Venice: March 1642, 1-15

Pages 1-12

Calendar of State Papers Relating To English Affairs in the Archives of Venice, Volume 26, 1642-1643. Originally published by His Majesty's Stationery Office, London, 1925.

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March 1642, 1-15

1642. March 3.
Senato, Secreta. Dispacci, Haya. Venetian Archives.
1. Zuanne Zon, Venetian Secretary at the Hague, to the Doge and Senate.
The hopes of the coming to the Queen of England with her daughter seem to have disappeared with the change of wind, much to the regret of the House of Orange. The government chose six deputies to receive her Majesty in the name of all the Provinces. Lavish provisions for her entertainment were sent to the frontier. The Admiral had orders to go and meet her, the citizens to be ready to welcome her with joyful acclamations, and the governors of towns to greet her arrival with every sign of rejoicing. Here at the Hague they made great preparations to celebrate her entry. The whole Court is still ready to render her the most signal honours, and they have prepared most sumptuous quarters for her reception.
The Hague, the 3rd March, 1642.
March 6.
Senato, Secreta. Deliberazioni. Corti. Venetian Archives.
2. To the Ambassador to the King of England.
In your letters of the 14th ult. we hear of the daily increasing confusion in that kingdom, which we regret from our desire for the content of the king and the good of his kingdom. We enclose the usual advices.
Your request to be relieved is reasonable, and we shall embrace a seasonable opportunity for affording you your desire. In the mean time we feel confident that you will continue to employ your habitual skill and prudence and that you will succeed in avoiding all unpleasant incidents, so conducting yourself that no jealous suspicion can possibly be conceived against you.
Ayes, 124. Noes, 2. Neutral, 4.
March 7.
Senato, Secreta. Dispacci, Inghilterra. Venetian Archives.
3. Giovanni Giustinian, Venetian Ambassador in England, to the Doge and Senate.
The king is still at Dover, waiting for the queen to sail. She has, up to the present, made excuses to postpone her departure, on the ground of the bad weather and of other domestic incidents. Of the intentions that prompt this step, no one knows anything for certain as yet and everyone speaks in accordance with his own personal bias. Time alone can show conclusively what are the secret intentions of his Majesty and what secret motives have combined to shape the decision.
Fifteen war ships have arrived at Dover to accompany the ambassadors of Holland. They proceeded with all speed in this direction to bear testimony to the sincere regard of the Prince of Orange, to offer every service and satisfaction to the queen and his pleasure at the prospect of seeing at the side of his son the princess, his bride, who is so eagerly desired and sought after.
The Prince Palatine Rupert has also landed on these shores (fn. 1) and proceeded to the Court to thank the king for obtaining his release from Caesar through the powerful intercession of this crown. He spreads a report that when once he has performed this ceremonial duty he will return to his mother in Holland so as to avoid giving any occasion for misgivings in his Majesty's mind by a longer stay here at a time of so much disturbance and innovation.
Parliament has informed the king, by means of four deputies of the nomination of the persons selected for the government of the counties and of the militia of the kingdom, requesting that he will confirm the appointments promptly, in accordance with the promise given, and so leave the way clear for those selected to take measures for the defence of the country, in accordance with the general desire of the people. But his Majesty, who is trying to gain time to provide opportunities for promoting his interests, replied to them gravely that the question was one that involved weighty matters which required mature consideration. He was unable to attend to them for the moment, being immersed in serious occupations involving the closest ties, with the departure of his wife and daughter (fra le tenerezze del viaggio della moglie e della figliola). When they have gone he will immediately depart for Grinuich where he will decide after reflection upon those steps which he may consider the best adapted to secure the general welfare and satisfaction, and he will afterwards make known his precise intentions. (fn. 2)
With this the commissioners departed. Upon their reporting this unexpected reply from the king the parliamentarians were marvellously perturbed, argueing from the tone adopted that the king had changed his mind and that he was cherishing in his heart some purpose different from his first inclination. Accordingly, without delay, they chose other commissioners and sent them back to the king with instructions to make the most vigorous representations to induce him to ratify the parliament's decree. But as this is directed solely to the total destruction of the royal authority, his Majesty fences in order to avoid giving his consent.
The city of London, whose mayor has always enjoyed the privilege of commanding the trained bands and of exercising despotic powers for securing peace and safety, displays great resentment at an innovation practised by parliament in despoiling the mayor and aldermen of this advantage, appointing another individual in their confidence to this office. (fn. 3) Accordingly, amid great excitement, the leading [citizens], together with the magistrate of the city have made complaint to the king, petitioning him not to consent to this act of the parliament and to preserve to them the use of their ancient privileges, protesting that if they cannot obtain the continuation of this most just prerogative they will withdraw their trade and even their residence, from London. (fn. 4) This would involve serious injury to the whole country, not only in the matter of trade, but more particularly in the public customs, which alone supply the means for meeting the cost of the fleet, and for maintaining the royal household. In this latter the leading [lords] are interested, who enjoy appointments in the palace. They have made the same representations in writing with much freedom and determination to parliament also, on which account that body has taken steps to punish those who brought the paper, who are among the most respected and considerable citizens. If these quarrels grow more bitter it is conceivable that they will completely alienate this city from supporting the parliamentarians who have hitherto been sustained by the favour of the opinion of London. This might afford the king an opening for restoring his fortunes from their present forlorn condition. Consequently the progress and outcome of these new differences are being closely watched for their importance and as calculated to make a deep impression on the minds of the citizens, with consequences which may possibly change the aspect of affairs here.
To have the pleasure of the prince's company during the queen's absence the king gave orders that his Highness should be at Grinuich when he himself arrived there. But parliament having learned of this order interposed its veto, on the ground that the prince would not be sufficiently safe in a place so near the sea ports, even though commended to the care of his father, a precaution that offends his Majesty the more because it is directed to render his actions suspect to his people.
Several letters have arrived from Ireland this week, but as they have all been stopped by parliament it is not possible to find out precisely what news they bring of events there. Their energy in this matter leads many to conclude that affairs are going unfavourably for them there. Meanwhile they are devoting their earnest attention to getting together money to provide for defence there, and parliament has passed a resolution that all those who come forward on this occasion with sums of ready money shall have an assignment of a correspondingly rich portion of the goods of the rebels, which may be acquired there. But so far these [offers] have produced no results, as no one wishes to risk his capital in exchange for doubtful expectations. Even in the parishes here and throughout the kingdom they are asking the people to subscribe freely to support the war against the rebels. The cost of this, involving heavy expenditure and fresh burdens on the people, naturally excites misgiving among the parliamentarians, who fear that the burden of so many taxes may estrange the people from their side and may revive the popularity of his Majesty among them, involving the certain destruction of the most disaffected and influential.
London, the 7th March, 1642.
Postscript : a courier has just arrived from Dover with news that the queen had decided to embark yesterday evening. If she did she will have arrived in Holland in a few hours, because the wind at present is entirely favourable. If it be so, your Excellencies will have full information from the Resident Zon.
[Italian ; the part in italics deciphered.]
March 8.
Senato, Secreta. Dispacci, Germania. Venetian Archives.
4. Thadio Vico, Venetian Resident in Germany, to the Doge and Senate.
The negotiations about the Palatinate proceed with their customary deliberation. The English ambassador perceiving that the reply from Spain tarried to the paper presented by the electorial mediators, began to press for some decision from the emperor, threatening that he would be gone. Accordingly the ministers here held a consultation and they decided it would be expedient to give a reply to the deputies stating that they should treat with England and see if he has sufficient powers and will produce them, for bringing the arms of his king to bear for the peace of the empire, as he previously intimated he would do if the Spaniards were ready to restore freely the Lower Palatinate. In that case his Majesty would pledge his word for the Catholic king that this should be done. When England was informed of this the ambassador replied that he had full powers, most ample for everything, but he would not show them until he had the assurance of receiving not only the Lower but the Upper Palatinate with the electoral dignity and the reinstatement of the Palatine in integrum. When the emperor heard this answer he thought fit to report it to the duke of Bavaria, as the one who possesses the whole, by a special messenger who went and returned in six days. The elector replied that they must first settle with the Spaniards the point raised by England, and so there is a hitch at the very outset.
I learn that the English ambassador is fed up (satio) with the constant obstacles that keep cropping up and he intimates that he means to have done with it all and to take himself off with a final protest.
Vienna, the 8th March, 1642.
March 10.
Senato, Secreta. Dispacci, Haya. Venetian Archives.
5. Zuanne Zon, Venetian Secretary at the Hague, to the Doge and Senate.
After a long wait, which the prince here bore with more apprehension than patience, news reached the Court yesterday that the fleet bringing the Queen of England and her daughter, the Princess Mary to these shores had come in sight of Brill. The young Prince of Orange started off at once to welcome her Majesty and the bride who is so much desired, with every demonstration of respect and joy. The old prince, having made sure of the news by special courier, set out at midday to-day, and with him six deputies of the Assembly, to receive her Majesty with every sign of esteem and honour. The queen will make her entry into this city to-morrow, and will establish herself here for some time.
The Hague, the 10th March, 1642.
March 12.
Senato, Secreta. Deliberazioni. Rettori. Venetian. Archives.
6. To the Proveditore of Zante.
The English resident has presented the enclosed memorial in the Collegio. You will send information taken on oath with special regard to the offences of the person accused, of the reasons and all particulars. For the rest you will be acting rightly and in accordance with our wishes by affording every assistance and protection to the merchants of that and of every other nation, in the interest of trade and the customs.
Ayes, 104. Noes, 3. Neutral, 28.
March 14.
Senato, Secreta. Deliberazioni. Corti. Venetian Archives.
7. To the Ambassador in England.
Express entire satisfaction with his behaviour in difficult circumstances, and with his reports, which show application and zeal. Nothing to add beyond the need for continuing to show the same diligence in sending news and the sequence of events. Enclose advices.
Ayes, 72. Noes, 0. Neutral, 0.
March 14.
Senato, Secreta. Dispacci, Inghilterra. Venetian Archives.
8. Giovanni Giustinian, Venetian Ambassador in England, to the Doge and Senate.
On Tuesday in last week the queen set out from these waters with the princess. They have left the king to his loneliness and deeply moved. The wind being favourable they will have passed pleasantly to Holland in a few hours. His Majesty accompanied his wife as far as the shore, and did not know how to tear himself away from her, conversing with her in sweet discourse and affectionate embraces, nor could they restrain their tears, moving all those who were present.
After the departure of the queen his Majesty returned to Grinuich, where he is awaiting the convenience of parliament and the permission for the prince to join him there. Thither on Saturday 8th, they sent commissioners in order to learn definitely what his intentions are with regard to giving his consent to the decisions reported, i.e. about arming the kingdom and the appointment of Lieutenants for the counties. His Majesty satisfied these by talking of agreeing to this, but on condition that the preparation of these forces and the choice of the persons to command them shall not take effect until six months' time, with many other reservations and exceptions. He subsequently assured the deputies that on the following Thursday he proposed to proceed with the prince to Tibols, a pleasure house of the crown, and thence to Niumarchet, fifty miles from here. From the trend of these ideas the deputies derived fresh grounds for concluding how little the king was disposed to give them satisfaction. So they returned to their station here and gave an account of everything to the parliamentarians. These men, agitated by their turbulent passions and considering it unlikely that they can persuade the king to accept their demands in the manner they desire, and at the same time very suspicious of this journey, after lengthy consultations have adopted the expedient of sending a paper to his Majesty pointing out that his own security and that of the realm render it necessary to prepare their defence in times so full of suspicion and if his Majesty persists in his view that he cannot grant them this advantage, they will take action on their own account, providing for the government of the counties in accordance with the nominations presented, in conformity with the laws of the crown and the privileges of parliament, as some of the counties have already begun to do, in apprehension of present dangers. For the perfection of many affairs and the safety of his Majesty's own person they are called upon to beseech him not to go far away from London, since his absence might have ruinous consequences for the public peace. They also ask him to be pleased that the prince shall return to his ordinary sojourn in this city or in another house near by. (fn. 5)
To present this paper, which has really been drawn up under the influence of ambition and dictated by anger, they selected six deputies of the Upper House and twelve of the Lower, who proceeded on Wednesday to Tibols. His Majesty received them with every demonstration of honour and after hearing them with all patience, gave them his reply. He was greatly astonished at the form of such proposals and did not know what to answer. You talk, said he, of suspicion and fear. Lay your hands on your hearts and ask yourselves if I also have no reason for fear. With regard to arming the kingdom he was determined to alter nothing in the reply given, which he judged well suited to what was due and to his personal dignity. With regard to his staying in London, he asked them if he could do so with safety and honour and if he had not had cause for absenting himself. With respect to the prince he would take such care as would justify him before God, as a father, and before his dominions as king. For the rest he cherished a desire for peace and union with his people and he relied upon the goodness and providence of God for the preservation of his interests and royal rights. (fn. 6)
With these grave words his Majesty sent back the deputies and to-day he is to proceed to Niumarchet with the prince, with the idea of making a long stay there and of waiting there for time to show what steps he must take for the re-establishment of his authority.
Parliament, on the other hand, having heard the king's firm determination not to grant them the things demanded in the manner claimed, reassembled in scanty numbers and by the vote of those alone who are opposed to his Majesty's party, they decided yesterday to go forward without further respect in carrying the decrees into execution, and to have printed and published the considerations which induced them to provide for the defence of the kingdom by armed forces. There are some who believe that these headstrong measures will actually be carried into effect, since those who meddle with affairs of this character undoubtedly render themselves guilty of high treason, and consequently many conclude that the decision is only intended to intimidate the king and constrain him to bend to the will of the parliamentarians. However the event will very soon show clearly what their intentions are, and what movements among the people will be excited by such open disobedience to their lawful and natural prince. It is certain that with his innocent habits the king is not detested by his subjects, who do not at present show so much zeal in applauding the proceedings of parliament. People already say publicly that private interests and not zeal for the public welfare provide the foundation for these continued disturbances and tiresome changes which have reduced trade to the very smallest dimensions and caused a loss this year to the London customs alone of 600,000 ducats (la persona di cui et gli innocenti costumi suoi non sono certamente aborrite da sudditi, i quali non si dimostrano di presente si ferventi ad applauder le deliberationi del Parlamento, et gia publicamente si parla che fine di privato interesse, non il zelo del bene publico diano il fondamento a questi continuati torbidi et travagliosi alterationi, che hanno ridotto il trafico all ultimo punto della diminutione et pregiudicato quest' anno alle sole dogane di Londra 600,000 mille ducati).
The differences with this city still persist and although parliament has put a bridle on the more timid by the threat of severe punishment, yet the alienation of the sympathies of the more substantial citizens from the new form of government is apparent. The same sentiments find voice in other counties and towns as well, and those who have a thorough knowledge of the feelings of the people freely prophesy that the aspect of affairs here will very soon undergo a change and the king may possibly be able to recover for himself a position of decent authority. Many parliamentarians who in the past have shown themselves ill affected towards the king's interests, have rallied to him, arousing the jealousy of the contrary party. Quarrels and divisions are appearing among these over the distribution of the many rich appointments to which everyone aspires.
Owing to the absence of the queen it is claimed that the Capuchins must not continue their stay here or the worship of God in the chapel at Somerset House and two days ago it was decided that they should return to France. The French ambassador by vigorous opposition has prevented this from being carried into effect. After many disputes he has obtained that they may stay here for three months longer, until his king has been informed and has sent back his opinion, on condition that entry to the chapel shall only be allowed to the servants of the queen who have not gone with her, and to the French who are in this city That minister encounters fresh difficulties over the levy of 4000 Scots which was already granted to him, and he has lost hope of achieving his end.
Colonel Butler, an Irishman, who has served a long while in the wars of Germany, has been to see me. He asked me to offer to your Excellencies in his name a levy of two regiments of Germans, which he proposes to assemble on the frontiers of Switzerland with the facilities which are afforded to him. I report this to your Excellencies for what it may be worth.
London, the 14th March, 1642.
[Italian ; the part in italics deciphered.]
9. Giovanni Giustinian, Venetian Ambassador in England, to the Doge and Senate.
To avoid further delay in presenting the letter which your Excellencies were pleased to send me, I had audience of his Majesty on Wednesday at Tibols. I spoke to him in the first place about the opening of the public despatches, following precisely the wording of the instructions sent to me. The office proved exceedingly acceptable. The king told me he considered it a peculiar favour that your Excellencies have taken into account the annoyance he felt at such an incident, to which he attached great importance, as even the most barbarous nations would not have ventured to do such a thing. His annoyance could not be greater. His only consolation was that he had not been present. His absence should shield him from the suspicion of foreign princes that it was done by connivance. In the matter of reparation he had done all he knew and was ready to do anything more to satisfy me, if I would indicate to him what he might do to make known to the world his regard for the greatness of the Senate, and his esteem for me as your minister.
I thanked his Majesty for his gracious remarks and assured him how much your Excellencies appreciated his goodwill. I hope that the king's perfect friendliness will pave the way for the proper reception of the Most Illustrious Contarini, my successor, and do away with the odious difference in the reception of the Venetian ambassadors as compared with those of the other crowns. But I will move with the utmost reserve in this delicate matter, without compromising the state in any way, and I will not take any action unless sure of success, endeavouring to secure that the first move shall come from his Majesty, in correction of the errors of his predecessors, due to inadvertence rather than to ill will.
I also told the king about the affair of the merchant Obson, presenting the letter of your Excellencies. While I was telling him of the beginning and progress of that cause, he interrupted me, saying : Signor Ambassador, be so good as to give me this information in writing, so that I may have it shown to the interested parties, who make such a fuss, and bring them to reason. Reflecting that to give an account in writing, to be subsequently submitted to the merchants, who know no other convenience or reason than their own interests, was to expose the affair to fresh demands, and introduce negotiation, when I notice that your Excellencies aim at getting it definitely settled, I assured his Majesty that in a few sentences I could give him such particulars orally that would confirm absolutely his conviction of the upright and independent justice which the magistrates at Venice deal out to all, without respect of persons, as well as of the friendly feeling and partiality shown towards the agents of the subjects of this crown, who are regarded and treated as our own. Proceeding with the argument I made him realise the baselessness of Obson's claims, and those of the Senator Zon as well. His Majesty asked me if the judicial arbiters had been chosen with the consent of both parties, to which I replied that that was the case. He said that your Excellencies could not have done more and it was not just to deprive people of their rights. He went on to speak in complimentary terms of your Excellencies and of his satisfaction with me personally. With that I took leave and on coming our of the chamber I met the Secretary of State, to whom his Majesty had handed your Excellencies' letter. He informed me that his Majesty was perfectly satisfied about the business of Obson, and the interested parties should also be content, and your Serenity had done what you could for the advantage of that cause. He added of his own accord that the king was anxious to get his ambassador for Venice to set out. He had spoken to him with insistence on the subject two days ago. These tiresome accidents had hindered his movements, but he would be starting soon and he hoped it would be at Easter, without fail.
London, the 14th March, 1642.
March 15.
Senato, Secreta. Dispacci, Germania. Venetian Archives.
10. Thadio Vico, Venetian Resident in Germany, to the Doge and Senate.
Bavaria professes himself ready to satisfy England, informing the ambassador of his willingness to treat about the Upper as well as the Lower Palatinate, and about the electoral dignity as well. Accordingly I understand that the ambassador has at last produced his powers to promise everything for his king, but he is unwilling to declare himself in anything on the subject before he knows what they mean to do about the restoration and satisfaction of the Palatine, while he does not mean to commit his king more deeply than he ought in such matters as declaring against the Dutch and other allies of England, as the Spaniards desire. Thus he seems to have taken offence about some statements attributed to him by the electoral mediators, who have made it appear that he intimated that he would do all that they wanted to obtain a settlement of the Palatine's affair. The Spaniards oppose concessions and say they have nothing to fear from the menaces or the forces of the English, because their most serious internal disturbances prevent them and will do for a long while from employing any armed forces on behalf of the Palatine's cause.
Vienna, the 15th March, 1642.
Enclosure. 11. Animadversiones legati Angliae supra responsum Caesaris, partim negando, partim explicando, de finaliter concludendo.
Caesariae Majestati dom. nostro Clementissimo relata sunt ea quae ad tractatus Palatinos ordinati Regii et Electorales Consiliarii et Legati ad Petita tam Regii Anglici quam aliorum Interessatorum Legatorum ut etiam ex proprio motu proposuerunt : Ex quibus intelligit dominos et mediationem hujus causae deputatos reveri, quoniam dom. Anglicus Legatus protestatus est se incerta hic expectare non posse, sed nisi remora per defectum Hispanicae Plenipotentiae injecta tollatur, hinc esse discessuram, totam hanc actionem, si non omnino interruptam, attamen parvam spem desiderati finis relictam iri. Cui inconvenienti ut mediatur, Illos ad seria tam dicti domini Anglici quam Palatinorum Legatorum desideria orare ut Caes. Maj. in se recipiat, quae ratione ditionum ab Hispanis in Inferiori Palatinatu possessarum, agenda erunt, itaque in hac actione procedat, quaemadmodum necessitas Imperii et publica requirit. Idque eo magis, quia Ipsius Maj. haud ignorat quanta commoda hujus causae maturatio, quantaque e contrario incommoda ejus dilatio vel omnimoda ruptura affere possit. Commoda esse ut dom. Legatus Ang. tam scripto (1) quam oretenus testatus est si hac (2) Palatina negotia per media aequa et honesta componi possunt, Coronam Ang. cum Maj. Caes. et Imperio conjunctim iri, unitisque animis (3) et viribus ad recuperationem desiderissimae pacis cooperaturam, instantisque Tractatus generales fortiter promoturam. Regem etiam Hisp. non aliter hanc Caes. Maj. nullo alio fine quam ad promovendam publicam quietem susceptam actionem, quam optime interpretaturum cum nemo ignoret quantam illius Coronis intersit, ipsi bene cum Anglica convenire. Ut haec omnia fusius in dominorum mediatorum memoriali commemorantur.
Majestas Caesarea satis grate adhuc meminit quam prompte ambo regii et electorales legati consenserint in continuationem horum Tractatuum hoc in loco, nihilque magis in votis haberet, quam si dom. mediatorum huc usque adhibita diligentia apud partes interessatos, tantum operari potuisset, ut etiam ante hac propius ad rem accessissent, cumque ab una parte aliqua specialis apertura facta sit, ut altera etiam non in eo solo habere voluisset se in extremis persistere nolle. Ut tamen ista sint Caes. sua Maj. nunquam adhuc desperavit de bono successu horum tractatuum tribuitque temporis hue usque factam jacturam gravitati negotii, cum certum sit, talia et similia difficultatis plurimum, praesertim in principio habere. Nec dubitet etiam coronam Anglicanam ad aliud nihil collimare quam ad recuperationem pacis, tranquillitatem Imperii et per consequens conservationem eorum quorum bono haec actiones susceptae sunt. Ideoque etiam gratissima fuere Maj. suae ea quae nomine Coronae Anglicae dom. ejusdem Legatus tam scriptis quam oretenus contestatus est.
Et quanquam non desint praegnantes rationes quae impedire possent susceptionem actionis, ratione ditionum quas Rex Hisp. in Inferiori Palatinatu possidet ; quaeque suadent ut expectentur plenipotentiae oratori Hisp. mittendae, quas cito ad futuras nuperrime confirmatum est. Tamen Caes. Maj. mota per dom. mediatorum rationes quae demonstrant haec ipsius coronae Hisp. bono futura in se susceptura est, quidquid ratione ditionum ab illa Corona in Palatinatu possessarum, bono Maj. suae de Imperii agendum erit. Si quidem hi Tractatus ad pacificationem, redintegrationem, corroborationem et securitatem Imperii contra (4) eos qui dicto Imperio ejusque fidelibus Electoribus, Principibus et Statibus, pacem et cuique suum invident spectare debent. His ita positis, Maj. sua judicat compendiosissimam, omnibusque interessatis utilissimam viam fore si cum dom. Anglico Legato quamprimum agatur ut ipse (5) declaret quomodo corona Ang. se conjungere velit ut unitis viribus et animis Pax generalis et communis obtineatur, et quomodo cooperare ut Tractatus generales qui prae manibus sunt efficaciter promoveantur et sic ambo puncta tam restitutionis quam confoederationis uno eodemque (6) tramite et pertractentur et finiantur. Quo propter necessarium est quemadmodum sua Caes. Maj. nomine Regis Hisp. actionem in se suscipit, suosque consiliarios ad tractandum ordinat et plenas ipsis potentias dat ut eodem modo etiam Anglici Legati plenipotentiae tam ab rege (7) quam a corona illa datae ad foedus sanciendum et restitutionem componendam edantur et tum Tractatus promoveantur.
Quantum ad Praefecturam Germersheim dom. mediatores ex nupera suae Maj. declaratione satis videre potuerunt illam in Tractatus venturam et ejus causa illos non ruptos iri quae etiam nunc ipsius Maj. mens est.
De caetero vident restitutionem (8) Inferioris Palatinatus et confoederationem ita esse connexa ut pari passu sint tractanda, cum hoc modo proportio unius ad alterum facillime inveniri queat. Ideoque quomodo et quando Praefectura Germersheim, item ea quae Elector Bavariae in Inf. Palatinatu Maj. suae permittit, sint tradenda eosque remittit.
Eorum causa quae Electoralem viduam Palatinam Principessam Catherinam Sophiam et ducem Ludovicum Philippum concernunt Maj. ipsius Electori Bavariae quantum necessariam esse credit scriptura est. Et Episcopum Wormatiensen, Marcionem Badensem et capitulum Spirense brevi proposito termino huc citatura. Interim tamen non vult Tractationem deferri sed statim post etiam Plenipotentiam continuari.
Haec sunt quae Caes. Maj. dom. Regio et Electoralibus Legatis respondet, eosque Caes. clementia complectitur. Signatum in cancelleria Aulica Imperiali xxiv Feb. anno mdcxlii.
Ferdinandus Comes Kurtz.
Johan. Walderode.
(1) ubi constat?
(2) His verbis acquiescit ; cum hac propositio, si haec Palatina negotia etc. sit hypothetica etc. praesupponat securitatem restitutionis, quae praecedere omnem confoederationem debeat ; ac proinde et ordo de natura tractatus ita requirit ut interessati ante omnia se se declarent quid et quomodo restituere velint.
(3) Verba invidiosa, a mediatoribus minus candide intrusa, negat scriptis etc.
(4) Contra neminem. Ideo protestari cogitur ne hoc petitum tacite admissum, amicis suspectum esse possit.
(5) Sic capiuntur vulpiculae : cum dummodo quid expectare possit de restitutione in tenebris manebit ; in Gallia, Coloniae, Hamburgi, Svetia, Belgio, luci publicae atque amicorum invidiae expositus erit, sed cum interessati cathegorice se se declaraverint quid velit nolitve Rex ejus, candide explicavit.
(6) Hac allusio in via spaciosa ambulando stare potest, sed in Tractatibus necesse est fundamentum poni et unum alterum articulum praemissa conclusionem precedere, id est Quid pro quo!
(7) Disjunctim, captiose : Rex et Corona idem sunt. Quos junxit Deus, nemo separet.
(8) Haec clausula totum responsum et Tractatum dupliciter restringit, primum ad Palatinatum Inf. ; deinde per consequens ad particularia et ejusdem partes ; cum nominatim mentio facta sit Praefectum Germersheimensis et aliorum a duce Bavariae ad Caesarem remissarum, tum particularia expressa restringunt generalia et excludunt tractum Montanam ab Electore Moguntino detentum et alias a Landgravio Darmstadienti raptas : ita ut nihil certe constituat de restitutione integra toties petita. Quibus Legatus Anglicus respondet se nullam habere potestatem vel tractandi vel confoederationem ineundi pro tribus vel quatuor Praefecturis. Quae nam enim est et qualis ea proportio intimata, inter paucas Praefecturas et tanti Regis confoederationem? Quae proportio redenda ab iis expectare potest, qui tam stricte oblata acceptare recusent ? Ideo si restitutio integra non resolvatur pro fragmentis et partibus tractare nullam se habere facultatem saepius contestatus est neque ulla ratione ab eo requiri potest.
Haec paucule sunt quae Legatus Anglicus dom. mediatoribus pro responso et resolutione insinuare invitus cogitur. (fn. 7)


  • 1. He landed at Dover from Holland on Thursday, the 27th February. Cal. S.P. Dom., 1641—3. page 288.
  • 2. The text of this answer is printed in the Journals of the House of Lords, Vol. IV, page 599.
  • 3. Philip Skippon had been appointed to command the London trained bands on the 10/20 January. See Gardiner : Hist. of Eng. Vol. X, pages 148, 154.
  • 4. The magistrate referred to appears to be Sir Thomas Gardiner, Recorder of London, Rushworth refers to one Gardiner as presenting such a petition to the king, and this was one of the counts in the impeachment of the Recorder a few weeks later. Gardiner would seem to have first been the prime mover in the petition to the king, which afterwards received the support of Alderman Wollaston and of some of the richest and most influential citizens. A similar petition was presented to parliament on the 26th Feb. O.S., which the Houses subsequently ordered to be burned by the common hangman. Rushworth : Hist. Collections Pt. III, Vol. 1, page 555. Salvetti, despatch of 14 March Brit. Mus. Add. MSS. 27962 I. Journals of the House of Lords, Vol. IV, pages 651, 652.
  • 5. Journals of the House of Lords, Vol. IV, page 621.
  • 6. Journals of the House of Lords, Vol. IV, pages 621, 622, on the 2/12 March.
  • 7. Roe's notes upon this answer of the emperor to the mediators are in the Nicholas Correspondence, Vol. 1, fol. 297. Brit. Mus. Egerton MSS. 2533.