Venice: August 1642, 16-31

Pages 127-138

Calendar of State Papers Relating To English Affairs in the Archives of Venice, Volume 26, 1642-1643. Originally published by His Majesty's Stationery Office, London, 1925.

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August 1642, 16-31

Aug. 17.
Senato, Secreta. Dispacci, Francia. Venetian Archives.
118. Girolamo Giustinian, Venetian Ambassador in France, to the Doge and Senate.
The Spanish army of Picardy, that is to say Melzo and Bech have joined together and are wasting the country about Cales. They made a feint of investing Esdin but afterwards went away without attempting anything. It is said that Melzo was expecting English ships, which were to bring him munitions and money. But these English ships, most opportunely and greatly to the satisfaction of this side, have been taken and detained by the Dutch Admiral, and it is believed that this stroke will have upset the plans of the enemy.
Paris, the 17th August, 1642.
Aug. 18.
Senato, Secreta. Dispacci, Haya. Venetian Archives.
119. Zuanne Zon, Venetian Secretary at the Hague, to the Doge and Senate.
The Palatine Princes Roberto and Maurice have set out for England. They will cross in a Dutch ship, to evade the activity of parliament, taking some munitions of war for the king's service. The Prince of Orange expresses his sympathy with the royal cause and readily grants leave to those captains of the army here who ask it to go and serve the royal cause. Upon other occasions he contributes his best offices with the government to induce it to make demonstrations calculated to relieve his Majesty's house from the oppression of parliament and restore it to its pristine authority on some solid and permanent basis.
The munitions seized as contraband from the English ships going to Dunkirk are deposited in the magazines of Zeeland until the matter is cleared up. Five ships of this country were stopped as reprisals by the fleet of the parliament, off Dover, but were released soon after by the earl of Warwick, also by order of parliament, which does not wish to provoke this country under present circumstances. They recently moored off these shores with their cargos entire.
The Hague, the 18th August, 1642.
Aug. 22.
Senato, Secreta. Dispacci, Inghilterra. Venetian Archives.
120. Giovanni Giustinian, Venetian Ambassador in England, to the Doge and Senate.
Colonel Gorin, governor of Porsmoud has paid what was due to his birth by proofs of loyalty to his Majesty and has gone over openly to the royal party with a declaration that he holds that fortress for the sole service and at the disposition of his Majesty. Before making public this intention of his, on the pretence of securing the town against the contingencies of the present time with new fortifications, he contrived to persuade the parliament to pay out to him 30,000l. sterling, to send him a good number of guns and other munitions, enough to provide it sufficiently with all necessary requirements at the expense of that party. The garrison has taken an oath not to recognise any other command than that of the king, has taken prisoner the soldiers who refused to bind themselves to such a condition, has expelled those whose loyalty was considered suspect and introduced other troops, all favourably disposed to the interests of the king, who has since sent with all speed 6000l. sterling as a testimony of gratitude and to supply the pay for the soldiers there.
Through the declaration of this commander his Majesty has contrived to get possession also of four ships of war. These were destined for the guard of the coasts about there and were lying anchored in the port there at the moment, which is the most capacious and the most convenient in England.
After this fortunate event it is freely said that the city of Bristol, the castle of Dover and that of Plemoud, which all lie upon the sea, will follow the same example, and there is some sign that the inhabitants of the isle of Weicht, which lies opposite Porsmoud, may follow the same course also.
These new events have filled the minds of the parliamentarians with just apprehension, as they foresee the weighty consequences that may accompany them and to remedy present disorders as well as the inconveniences which time may bring forth in the future they are devoting the most energetic efforts. To Porsmoud they have despatched troops of foot and horse, sent orders to the commanders of the trained bands of that district to give support to their wishes and to all those on their side to join together and blockade the fortress without delay before the capture of it is rendered more difficult by the introduction of other forces and provisions.
To the earl of Warwick they have sent orders to proceed in person to those waters with fourteen ships in addition to the six, and to prevent any vessel from approaching that port ; but the fortress is sufficiently provided with victuals and very strong both by nature and by art. The governor is an individual who, on every occasion, has given evidence of his spirit, and in addition to his valour he unites the quality of a perfect discipline. So in the general opinion, unless the loyalty and steadfastness of the garrison fail him, the efforts of the parliament to compel him to surrender will prove vain.
To the isle of Weicht also they are sending a special envoy with instructions to animate the people there to sustain the power of the parliament, and they have sent prisoner to the Tower the earl of Portland who is governor, as being suspected of scant affection for this side, and entirely dependent on the king.
These last weeks the marquis of Erfort proceeded to the county of Somerset with patents from his Majesty to take part in the government to keep the people there steadfast in their duty of obedience and to counter the operations of the one selected by parliament. The marquis was welcomed by the major portion with demonstrations of respect and subsequently his commands were received with equal readiness. He busied himself for several days, without opposition, in enlisting troops and in strengthening their disposition towards the royal service. At length some passionate supporters of parliament, filled with rebellious thoughts, being themselves determined not to leave him in his former quiet, compelled him by their insolent actions to wrath and to order the capture of one of the authors of seditious movements. This execution redoubled the rage and licence of the rebels to such an extent that they seized their arms and without care for the consequences, attacked the marquis' forces. But these showed great spirit and repelled them beaten and in disorder so that they were compelled to seek safety in flight. But this being by no means enough, they assembled together once more in much larger numbers. Being informed that the marquis with those of the king's party were in the city of Vels, a short distance from where the first encounter took place they advanced upon it and encamped. (fn. 1) This has obliged the royalists to keep inside that place in order not to commit themselves to the proof of a battle upon disadvantageous conditions, and as the outcome of this contest is not yet known, more certain accounts are expected very soon and are awaited with eager expectation. The loyal servants of his Majesty are apprehensive about the encounter. From such proofs they note the obstinate animosity of the common people here, who are strict followers of the dogmas of Calvin, detest monarchy and eagerly seize the opportunity, which they consider favourable, to shake off the yoke, in the belief that they will obtain further advantages, and to deserve well of God and their country too.
On the other hand the majority of the gentlemen and all the middle nobility of the kingdom follow the royal fortunes and vie with each other to serve under the royal standard.
In the county of Warwick the earl of Northampton is upholding the king's cause with a firm hand. With a force of only 400 soldiers he has repulsed and thrown into disorder 1500 men under Baron Bruch who tried to prevent the exercise of his command. He has now invested the castle of Bambari in the same county, inhabited by Puritans, which displayed its contumacy to the royal commands.
Other counties also are resounding with offers and divisions which promise that very soon we shall see the whole kingdom full of arms and of encounters as well. Parliament at this moment is assembling five regiments of infantry and 1500 cavalry, although it puts about reports of much greater numbers. It has caused some companies to march about the country in various parts where it considered this advisable with the object of encouraging its partisans and of depressing so far as possible the royalists. It is busily engaged upon the collection of other troops. It has not agreed to the proposal to suspend the session for 15 days. It calls with immediate urgency for fresh supplies of money from this city and it has caused to be brought back 27,000l. sterling which it had sent to be put on ship and taken across to Ireland. The defence of that country is no longer pressing and apparently it is completely abandoned. If the people there realise the extent of their advantage from the time and the favourable circumstances it will be easy for them to render themselves masters of the country and to prepare a vigorous resistance to preserve the possession for a long time.
To these provisions, which all tend to the destruction of the royal throne and its followers, under the influence of the most violent counsels parliament has added another decree which opens the way to the greatest disorders. It has given permission by proclamation to any official, constable or other private person to collect men, to arm and to attack those whom they know to be followers of the king's commands and who do not co-operate in the designs of the parliament, which has left it perfectly open to any one to vent their private grudges under this pretext. This takes away at once all security for property and for life also from the best conducted citizens who are left exposed to the capricious authority of soldiers and to other insolences. Even now many houses in the country and in this city have been visited, sacked and destroyed all together, and murmuring and outcries are heard in every direction.
To deliberate upon the most proper methods with which the king may deal with the wielding of his forces he has appointed a council of twenty-five lords, by whose prudent opinion he has arranged to regulate all his movements.
The first attempt against the town of Uls having proved unsuccessful the king is proceeding with less ardour in the siege. Perhaps he considers it useless to make any sort of experiment to reduce that place to submission by force.
They send word from York that the king's army is in process of uniting, that it will consist of 6000 horse and 14,000 infantry, all paid, besides other troops which will join it from the provinces. That of Wales with others is getting ready to serve and from Kent they hope for assistance of importance. But it is necessary to wait and learn from the proof whether these reports and hopes will be realised in deeds. In the mean time there seems no longer any room for doubt that arms and not negotiation must be the sole arbiter in these civil disputes.
The two ships expected have reached his Majesty from Holland. They bring munitions, arms, money, and many English captains, who have fought a long time in the armies of the Prince of Orange. It is expected that the Palatine Princes Rupert and Maurice may anchor at any moment in the ports of the north.
At Dunkirk it is said that a certain number of English soldiers is ready to embark. These, after having served under the flag of the Lords States, obtained their discharge and are crossing the sea to take service in the armies of his Majesty.
There is some rumour of a secret intelligence of the Prince of Orange in this mission, and that he has accommodated the queen of England with sums of ready money on condition that the Prince of Wales shall subsequently marry Orange's daughter. This project has been ventilated on previous occasions, but it may meet with difficulties.
The misgivings about the Scots are vanishing from the king's mind. These last days they have caused a declaration to be published, which they have had printed, in which they protest their readiness to obey and serve his Majesty and to defend his rights at all costs. On the other hand the Puritans here are trying to deprive this protestation of all credit, characterising it as a mere compliment rather than a resolute determination to advance the king's service and consequently for the effects of this deliberation as well as for the issue of so many movements it is necessary to await the event.
The French ambassador is proceeding to York. He says it is for the purpose of offering to the king fresh testimony of his service and if this proves acceptable, he asserts that he will continue his sojourn about the king, but if not he will take leave and take passage back to France with all his household. Reports issue from his house that he may be recalled in consequence of the complaints made by his Majesty, and also because his conduct in the exercise of this embassy has not met with the approval of the Most Christian, as he has conducted his affairs with the zeal of a good cavalier it may be, rather than with the circumspection of a cautious or sagacious minister.
The late order of parliament reported for putting in force the bill for the reform of the duties payable, although without his Majesty's consent, rather holds out inducements for its execution, than enjoins this under penalties, and consequently the article attached about currants is less likely to be acted upon as yet (invita piu tosto con vantaggi che constringa sotto rigore all' essecutione et per cio meno puo havere fin hora luogo quello delle uve passe ingionto). Meanwhile the declaration of the king that he will not consent to the bill in respect of what is right and my reasonable representations have proved so effectual that the merchants who are not interested in the moves of the ill disposed ones, convinced that his Majesty will not change his mind, have given fresh orders at Zante for the purchase this year of a quantity of that fruit and have also hired the ship Golden Fleece to lade them. This example of which I have not failed to make the most may stimulate others of the Company to send similar commissions and I hope that there will be a collapse of the efforts of those who, caring nothing for putting the public to inconvenience, are moved by their personal passions to try and upset that trade.
London, the 22nd August, 1642.
[Italian ; the part in italics deciphered.]
Aug. 23.
Senato, Secreta. Deliberazioni. Corti. Venetian Archives.
121. To the Ambassador in England.
Approval of his conduct and of his reply to the Imperial Resident's office in the name of Traumestorf. As regards the currants he is to try and discredit the efforts of the other side, and to back up the king's inclination to refuse his consent to the parliament bill, while showing appreciation of what his Majesty has already done. The affair merits all his application, both from the prejudicial consequences which he indicates and because of the diversion of trade in the Levant to transfer it to the Ragusans.
Enclose the usual sheet of advices.
Ayes 126. Noes 0. Neutral, 2.
Aug. 26.
Senato, Secreta. Dispacci, Francia. Venetian Archives.
122. Girolamo Giustinian, Venetian Ambassador in France, to the Doge and Senate.
The English have been very attentive to see whether Don Melzo will make some stroke at Cales, and they have shown themselves off these shores, sailing along the coast, under another pretext, to wit of the English ships recently taken by the Admiral of Holland and of some injuries inflicted on their fishermen. But actually their intention is to have an eye on any fresh move that might take place owing to the nearness of the Spanish army to Cales.
Paris, the 26th August, 1642.
Aug. 27.
Senato, Secreta. Dispacci, Haya. Venetian Archives.
123. Zuanne Zon, Venetian Secretary in the Netherlands, to the Doge and Senate.
The Palatine Princes Maurice and Rupert, before casting off from here, had news of the seizure of a ship which was taking their baggage and horses towards York, a thing done by Warwick's express command.
Sir [Thomas] Roe, the English Ambassador, has arrived from the Imperial Court. He went there, without success, about the Palatine's affairs. The States welcomed him with the usual formalities. He is now drawing up his report, and will proceed in a few days to his master's Court. Meanwhile he will consult with the Prince about the interests of the king and try to obtain some definite declaration in favour of his Majesty. During this time the queen continues to send provisions of war to the royal camp, and ceaselessly points out to the Prince her need of obtaining covertly some powerful assistance for her husband.
The English merchants, foreseeing the great peril to which their goods will be exposed if the king comes to open war with the parliament, are trying to secure their capital by frequent remittances and very large sums in cash, which they transmit secretly to this country.
The Prince Palatine arrived unexpectedly this morning from England. It is not yet known what induced him to take this sudden step, or how long he will stay in this country.
The Hague, the 27th August, 1642.
Postscript : I hear that the Prince Palatine has come to take back the queen to England. Some say it is in order to escape the embarrassments of imminent war and to leave his brothers free to devote themselves to that affair without other preoccupation. I hope to send more precise information in my next.
Aug. 29.
Senato, Secreta. Deliberazioni. Corti. Venetian Archives.
124. To the Ambassador in England.
To take advantage of the season and prepare to leave as soon as possible for Vienna. To take leave of his Majesty in a suitable manner telling him that he has terminated his ministry and that he has instructions to proceed to Germany ; but that an ambassador has been chosen to succeed him who will arrive at the earliest possible moment, to maintain the cordial relations of the past, and that meanwhile the Secretary Agostini will take take charge and do what is necessary.
The ambassador is to present the secretary to his Majesty and leave him furnished with the necessary instructions. More especially he must be fully informed upon the affair of the currants and of the importance of preventing any sort of prejudiced or hostile bill (contrario decreto).
The ambassador will take the shortest and safest route to his destination. His instructions are enclosed together with his letters of credence. The secretary's treatment is to be the same as was decided by decree of the Senate of the 24th August, 1640, when it was decided to send Giustinian to Vienna.
Acknowledge his letters of the 8th inst. Commend his reply to the letters of the Secretary of State. The Signory's information concerning the man arrested and punished by the magistracy contro Biastemmia is utterly different from what the secretary states. The Senate has supplied the ambassador with full particulars with which he will be able to satisfy the secretary. Enclose the usual sheet of advices.
That the noble Vicenzo Contarini, ambassador elect to England, be summoned to the Collegio and that he be instructed to set about making his preparations for that embassy.
Ayes, 140. Noes, 4. Neutral, 11.
125. To the Secretary at the Hague.
We have word from England of some affair resulting in the mutual seizure of English and Dutch ships in those waters and in the very ports, to the prejudice and interruption of trade. He is to watch closely the sequence of events in this matter and to advise the Senate thereof with his usual diligence.
Ayes, 140. Noes, 4. Neutral, 11.
Aug. 29.
Senato, Secreta. Dispacci, Inghilterra. Venetian Archives.
126. Giovanni Giustinian, Venetian Ambassador in England, to the Doge and Senate.
After the failure of all his Majesty's attempts to bring back the dissident parliamentarians to the path of duty, he has decided out of consideration for his own safety, to appeal to the sword. He has announced by proclamation that on Monday the 1st of next month he will proceed to the town of Nottingham, 100 miles from here, and there display the royal standard, that is to say the sign by which English monarchs in the past have been accustomed to summon their subjects to their defence in case of need. He states in his declaration that certain persons, moved by ambition to command, stirred by hate for his person and government, have united forces and are marching against him. To justify this unlawful step they use falsely the royal name, and pretend to be acting for his service and that of the parliament. Under such artful titles they have broken the public peace and exposed the kingdom to a ruinous civil war. He announces his determination to suppress these rebels swiftly, before they increase their strength and following. He invokes the help of God Almighty and that of his people also. He invites all true Protestants, specially those who live more than 30 miles from this city, to supply him with men, money and arms and bring them speedily to his camp. He enlarges upon the justice of his cause, which he protests is bound up with that of religion, the public liberty and the privileges of parliament. His Majesty declares war on them also and the eyes of the universe are now fixed on the result of such a momentous step.
The king has strictly forbidden all Catholics to serve in his army for the purpose of dissipating the hateful hints which are designedly made against him, namely that he was conspiring with the Catholics and was cherishing secret designs in his heart to rule his people absolutely with the help of their forces.
Parliament, for its part, continues to devote great energy to providing for the requirements of the war and it bestows the utmost attention in particular upon increasing the number of its troops. It causes a report to be circulated that it will have 22,000 infantry and 4000 horse, and that within the space of two weeks the earl of Essex will march to where the king is, with the bulk of them, to secure the evil councillors whom his Majesty keeps about him. This is a well worn pretext, behind which they disclose these movements of their forces (titolo vecchio et sotto cui si scuoprino questi movimenti d' armi).
In the villages contiguous to this city they have provided quarters for soldiery. These with their constant licentiousness and robberies, play havoc at the same time with the public peace and with private security, amid a universal feeling of resentment. With respect to the condition of his Majesty's forces the letters from York confirm that they consist of 6000 cavalry, all of the most flourishing nobility, and 20,000 men on foot. They will have leaders of experience and courage ; but here many believe that the numbers of the infantry will be greatly inferior, as they are persuaded that with the major portion of the common people obstinate adherents of Puritanism they will tend to back parliament's claims rather than those of his Majesty (ma qui molti credono che il numero dell' infanteria sara minore assai persuadendosi che la maggiore portione della minuta gente professando ostinatamente il Puritanismo sia per contribuire alla grandezza del parlamento piu tosto che a quella di Sua Maesta) ; and so it is necessary to wait for experience to supply more certain knowledge of particulars of such importance.
At the end of three days the earl of Northampton reduced the town of Bamberi to submission to the king, and he has since proceeded to the siege of Waruich, which is in the same province and belongs to Baron Bruch, one of the most seditious of the parliamentarians. But there he has met with a stout resistance from that commander and so far all his efforts to capture it have proved fruitless. Upon the receipt of this report they sent from here men, guns and twenty cart loads of munitions to the relief of that little place, and it is presumed that on the arrival of this reinforcement Nortampton will be obliged to withdraw, leaving that town as well as the people of the place firm in their adhesion to this side.
Two companies of horse were sent two days ago to search the country house of the earl of Dorset, who is with the king. There they arrested and imprisoned the custodian, taking away all the arms and other private stores which were found there, under the pretext that they were destined for his Majesty's service, (fn. 2) and at present there is no place where anything is safe from the violence and rapine of the soldiery. Thus in the county of Buckingham the partisans of parliament took prisoner and brought here yesterday to the Tower the earl of Barchsier, father of Viscount Dandovert, ambassador elect to your Serenity, merely upon the suspicion that with secret designs he was forwarding the interests of his Majesty (che egli con secreta intentione favorisce gli interessi di Sua Maesta).
General the earl of Betford is drawing near to Porsmoud with 500 horse and they circulate a report that he has occupied all the approaches to that fortress without meeting with any opposition, and that he has since captured the bridge and a redoubt which defended it. (fn. 3) He is now engaged in preventing the entry of provisions by land, while the ships of the fleet keep the sea approaches closed, and they hold out hopes that in a few days the commander there will be compelled by necessity to deliver the fortress into the hands of parliament. The parliamentarians make the most of this prosperous news for the purpose of encouraging the people about here, but better authenticated information is awaited, as men of good judgment cannot persuade themselves that a well trained and trusted commander like Colonel Gorin would, at the expense of his reputation, allow the enemy to push forward to such an extent with such scanty forces unless perchance he has changed his mind and is once more estranged from his Majesty, as this people is wont to do frequently, among whom the most dependable quality is the absence of faith (non potendosi persuadere gl' uomini sensati che il Colonel Gorin, capo ben disciplinato et di credito, habbia a spese della propria riputatione lasciato avanzare tant' oltre l' inimico con si poche forze quando per avventura mutato parere non si sia di nuovo alienato da Sua Maesta, come ben spesso far suole questa natione, fra cui la piu sicura fede e il mancar di fede).
Before declaring war his Majesty proclaimed the earl of Essex and all his followers rebels, with offer of a free pardon to one and the other if within the space of six days they would lay down their arms and come over to his side. Parliament was marvellously stirred by this declaration and riposted with another public decree of the most licentious and audacious description. In this they declare the king's paper to be scandalous, the work of unfaithful councillors. They threaten with severe penalties those who drew it up ; protest that they will defend and sustain Essex with the fortunes and lives of all the parliamentarians, and subsequently make the offer that if the king is ready to disband all the forces which he has collected, to allow the councillors reputed guilty to be punished, to submit absolutely to the opinions of parliament, they will take steps to elevate the greatness of his Majesty and of his posterity to a level with that of the most powerful princes in the world. These last offers, extensive as they are, everyone recognises to be merely a trick devised to conceal under vague insinuations the ambition and self interest which govern their present action.
After prolonged disputes they have deprived the mayor of this city of his office and condemned him to imprisonment until further order from the parliament. They have put in his place another individual, a Professed Puritan, an inexorable persecutor of the royal greatness. (fn. 4) These sentiments rather than his own true interest have persuaded him to accept the office and expose himself to the chances which the humours of the present time may bring forth. The change is exceedingly distasteful to the Protestant citizens, but as the other party has the upper hand they must needs store up their just resentment in their hearts in prudent silence and wait for some opportunity favourable enough to make them sure of vengeance for the injuries of which they are sensible (Molesta assai gionge a borghesi protestanti questa novita, ma prevalendo il partito contrario convengono con prudente silentio conservar dentro il cuore le loro giuste acerbita, et attendere quelle occasione che valere possono a procurarsi con sicura mosso la vendetta delle pretese ingiurie).
News comes that in the northern waters the fleet has engaged some Dutch ships which were bringing munitions to the king, and one has been sunk. It is feared that the Palatine Princes Rupert and Maurice were on board with other cavaliers, and better authenticated information is impatiently awaited.
It is confirmed that out of consideration for the resentment of his Majesty, reported, the Most Christian has recalled his ambassador here. Nevertheless that minister has not yet taken leave of the king, but sensitive over this command and in the interests of his reputation he has sent his gentleman to France for the purpose of obtaining approval for his action and at the same time to delay the instructions for his removal. To facilitate these results he has contrived to get the parliamentarians, leaders of the Puritan party and his friends, to give him a promise that if Don Francesco Melo advances to the attack of the fortress of Cales, they will send the fleet to the defence of the place and to resist any attempt made by the Spaniards. The ambassador has sent word of this to the king, his master, in the assurance that such an important declaration will serve to make him realise the advantages which the interests of France will derive from the continued sojourn of this minister in England.
The Prince Palatine has proceeded from York to Oatlands, but the real motives from this unexpected move have not yet transpired. It is said that he has gone away ill pleased with the king because his Majesty did not admit him to a place of confidence in his counsels and further because he did not select him for such employment in the present business of war as he may perchance have considered his due. By this time he will have arrived at the Hague and your Excellencies will have further information from the Secretary Zon.
Meanwhile the idea that is getting abroad that the relations between the Prince and his Majesty are strained places the former at an increasing disadvantage in his dealings with the Austrians. The Catholic ambassador and the imperial resident here assert that the emperor's decree for fresh negotiations at Genoa upon the affairs of that house will not be carried into effect, intimating, as I have written before, that it was issued merely as a matter of courtesy and in order to display to the king here as well as to Germany the sincere desire of Caesar for the well being of these sovereigns and for the quiet of that province.
When I returned the visit of the Spanish ambassador two days ago, he asked me when I was going to Vienna. I replied cautiously that the upset here had delayed my departure, and that I did not know when I could leave this Court. He lowered his voice and said : The emperor and the king, my master, have demonstrated their perfect good will towards the Palatine House. On our side everything possible has been done to procure satisfaction, but the interests of the other parties concerned and the present state of England have prevented the good intentions of the king, my master, from being carried into effect, and I do not believe there will be any more negotiations upon this affair for a long while. As I made no reply to this he began to talk to me about the present moves of the pope against the duke of Parma.
London, the 29th August, 1642.
[Italian ; the part in italics deciphered.]


  • 1. See Somerset Arch. Soc., Vol. XIV, pages 56—68. The person arrested was William Strode, at Shepton Mallet, on 1—11 August. The action at Wells took place on the 4—14.
  • 2. Knole House in Kent, searched on the 14—24 August. V. Sackville-West : Knole and the Sackvilles, pages 101—3.
  • 3. By a night attack on the 22nd the Parliament forces captured the bridge connecting Portsea Island with the mainland, together with most of the island. Gates : Hist. of Portsmouth, page 250.
  • 4. Sir Isaac Pennington. Gurney was sentenced on the 22nd.