will not fight against the Scots. Desertion is so frequent in the other companies that the royal army, instead of increasing grows notably less. Such news, sent by Colonel Axel, (fn. 1) has naturally disturbed His Majesty as it serves to confirm still more the old idea that little or no advantage is to be derived from the exertions and money expended in gathering English troops, which are absolutely against his Majesty's designs.
To repair this misfortune orders have been sent to General Chin at Hamburg, to raise with all speed a levy of two regiments of Danish cavalry. For this purpose the Treasurer is charged to send drafts for 50,000l. of their money to that officer. But as they cannot find any merchant willing to make the letters, and have no money ready in the Treasury, it is believed that this idea also will come to naught, for lack of credit, a result which generally dogs the proposals of this Court. (fn. 2)
The Earl of Northumberland, General of the Forces, has received strict and urgent orders to join the army under his command. But being perfectly aware of the unwillingness of the soldiers to serve and of the lack of money to pay them, he postpones his start, expecting that the lateness of the season may force the king to give up the idea of attacking Scotland this year, and consequently release him from the obligation of acting.
Meanwhile the Scots have published a book full of shameful accusations against the Archbishop of Canterbury and the Lieutenant of Ireland, with the object of increasing the universal unpopularity of these two leading ministers. (fn. 3)
The Ambassadors of the Catholic keep themselves carefully advised about these events. Having taken the measure of the troubled state of this crown, incapable of any movement soever abroad, they proceed deliberately in their transactions. Although after the arrival of the last couriers from Spain they had some conference with the commissioners, I find that their offices were not aimed at making any change in the proposals advanced, but merely to keep them from dropping, so as to keep alive the jealousies of the Dutch and allow room to increase them when circumstances seem more favourable. A councillor of great authority has absolutely assured me of this in confidence adding that the king professes himself profoundly dissatisfied with the proceedings of these ministers, and clearly perceives that the study of the Spaniards is to encourage him by flimsy promises in disputes with his people and in disagreements with neighbouring princes.
The new prince was christened privately on Tuesday at Oatlands by the name of Henry. The prince, the Duke of York and the princess held him at the font. Owing to religious considerations the queen mother would not be present. She is ill pleased at the reduction of her monthly assignment, as reported. On Wednesday she went to Nansuich, a pleasure house of the crown twenty miles from here, to stay there some months, away from the noise of London and from the need of greater expense.
As a testimony of satisfaction with the services rendered to the crown in many embassies His Majesty has declared the Ambassador Roe who recently returned from Hamburg, a member of the Council of State. I have visited him and after he had expressed his devoted respect for your Excellencies, he launched out in the highest encomiums of the Cavalier Grimani, who by his ability has done so much at the imperial Court for the interests of the Palatine House, of which he said he had assured the king. It was his able efforts and not those of others that they had to thank for the declaration made by the emperor in favour of those princes. I made a suitable reply to the expressions of this minister who at present enjoys great credit at Court.
This is all that I have to report. I have to acknowledge your letters of the 12th ult. which reached me today.
London, the 3rd August, 1640.
[Italian.]
Aug. 4.
Senato, Secreta. Dispacci, Haya. Venetian Archives.
90. Girolamo Giustinian, Venetian Ambassador at the Hague, to the Doge and Senate.
The Dutch Admiral has recently distinguished himself against the Barbary pirates. Some fifteen of their ships had fought with four English and almost reduced them to surrender. They had taken about 140 prisoners when the Admiral came up. He sank some of the pirates and scattered the others setting the English free. The reason why the pirates pushed so far into these waters is thought to be because of a grudge they have against the king of England for the hurt inflicted on them by the English fleet two years ago. (fn. 4)
The Hague, the 4th August, 1640.
[Italian.]
Aug. 5.
Senato, Secreta. Dispacci, Francia. Venetian Archives.
91. Anzolo Correr, Venetian Ambassador in France, to the Doge and Senate.
With entire liberty to go where he pleases the Palatine has at last taken leave and has already left Paris. They considered it more opportune to get out of this affair with satisfaction to him and the King of Great Britain than to detain him any longer without any profit to the public cause.
Amiens, the 5th August, 1640.
[Italian.]
Aug. 10.
Senato, Secreta. Deliberazioni. Corti. Venetian Archives.
92. To the Ambassador in England.
The English Resident has spoken here about the delay in the return of the Ambassador Fildin, in conformity with his Majesty's office with you through his secretary. We enclose a copy of the letter we have decided to send and you will present this with a suitable office. With regard to his Majesty's request that we should incite the French to send an ambassador you may assure him that we shall do all in our power and will instruct our Ambassador Corraro to take advantage of any opening.
You spoke prudently about the proposed detention of William Burdet. (fn. 5) If anything further is said you will reply to the same effect, pointing out to those concerned that such arrests are not practicable, but if there is anything punishable our republic will inflict the proper punishment when the matter is brought before them. Enclose advices of Italy. Your last letters are of the 13th ult.
Ayes, 75. Noes, 1. Neutral, 5.
[Italian.]
93. To the king of Great Britain.
We rejoice at the approaching return of the Ambassador Fildin, we shall welcome him when he comes in the interests of the maintenance of cordial relations between your Majesty and our republic. To this same end we have chosen a new ambassador in the place of Giovanni Giustinian, in the person of Vicenzo Contarini. We wish your Majesty most happy years and every prosperity.
Ayes, 75. Noes, 1. Neutral, 5.
[Italian.]
Aug. 11.
Senato, Secreta. Deliberazioni. Corti. Venetian Archives.
94. To the Ambassador at the Most Christian Court.
Our Ambassador in England having ascertained that an ambassador from the Most Christian would be very welcome at that Court, we desire you to speak about it to the Cardinal, who will reflect upon the advantage of preserving good relations and confidences with that crown through an ambassador, especially now that there are three at that Court from the Catholic. Our zeal and desire for the public welfare and for the service of the Most Christian crown have alone moved us to perform this office.
Ayes, 87. Noes, 0. Neutral, 1.
[Italian.]
Aug. 17.
Senato, Secreta. Dispacci, Inghilterra. Venetian Archives.
95. Giovanni Giustinian, Venetian Ambassador in England, to the Doge and Senate.
A gentleman of the Baron di Lodon, the Scottish commissioner released from the Tower who proceeded to that country, as I reported, has gone suddenly to the Court, showing every readiness to take up the thread of the old negotiations for an accommodation. He took the king an exact account of the transactions of his master, and a very hardy paper from the people there, in which they declare their readiness to humble themselves to His Majesty's obedience if all the things claimed by them are fully conceded by a special decree of the parliament of England.
On the other hand the governor of Berwick sends word by courier that serious differences have recently broken out between the Covenanters and disorders have multiplied in that kingdom to such an extent as to promise division among those who rule and consequently the hope of considerable advantage to His Majesty. The king has not yet made up his mind about this last demand of the rebels, which is regarded as more seditious than any. At Oatlands they are eagerly discussing whether they shall embrace peace upon such monstrous conditions or pursue the method of force and await those opportunities which time generally supplies in the midst of civil strife. However, the need of money and the many other considerable difficulties involved in the proposed plans make it likely that they will not wait upon opportunity and will agree to purchase an agreement at any price. This has become the more necessary because the licence of the troops is constantly on the increase through their not being paid, so much so that there is an outcry from the people in all directions, and the county of York, adjacent to Scotland and more powerful than the others, has represented very sharply that if resolute steps are not taken to put down the disorder, they will take it upon themselves, threatening to rise and join the other rebels. If this should happen it is to be feared that many others would follow the example.
After careful enquiry into the disadvantages that might follow the introduction of copper money, and hearing the determined statements of the merchants that they will not take it, the execution of the order has been postponed. With the ever pressing need of money the king has taken the step of asking this city, for the third time, for a loan of 200,000l. promising, in order to make the way easier, that it shall not be used for warlike purposes, but to establish a beneficial peace in this kingdom. All the same the Council met and by a unanimous vote answered frankly that they could not satisfy the demands of His Majesty, as the grant of money ought to depend on the judgment of parliament alone and not on this city only and a small member of that body. From these last experiences all hopes of obtaining succour without a fresh convocation of parliament, which is universally longed for, have fallen to the ground.
The first public appearance of Cardinas, the ordinary ambassador designate of the Catholic at this Court, took place on Friday with the usual formalities. Audience was arranged for him at Hampton Court for last Sunday, but the plague having appeared there, which is also spreading in this city, the function has been postponed to another day. (fn. 6) His Majesty and all the ministers show particular resentment at the appointment of this individual, on the ground of reputation as well as the scant satisfaction he gave in his earlier capacity as Agent. Everyone says openly that the decision of the Spaniards to employ this minister, who does not possess the regard or the standing at Court shows clearly how little they mean to carry through the negotiations begun with this crown. On the other hand the ambassadors extraordinary, with the intention of dismissing this harmful idea from the minds of ministers, do not forget to allure them with fresh proposals. I have been told by a well informed person that they hold out the intention to restore a part of the Palatinate, and to procure the marriage of the emperor's daughter (fn. 7) to the prince here. These reports, however grateful to the ears of His Majesty betray the arts and objects attached to them and do not obtain complete credence with those who know most. All the same, the ambassadors sent a courier to Spain on Thursday. They announce that he is to go on to the Imperial Court and they try to persuade that the sole desire of the Catholic is to bring about the most perfect correspondence between the two crowns in a brief space.
The secretary of France paid his respects to the king and queen on Monday on the birth of the new prince. He informed them, by instruction that some one will come very soon, sent expressly for this office. This gave the greatest satisfaction to their Majesties who are desperately anxious that the Most Christian shall not delay any longer the sending of an ambassador. Windebank the Secretary of State spoke to me about this recently and so did the Ambassador Roe, one of the most consulted of the Council. He came to this house and designedly turning the conversation he assured me that this crown will make no agreement with the Spaniards, but that if France will make sound and definite proposals for an alliance in favour of the Palatine House His Majesty will embrace them. He urged me, as from himself, to make some cautious move in France about this. Without binding myself I commended His Majesty's prudence and thanked the minister for the confidence. On the other hand I cannot feel sure that these reports are true and their anxiety for the coming of a French ambassador convinces me that the object is to render the Spaniards jealous and make them more eager about the negotiations, as from several quarters one not only hears the old complaints that the rebels of Scotland find the greatest encouragement from France, but there is also the very serious apprehension felt in Court at the fall of Arras, (fn. 8) and the fear that the Most Christian may easily take possession of St. Omer and then of Dunkirk. They will undoubtedly do their utmost here to prevent the capture of the latter, and this is discussed among the ministers with the greatest freedom.
If the Diet of Ratisbon proceeds to definite action His Majesty contemplates sending an ambassador there and will do so with the concurrence of France and Sweden. He has informed them of his purpose and expects to adopt the same precautions which are approved by those crowns with regard to the imperial title.
Sir [William] Hamilton has at length arrived from Rome. He has acted for a long while as the Queen's Agent to the pope. He brought her Majesty a pyx of coral as a present from Cardinal Barberino.
London, the 17th August, 1640.
[Italian.]
Aug. 19.
Senato, Secreta. Dispacci, Francia. Venetian Archives.
96. Anzolo Correr, Venetian Ambassador in France, to the Doge and Senate.
They write from Languedoc that the Spaniards have embarked 1500 men from Roussillon on twenty galleys for the state of Milan. It will be the business of the Archbishop of Bordeaux to prevent them landing. The Cardinal is annoyed at the news received recently that he allowed them to land 3000 men at Finale without opposition. The Genoese declare that they have taken some foreign ships, mostly laden on behalf of themselves and the English, and the news is not well received at the Court here.
Amiens, the 19th August, 1640.
[Italian.]
Aug. 19.
Senato, Secreta. Dispacci, Haya. Venetian Archives.
97. Girolamo Giustinian, Venetian Ambassador at the Hague, to the Doge and Senate.
The deputies of the Companies do not seem inclined to take up the proposals of the English Resident, and they have found out that his object was to obtain money for his king. The Companies have consented to the States General entering into a conference with the English Resident in their name.
Before coming back here the Palatine has asked for the permission of England. That obtained he will probably return to his former quiet life in this state.
The Hague, the 19th August, 1640.
[Italian.]
Aug. 20.
Collegio, Secreta. Esposizioni, Principi. Venetian Archives.
98. The Secretary of England came into the Collegio and said :
That the seal of his king had been forged by a seal maker, who said he had been asked by him to have it made, at the instance of the king's resident. Since there were no ministers of his Majesty here besides himself, who had not ordered it, he asked for the arrest of the sealmaker, so that the matter may be cleared up, and he offered to go with the Capitano grande. The affair was committed by the Collegio to the Avogador Querini.
[Italian.]
Aug. 21.
Senato, Secreta. Deliberazioni. Corti. Venetian Archives.
99. That the Secretary of England be called into the Collegio and informed by the doge of the result of the process taken at his request in the matter of the seal made with the device of England, adding that no fault being found in the sealmaker or in John Obson, both have been dismissed, and the seal shall be restored to Obson after it has been shown to the Secretary. (fn. 9)
Ayes, 135. Noes, 1. Neutral, 4.
[Italian.]
Aug. 22.
Collegio, Secreta. Esposizioni, Principi. Venetian Archives.
100. The Secretary of England being informed by the doge of the Senate's decision about the seal, said that his king had never given leave or licence to any one to use his seal, which was the one shown to him ; they did not find either in ancient or modern history that any one had been able to use it, although men had been beheaded for such things. He asked for the arrest of Obson as an accomplice, that the seal might be given to him as well as Hider's letters directing that it should be made.
The doge said that his request would be considered. Obson had been dismissed as they did not find him guilty.
[Italian.]
Aug. 23.
Senato, Secreta. Deliberazioni. Corti. Venetian Archives.
101. To the King of Great Britain.
Notification of the appointment of Giovanni Giustinian to be ambassador at the Imperial Court. This is done in the interest of universal peace and the Senate feels sure that his Majesty will approve. Only a short interval will elapse between the departure of the present ambassador and the arrival of Vicenzo Contarini, his successor. The king is requested to give credence to the Secretary Agustini, who will act in the interval.
Compliments.
Ayes, 82. Noes, 0. Neutral, 4.
[Italian.]
102. To the Ambassador in England.
To prepare to set out to his new appointment. To inform his Majesty and hand him the enclosed letter announcing the choice of Vicenzo Contarini as ambassador, and asking him to receive the Secretary Agustini in the interval. You will perform such offices as you think fit with the queen, the ministers and the foreign representatives, and then set out for the coast to take advantage of the season for the journey to Vienna, whither your commissions and credentials will be sent. We will provide the Secretary Agustini with the customary assignments.
That 430 ducats of good money of lire 4 grossi 4 be granted as a donation to the Secretary Agustini, for the equipment and maintenance of himself at the English Court after the departure of the Ambassador Giovanni Giustinian.
That 340 ducats be granted to him for two months' salary, to begin from the day of the Ambassador Giustinian's departure for Vienna.
That 20 crowns be paid to him for extraordinary expenses, except couriers and the carriage of letters, for which 150 ducats are granted.
For the chaplain and interpreter allowance will be made in his accounts at the regulation rates of payment for those officers.
Ayes, 82. Noes, 0. Neutral, 4.
[Italian.]
103. To the Ambassador in England.
The Secretary of His Majesty's ambassador came into the Collegio last week with special letters from the king, asking for the imprisonment of that William Burdet of whom you write to us. We enclose copies of the exposition and letters for your information.
The same secretary, also asked for the imprisonment of the maker of a seal with the arms of the king, as you will see from the copy. We immediately ordered a careful inquiry to be made, examining both the maker and Opson who ordered it. From this it appeared that the seal was ordered by Henry Hider, English Consul in the Morea. As nothing further had been done and there was no ulterior object, both were dismissed. For your particular enlightenment we send you copies of the evidence taken, of the decision in the matter, of the secretary's reply and of his new request, so that you may know the truth and particularly that the evidence showed there was no guilt, but that it was done at the instance of the English consul. For your private information we send you a wax impression of the seal, showing the royal arms on one side of a silver column and those of Hider on the other. The seal itself has not been sent to Hider, and it will not be.
Your letters of the 27th ult. inform us of the queen's delivery of a son. You will repeat in our name the office of congratulation with their Majesties and express our gladness at the further establishment of that crown with another son.
We enclose advices from Milan and elsewhere for your information. We have your letters of the 28th and 30th ult.
Ayes, 82. Noes, 0. Neutral, 4.
[Italian.]
Aug. 23.
Collegio, Secreta. Esposizioni, Principi. Venetian Archives.
104. The Secretary of England came into the Collegio and said in substance :
I would not be importunate in a matter considered of minor importance, although it is of moment. I ask for a copy of the process about the seal made for Mr. Obson, the letter of Henry Hide which he presented and the seal itself, to send to England tomorrow.
The doge said that they considered the affair terminated. They found no fault in Obson, so he had been dismissed. He thought the seal had also been delivered to him, so there was nothing more.
The secretary repeated his request for a copy of the process. When the doge repeated that the affair was terminated and that what Obson had done was by order of Hider, who as consul had power to have the seal made for his use, the Secretary said that he had no authority or commission from the king to use his seal, because Hider is only a servant of the English merchants and can do nothing except by order of the ambassador at Constantinople. Accordingly he asked for a copy of the process and for Hider's letter to Obson, and that in the meantime the seal made should at least be sequestrated.
The doge told him that the Savii would consider his request. He then asked that a reply might be made to the letter written by the king, made his bow and went out.
[Italian.]
Aug. 31.
Senato, Secreta. Dispacci, Inghilterra. Venetian Archives.
105. Giovanni Giustinian, Venetian Ambassador in England, to the Doge and Senate.
While they were debating what course to take upon the proposals of the Scots, reported recently, that people, encouraged alike by the weakness of His Majesty and by the friendliness to their cause openly shown by the people of England, have decided to enter the kingdom with powerful forces, in the well founded hope that the incitement thus afforded may stimulate the impatience felt and bring about an open declaration, very much to their own advantage.
In order to give this far reaching design a good start and to justify the step, they recently sent the Sig. di Ladian suddenly to the county of Northumberland, with 300 horse, with instructions to publish and to circulate a manifesto, in which they set forth the innovations introduced by the king in religion, the attempts to put down the ancient liberty of the realm and all the things that have happened up to the present, concluding that as their trade had been interrupted, and their ships and goods taken away they could wait no longer to seek a remedy for such calamities, and they could find no better way than to march into England. They protest that in doing this they intend no hurt to anyone except the common enemies, the bishops, all the Catholics, the Archbishop of Canterbury and the Viceroy of Ireland being definitely mentioned. They add that their efforts will be directed to an attempt to put an end to such prolonged disturbances by means of a parliament in England. They promise that they will not leave that country until the decrees of that body are carried out, the evil councillors punished and those of their own nation who had a hand in these plots delivered into their hands to be punished in accordance with the laws of Scotland. They ask the English to persevere in their prudent determination to refuse the subsidies asked in order to make war on them and to support the most just objects of this expedition, which is destined solely for the support of the religion and liberty of both kingdoms.
The Earl was received courteously by the people of the county and the manifesto with acclamation. Although this has been prohibited, it circulates throughout the kingdom and does great harm. Having learned the success of this first move and without further delay the Scots, after leaving 8000 infantry to guard the frontiers, crossed the River Tweed on Saturday with a force of 20,000 men commanded by General Leslie, with 50 small pieces of artillery and a sufficiency of munitions of war and food. At a short distance from the river they have begun to build a fort, to ensure their retreat in any event. That done they announce that they will enter England and proceed with the proposed plans. It is feared that the majority of the English will conspire with them. The universal applause which has greeted this audacious action and the commodities which are readily supplied them by the country folk serve to confirm this suspicion.
On the arrival of this evil news, which reached the Court on Sunday, His Majesty seemed extraordinarily perturbed. The Council met and after a long sitting it was decided that without loss of time His Majesty should proceed to York. He did so yesterday, accompanied only by the Duke of Lennox, the Marquis Hamilton, and the Earls of Holland and Pembroke. He directed the remaining courtiers and ministers not to move until further order.
To reinforce the army, which is notably reduced by desertion and other disorders, vigorous orders have been sent to all the counties to cause the troops of the trained bands, who are bound by the ancient laws of the realm to assist the king when he is in the field, to march with all speed to that spot.
Food and munitions of war have been laded with great energy on the ships in the river which are destined to go to the fleet, with strict orders to the captains to weigh as soon as possible and proceed to Scottish waters, in order to create a diversion by sea, and thus assist the king's operations against the rebels. But there is little appearance that these will be easily reduced, as they enjoy the advantage of numbers, of experienced leaders, and most of all in the friendliness of the king's own troops towards them. Accordingly the best informed consider that instead of committing himself to a hazardous battle, which they talk of at the palace, His Majesty will rather seek an accommodation on any terms, even if he cannot avoid summoning a new parliament in this kingdom as demanded.
The Lieutenant of Ireland has been declared general in default of the Earl of Northumberland, who pleads that he cannot at present join the army, under the mendacious pretext of sickness. The Lieutenant and the Archbishop have loyally promised the king money, jewels and their own plate for this most serious emergency. The extreme scarcity of money greatly augments the difficulties and His Majesty had to leave with no more than 19,000l. lent by individual merchants. He has suspended the stipends of all the officials of the crown and to save expense has cut down his own table.
Following the example of the county of York, Berkshire and many others have sent deputies to the king charged to petition for the removal of the burdens recently imposed without the grant of parliament, implying freely that if they are not heard they will not hesitate to obtain relief for themselves. The deputies were sent back to their homes with courteous promises only, but in the present crisis it will be difficult to keep them quiet without actually giving them the satisfaction which they claim.
Accompanied by the Ambassadors extraordinary of the Catholic, Cardinas had his first public audience last week. It was purely complimentary, His Majesty replying briefly and gravely, thus confirming, in the eyes of all the Court, his scant satisfaction at the appointment of this individual, for whom he professes a particular aversion, as I wrote.
The negotiations of the ambassadors extraordinary proceed with their usual slowness, and although, contrary to their original assertion, they declare that they will stay in this kingdom next winter, there is not the least glimmer so far of any hope of their advancing to the conclusion of the proposed alliance.
I saw the queen at Oatlands on Sunday for formal compliments, and while I was there the king arrived and I was able to inform him of the choice of Sig. Vincenzo Contarini for this embassy. I spoke to his Majesty of his great worth, and remarked that I believed that Mr. Fielding would soon be going back to Venice, to keep up the due correspondence. With great friendliness the king replied that he had satisfied Fielding with respect to the provisions for which he asked, and he would start very soon, as he himself goes about saying. The Secretary of State Windebank confirmed this, but I understand all the same that he is still desirous of an employment at Court and will not move before all hope has disappeared. This cannot be soon, and success will not be easy.
Owing to the king's absence I have not been able to present the letter sent by your Excellencies. In order to observe the formalities of courtesy I will inform the Secretary Windebank, who has remained here in charge of affairs, and will have it by me for his Majesty's return.
London, the 31st August, 1640.
[Italian.]
106. Giovanni Giustinian, Venetian Ambassador in England, to the Doge and Senate.
Acknowledges receipt of their letters of the 10th ult. by the courier of Antwerp with the news of his appointment to a more important post. Promises his best services at the Imperial Court.
London, the 31st August, 1640.
[Italian.]

Footnotes

  • 1. This seems to refer to Sir Jacob Astley's letter to Lord Conway of the 18th July, o.s. Cal. S.P. Dom. 1640, page 490 ; but the murder of Lieutenant Compton Evers, on Sunday, the 18th July, n.s., took place at Wellington in Somerset. Id., page 476.
  • 2. See Gardiner ; Hist. of Eng., vol. IX, page 176 note.
  • 3. Probably the manifesto issued by the Scottish army entitled "Information from the Scottish nation to all the true English concerning the present expedition." Cal. S. P. Dom., 1639-40, page 622. The text is printed in Spalding : "History of the Troubles and Memorable Transactions in Scotland" (Bannatyne Club) Vol. I, pages 241-9.
  • 4. This must refer to the Salee expedition under Capt. William Rainsborough in 1637.
  • 5. See Nos. 79, 80 at pages 56, 57 above, and note. Talbot seems to have got a wrong impression about the intentions of the Senate. Writing on the 17th August, he says, "This morning I presented His Majesty's letter to the prince and pressed the business with my best efficacy. His Highness hath promised me all speed and secrecy in the Senate's order for the shipping of Mr. Burdet, that I doubt not but the Company will receive full satisfaction." S. P. Venice. There is no record of any such interview in the Esposizioni Principi.
  • 6. The new letters of credence of Cardenas are endorsed as having been delivered to the king at Oatlands on the 2nd August, o.s. S. P. Spain.
  • 7. Maria Anna, born 22 Dec., 1634.
  • 8. Taken on the 9th August by the French under the Marshals La Meilleraye, Chatillon and Brézé.
  • 9. In his despatch of 11—24 August Talbot reports that Hobson had succeeded in convincing the Council that Hyde was a public minister and had the right to use the seal, and that his (Talbot's) action was prompted by malice. S.P. Venice. Among the Denbigh papers there is a letter of John Hobson of the 24th August, in defence of his having the seal engraved by Hyde's order. Hist. MSS., Comm. Denbigh MSS., page 285.