Venice: October 1642, 1-15

Pages 164-175

Calendar of State Papers Relating To English Affairs in the Archives of Venice, Volume 26, 1642-1643. Originally published by His Majesty's Stationery Office, London, 1925.

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October 1642, 1-15

Oct. 1.
Senato, Secreta. Dispacci, Signori Stati. Venetian Archives.
148. Zuanne Zon, Venetian Secretary in the Netherlands, to the Doge and Senate.
The government has not yet made any reply to the parliament commissioner, who continues his stay here with the full approbation of the populace. He has not pressed for one, and seems confidant that his requests will profit by the queen's absence. The Hollanders support him with drawn sword, favouring his offices very warmly and careless about offending the queen, for whom they express scant respect, although they strike her supporters to the quick. Her Majesty seems to have recognised the impossibility of obtaining any adequate assistance here, and she inclines to go straight to Paris. Her brother, the Most Christian, has invited her, expressing his regret at the misfortunes which surround her on every side and pressing her with the utmost affection to come to France without delay. She has decided to make the journey by land, as being less exposed to some mishap. But before she leaves this state the queen wants to await the return of the gentleman sent to the Court, for the reply of the Bishop of Angouleme, who has been negotiating for some time with the Cardinal, of whose intentions her Majesty is impatiently awaiting an exact account so that she may arrange her plans with the prince.
The military provisions for the King of England, seized by the Hollanders at the instance of the parliament commissioner, as well as the 200 soldiers have since been taken across in small barques secretly. The Council of State held a long enquiry in order to give time for the passage of the troops, and found it expedient to procrastinate the execution of the sentence, cloaking it with a show of reason in order to appease the Hollanders, who pressed for an exemplary punishment with extraordinary zeal.
200 soldiers who tried to leave Dunkirk to proceed to Spain, were utterly discomfited by the Admiral of their Fleet here. The Hollanders offer the strongest opposition to fresh proposals of the Assembly General for the prompt despatch of the embassy extraordinary to England. They want it to remain in abeyance until some uncertain event there, which is announced here, has been cleared up, and until an exact account arrives from the ordinary ambassador in England of the precise state of affairs there just now.
The Hague, the 1st October, 1642.
Oct. 3.
Senato, Secreta. Dispacci, Inghilterra. Venetian Archives.
149. Giovanni Giustinian, Venetian Ambassador in England, to the Doge and Senate.
General the earl of Essex still clings fast to his original quarters at Nortanton, and without devoting his attention to any enterprise he is busily engaged in assembling the troops who are destined to unite with him. These increase in numbers with every day although they do not improve in quality, and make more and more apparent to the eyes of the generality the strength of these forces while adding to the prestige of the party of the malcontents. By letters written to the parliament and to this city the general has acquainted them with the state of the army and expressed his confident expectation of bringing to a successful issue the enterprises which he undertakes. He asks them to despatch to him without delay 100,000l. sterling to meet the expenses of the army and declares that unless this assistance is promptly supplied he will not be able to move a step forward or even to provide for the more important requirements of these forces. He protests that if their daily pay is not supplied to the troops it is to be feared that they will desert their banners and if this should happen it will prove a difficult task subsequently to collect a new body of troops equally numerous. He points out the necessity of keeping them content and of dealing cautiously with them, and that he cannot enforce the strict rules of discipline or of arbitrary command with this peasant soldiery, such as are usual for keeping in hand other armies, composed of many nations, from fear lest the use of severity might afford occasion for mutinies or other harmful licence, as regards which it appears that the generality are not entirely free from misgivings.
The demand for so considerable a sum of money has filled their minds with just apprehension, after the general had taken away with him last week the pay of the whole army for a month, and has given rise to mutterings that owing to the inner promptings of avarice, he is studying rather to increase his own profit than to secure advantage to the cause of his associates. However, as it does not seem desirable to afford him fresh cause for discontent, they have put this consideration on one side and it has even been decided to meet his demands promptly.
To this end they have preferred a request to the city of London for a new loan, they have imposed upon all the inhabitants, without distinction, the obligation to contribute sums of ready money, every man in accordance with his means, and all this is destined to meet the requirements of the war, upon which, the treasurers assert, they will be spending 15,000l. sterling a day. As it is impossible to support so great an expenditure for long, parliament will be compelled, in order to go on, to have recourse to heavier impositions to meet the requirements and men of most experience predict that under the burden of greater charges it will not be possible for them to restrain the people within the limits of their present moderation, but that they will throw patience to the winds and give rein to acts of violence such as England has never seen. For this reason everything goes to show that time alone can provide the sure remedy for restoring this kingdom to its original state of tranquillity. In the meantime the less violent among the parliamentarians and those who have not the management of money, perceiving these difficulties to be insuperable and the disadvantages to which delays may give rise, have persuaded parliament by urgent representations to bring determined pressure upon Essex to cut short the period for the marching of the army and to draw near to his Majesty's forces.
Impelled by such incitements even those who in their own interests are seeking to prolong the course of these troubles, have concurred in the opinion to send two members of parliament to the general in the capacity of deputies with instructions to induce him to march forward with expedition. They have seized the opportunity of this mission to send him orders of the manner in which he should regulate his movements, and they have granted him the powers he asked for to introduce and establish negotiations for an adjustment with his Majesty, though he is formally forbidden to grant pardon, by virtue of any engagement soever, to some forty individuals, alleged criminals, for having with proofs of loyalty and obedience assisted his Majesty. Among these are comprised the first lords of the realm and the most accredited ministers and officers of the Court, who, for the most part, are also members of parliament. Everyone is agreed that the king will not consent to such ignominious conditions : so that if parliament, on its part, does not give way from the severity of this proposal, every sign vanishes that these civil discords can be settled by a composition in a friendly manner, and it is freely stated that the royalists, impelled by apprehensions for their own safety will oblige his Majesty to look to the tribunal of arms alone for the favourable sentence which so just a cause merits (et si parli francamente che costretti li realisti dall' apprehensione della propria salvezza obligarono Sua Maesta di aspettare dot solo tribunale dell' armi la favorevole sentenza che merita causa si giusta).
Few think, however, that the general will undertake to march with the promptitude that is desired here, but because of the considerations reported he will delay it as long as possible, and consequently the return of the deputies is awaited with curiosity to know what exactly he has decided to do, and his resolutions should furnish the king and his partisans with the most useful and apposite deliberations (le quali doverano ammunire il Re et li partiali suoi alle piu utili et aggiustati deliberationi).
In order not to leave Essex with absolute authority in negotiating and the direction of the war they have appointed for him a council of fifteen of the interested parliamentarians. These hold their office with the obligation to take their measures in accordance with what is held to be most advisable by a majority of those appointed.
After visiting the county of d' Arbi his Majesty proceeded to the district of Stafford and continued his march to the town of Sirosberi. As this is only a short distance from the province of Wales, this move gives credit to the opinion that if he cannot maintain his position in the face of the enemy, he contemplates throwing himself into that strong country and subsequently follow such course as circumstances may indicate to be most opportune for his service.
It is impossible to report with any certainty upon the state of the king's forces or upon the more secret intentions locked up in his breast as parliament has not permitted the letters from the Court to be distributed this week, having seized them all ; nevertheless, it is stated that these last days a long consultation was held in the presence of his Majesty upon the question of this most deplorable crisis. At this some of the councillors pointed out to him without restraint the inconveniences and the perils which men may see amid the contingencies of the war to the prejudice of the royal person and his posterity, and they urged him forcibly to come to terms without tempting fortune any longer in the unhappy state of these times, and to give way to the rebellious parliamentarians. That his Majesty listened to representations of this character with attention and approval and they had aroused in his mind a disposition to adopt their opinion as the less troublesome and safer course. But soon afterwards those who have no hope of safety if the present parliament endures, being warned of this, succeeded by solid arguments in inducing him to give up any such idea, making him see that it would be disastrous to himself as well as to all his followers, and succeeded in stirring him to pursue with a high spirit the course originally laid down (che il tenore di tali uffitii udite dalla Maesta Sua con attention et favorevole orecchio gli havesse introdotta le dispositions di piegar a questo parere come meno travaglioso et piu sicuro. Ma che poco dopo avvertiti quelli, i quali sperare non possono la salute nella susistenza del presente parlamento l' habbino con solide ragioni divertito da questo consiglio, facendogli conoscere rovinoso a se stesso non meno che a tutti li seguaci, l' habbino animati a proseguire con cuore generoso il corso dei primi proponimenti).
It is asserted that the gentlemen who advised peace, incensed at such inconstancy, contemplate withdrawing from his service, while the others, for their part, having their suspicions aroused that they may be miserably abandoned by some unexpected resolution, are tormented and harassed by the greatest perplexity, not knowing what measures to take to protect their interests with any security.
Such are the reports put about by the parliamentarians here ; but they may be distorted by prejudice and we long for news from Court to find out how much there is in these statements.
Meanwhile reports from every quarter announce the disposition of the people of Wales to supply vigorous assistance to his Majesty, and they have despatched 1000 dragoons with all speed in that direction, with instructions to put a restraint upon the most zealous and to compel the rest of the people there, who are the most warlike in the kingdom, to put away this idea and to submit quietly and obediently to parliament. If the results anticipated are secured it will utterly extinguish the king's hopes of assistance from that quarter, upon which he has built the most solid foundations for his operations of war and as a retreat in the case of the last extremity.
In the county of York the governor of Uls, supported by the garrison and another corps of the Puritans there keeps the Earl of Cumberland constantly busy, who commands the royal forces in that county and the city of York itself, where the little duke, the king's second son is staying, is not without apprehension of the movements of that commander.
The earl of Betford, general of the cavalry, has given up all thought of besieging Serborn castle and has since led his troops to Nortampton, for the purpose of adding to the strength and credit of the parliamentary forces. The Marquis of Erford, on the other side, accompanied by 600 horse and other troops on foot, is marching to join his Majesty's army.
It being impossible to meet the ordinary requirements of civil justice for lack of the great seal, it has been proposed in parliament but not yet carried, to have a seal made with a declaration which invalidates everything which has been sealed by his Majesty hitherto and which will be in the future. If this is acted upon it will afford fresh occasions for disorders and deprive the king of what is left him of credit and authority.
In Ireland the rebels, profiting by these differences, have set up a parliament of all the lords and the Catholic populace, which conspires with them, excluding the Protestants. This body is conducting the affairs of their party and is labouring to reduce the Scottish forces and the others which have been sent to defend the island. They have recently cut in pieces 700 of General Lesle's men and forced him to escape for refuge to a wood. These successes are unpleasant hearing for them here and being unable to repair these disasters by resolute measures they have decided to send thither two members of parliament with the title of commissioners, to be present at these deplorable events.
They talk of sending Mr. Oge in the capacity of Agent to the Court of France, but the decision is still subject to revision in their debates (ma la deliberatione rimane ancora sotto la censura delle consulte). It is feared that he may not be admitted by the king there, and for this reason I understand that orders have been sent to France to endeavour tactfully to discover the sentiments and intentions of Cardinal de Richelieu.
London, the 3rd October, 1642.
[Italian ; the part in italics deciphered.]
Oct. 8.
Senato, Secreta. Dispacci, Signori Stati. Venetian Archives.
150. Zuanne Zon, Venetian Secretary in the Netherlands, to the Doge and Senate.
The States General are witholding their reply to the parliament commissioner, because they want to give one agreeable to the Prince of Orange, who is trying to have it kept back until he returns from the field. But the Hollanders strongly condemn the delay, and are incensed, saying that he wants to induce the ministers to come to some decision favouring the queen. They loudly protest that it does not behove the Prince to meddle so much, and that he ought to limit his authority, as in time past. Yet the Amsterdammers seem somewhat disposed to favour the king, and try to send him abundant provisions under another name. They announce themselves favourable to his Majesty's cause, more for gain than affection.
The government has not yet sent any reply to the despatch of Joachimi, representing the present state of affairs in England, and urging the despatch of the embassy extraordinary. The Countess of Richmond, the old governess of the young princess royal here, has left for England. They have given her a certain Dame Stanop, a dependant of the House of Orange. (fn. 1) The girl does not like her, and on this ground also she has stirred up her former rancour against her mother in law, speaking very bitterly, showing publicly her private passion and extreme dissatisfaction.
The Hague, the 8th October, 1642.
Oct. 10.
Senato, Secreta. Dispacci, Inghilterra. Venetian. Archives.
151. Giovanni Giustinian, Venetian Ambassador in England, to the Doge and Senate.
The despatch of the commissioners reported and the news that has reached general the earl of Essex unexpectedly that the king's army is daily growing larger has admonished him to leave his quarters of idleness at Nortanton and to advance rapidly with the whole army in order not to allow his Majesty time to increase his forces without opposition, and also, by the terror of his arms, to prevent many individuals, who are secretly predisposed to follow the fortunes of their prince and are eagerly longing for an opportunity, from having time to declare themselves with safety. Accordingly Essex set out on Friday in the present week, and arriving at the town of Coventre, which unreservedly (senza riguardo) takes the parliament's side, he there picked up some regiments which were waiting for him, and afterwards proceeded to Uster, which is only 20 miles away from Sirosberi, which at present is the place d' armes where his Majesty is assembling his forces. Before his arrival and by another route they secretly despatched in that direction young Baron Se, one of the leading men among the malcontents, accompanied by 4000 men and more, for the purpose of taking by surprise Colonel Biron, who with only 600 cavalry of the king was in charge of that place. But it so happened that he was warned beforehand of the intentions of the enemy, and without losing time he prepared a stout resistance to their attack, until, the news that he was hard pressed reached Prince Rupert, who was able to hasten to his assistance with a strong force of cavalry, as he promptly did. Biron sustained the first attacks with great spirit, and when the Prince arrived subsequently he charged the hostile squadrons so furiously that with many leaders slain and the loss of 800 men the remainder were obliged to seek safety in a disorderly flight. (fn. 2) But after this the Prince considered it the wisest course to abandon that city, which is destitute of fortifications, in order not to expose the cavalry at a disadvantage to the proof of a battle against the major portion of the parliamentary army, which arrived there a few hours later.
In the melee Prince Maurice was slightly wounded in the hand, and both the Palatines, Kupert in particular, to the terror of the enemy, gave fresh proofs of their great courage and have won the universal applause of all those who desire to see the royal arms successful.
In this city, on the other hand, the news of this disaster is very ill hearing and has intensified the bitter feeling against the Palatines among the parliamentarians. They are trying by the employment of vigorous demonstrations to keep the loss thus suffered as secret as possible from the people, in order not to deprive their party of that degree of reputation, in which their anchors are most firmly fixed to sustain them until the complete accomplishment of those most far reaching designs, to which these rebels aspire (si procura coll' uso di vigorose dimostrationi tenir quanto si possa secreto a popoli il danno di questa pendenza, per non toqliere al partito quei gradi di riputatione sopra cui restano gettati l' ancore piu ferine di sostenere sino alla perfettione le machine di altissimi disegni a quali aspirano li seditiosi).
Essex has informed parliament by letter of the progress of his march, and has sent to ask that his forces may be increased by the addition of 6000 men more, as he does not consider himself strong enough as yet to engage the forces of his Majesty. He himself admits that these are increasing and that the king is more powerful than was at first believed. For this reason they never cease here beating the drum for recruits at all hours, nor do they relax in making every possible effort to collect fresh troops and more money, everyone being obliged, sometimes by violent means, to the prompt payment of ready money, or in default of this to make a deposit of plate, an action which gives cause for resentment and murmuring among the disinterested, who are intent rather upon amassing than upon being fleeced.
The reluctance to take up arms against his Majesty is becoming increasingly apparent among several of the leaders of the cavalry and among the soldiery desertion is frequent. News comes that it is now a common saying among the troops that they took service under this flag on condition of serving the king no less than parliament, both equally, from which men of experience foresee that it will not be easy for the general to lead them to fight against the troops of his Majesty if that becomes necessary. This is a consideration of great importance which causes much apprehension to the authors of these movements. It now appears that their first hopes of reducing the king without trouble and by the use of force being diminished, they are devoting their attention to harassing him by tiring him out (s' applichi di presente il pensiero ad incommodarlo col tedio del tempo), in the persuasion that he is not furnished with enough money to support his army for long, though hitherto he has paid it with the utmost punctuality and it is perfectly contented.
Agitated by these misgivings the parliamentarians have had printed the petition which Essex has orders to present to his Majesty. This, with great address preserving the forms of the utmost respect, tries to make it appear that the moves of the rebels are guided entirely by nothing but zeal for the preservation of religion for themselves, for the country, its liberties and its ancient rights and justice, and for the king the splendour of his own greatness. (fn. 3) They hope that these specious titles will make a great impression upon the minds of the people and persuade the soldiery to strike with bold hearts in the defence of their cause. I enclose a translation of this petition.
To those parliamentarians who are at present following his Majesty and who have not been declared proscribed as enemies of the state, parliament has offered pardon by proclamation if within ten days they will abandon the royal side and return to take part in the debates, but we do not hear that this invitation has persuaded anyone up to the present.
The minds of the parliamentarians are struck with no little apprehension by the certainty that the Most Christian king has granted to the queen permission to proceed to France to take refuge from the calamities of the present troubles, and for this reason they have decided to send the Sieur de Oger to that Court, and he will start next week. He asserts, however, that he is going in a private capacity, but that he has commissions to see the Cardinal de Richelieu, to whom he is known and a friend from having served there previously in the capacity of Agent for this crown. His offices will be directed to insinuate the goodwill of parliament towards the interests of France with the object of diverting them from helping the royal cause, it being suspected that their influential offices may possibly induce the Scots to take up his Majesty's cause in sympathy with a public declaration (sospettandosi che gli uffitii autorevoli suoi possino disponere Scozzesi ad abbracciare concordemente con pubblichi dichiarationi il partito di Sua Maesta).
In the mean time his Majesty devotes himself with untiring application to every point of his own service and lives in constant activity. From the town of Sirosberi with a following of only two companies of horse as a guard for his royal person and that of the prince, whom he keeps always at his side, he proceeded to Vorghentanson and there took away arms from some of the inhabitants suspected of being adherents of the contrary party. After that he made an expeditious journey to Chiester, a city of a wide circuit, situated in the most remote part of England towards the sea. The people there received him with the most public demonstrations of approval and respect, and as a greater proof of their obedience, they promptly assigned for his service 2000 men on foot. After the assembling of those who were already equipped and the arrival of 200 horses laden with arms and munitions which are expected from Newcastle, the king will be leaving that place to return to Sirosberi or wherever the requirements of his own interests show him that his presence is most desirable.
The greater portion of the army is about this same place of Sirosberi. It is composed of 5000 horse, picked men, well armed and inspired to uphold the royal fortunes at the price of their blood. He has 1000 dragoons, 9000 to 10,000 infantry, many leaders of credit and 20 pieces of artillery including some large siege pieces, in fact his Majesty suffers from no lack of all the other provisions which may be required to resist the forces of the enemy or to carry out any enterprise on his own account.
They send word from the Court that these forces will not be increased because they do not wish to multiply expense without need. It is stated that the military commanders consider this body of troops sufficient to thwart the designs of the dissident party, whose army, though much more numerous is admitted by everybody to be of inferior quality, lacking in leaders and it is not considered capable either from inclination or from valour to venture itself in battle (affermandosi che li capi da guerra giudichino questo corpo di gente bastante ad impedire li disegni del partito dissidente, il cui esercito, se bene piu numeroso, ogn' uno confessa essere di qualita inferiore, mancare di capi, ne credersi capace per indinatione o per valore di commetlersi alia battaglia).
Such is the news which falls to us this week from the skies and which causes a revival of the hopes of many that in addition to the advantage of justice, which is clearly on the king's side, may be added that of material success as well, but time alone can decide this since affairs here are only too subject to change.
Following upon the request which the king made to me through the Secretary of State, as I reported, the queen has sent to me from Holland a small letter for his Majesty, asking me to forward it. After reflection I decided to send a gentleman to Court, ostensibly to ask for an audience, by whom I sent the letter. He is back today and reports that he found his Majesty at Chiester, very cheerful (allegra assai), with a numerous Court, highly popular (acclamato grandemenie) with the people there as well as with all who live more than 70 miles from this city. He had seen the army which was in good order and provided with everything it needs. He delivered the letter and was warmly thanked. He received in return a letter for the queen and one for me in the king's own hand, of which I send a translation. The letter for the queen will be sent to-day by the ordinary, with every precaution.
The secretary told my gentleman that he could not yet give me time and place for an audience. The king himself does not know where he will be staying, and it will depend upon Essex, but I hope to have it in a few weeks and I will then represent to the king the mischief that will be done by the order about currants.
I have received the state's instructions to inform the king of the confederation with the Grand Duke and the Duke of Modena. (fn. 4) The Secretary Agostini will proceed to Holland as directed.
London, the 10th October, 1642.
[Italian ; the part in italics deciphered.]
Enclosure. 152. Petition of the Lords and Commons of the Parliament of England, sent by Mr. Phillip Stapilton to the Earl of Essex, who is to present it to his Majesty. (fn. 5)
[Italian, from the English ; 6 pages.]
153. The King to Giovanni Giustinian, Venetian Ambassador.
Thanks for taking charge of the letter from the queen. Begs him to send her the enclosed. Ashamed that cannot at present respond to his courtesies, but hopes to have an opportunity of proving his true friendship.
Chester, the 25th September, 1642.
[Copy ; Italian, from the English.]
Oct. 11.
Senato, Secreta. Deliberazioni. Corti. Venetian Archives.
154. To the Ambassador in England.
Enclose letter for his Majesty for his leave taking. This is unusual, but it is better to err on the side of effusiveness in view of what he represents. Acknowledge his letters of the 12th and 19th ult. the latter with an account of the new efforts of the Levant Company about the currants. If their action has served to stop those who were about to send ships to the islands to take this cargo, it will not have sufficed, at least to stay the orders which have already gone forth. Confide in his efforts to prevent worse mischief and to discredit this fresh ebullition of the interested parties as well as all the reports they spread, more especially the one that owing to the inconvenience created the Signory will yield anything of its rights in the matter of law or the duties. It is far from being the state's intention, for this or any other respect, to take away what has been imposed, which is bound up with the maintenance of the revenues and of the public duties, which it is the duty of princes to uphold and to enforce with all vigour. For the rest it is conceded and every effort is made that those interested shall find in the said islands every facility for despatch and in every other circumstance that may serve to induce them to come and trade, as is fitting, in addition to their own interest in doing so. This much will suffice to indicate the line of action he is to follow. He is to leave the Secretary Agostini fully instructed about the affair. Express appreciation of his services and the public satisfaction.
Ayes, 73. Noes, 0. Neutral, 26.
155. To the King of Great Britain.
Giovanni Giustinian, after serving the republic as ambassador to your Majesty for a long term has instructions to proceed to the emperor, this having been decided many months ago. He will take leave of your Majesty and express our regard and our desire for the prosperity of your house and person. A new ambassador has been chosen and will arrive soon to testify the same. In the mean time our secretary Gerolamo Agostini will take charge. Compliments.
Ayes, 73. Noes, 0. Neutral, 26.
Oct. 15.
Senato, Secreta. Dispacci, Signori Stati. Venetian Archives.
156. Zuanne Zon, Venetian Secretary in the Netherlands, to the Doge and Senate.
The States keep delaying their reply to the parliament commissioner. The Hollanders, having dissolved their Assembly to meet again in a few days, have assured him of their definite intention not to allow merchants to export military provisions to England in the future, under any pretext soever. This is the principal question with which he is concerned and on which he makes strong representations to this state.
The duke of Richmond, one of the leaders of the royal party, a kinsman of the king and popular with the whole Court, has come over furtively, fearing that his Majesty will have to give way to parliament in the end. He crossed in a small barque, laden with minerals. It is said he had a passport from the earl of Essex, commander in chief of the parliamentary forces.
The Bishop of Angoulême is expected in a day or two, with information of the Cardinal's views upon the queen going to Paris. Although everyone thinks that in response to her brother's invitation she ought to leave for France very soon, yet the wisest do not credit it at all, because from those who are in the secret they understand that her Majesty hopes to serve her interests by some operations here, or that some openings will occur soon for an adjustment with her House, so she wants to remain at the Hague for some time yet. Her eldest son, the Prince of Wales, is to come very soon, and possibly his younger brothers as well, in order to escape the violence of their opponents in case their father should chance to suffer the extreme misfortune in battle.
The Hague, the 15th October, 1642.
Oct. 11.
Senato, Secreta. Deliberazioni. Corti. Venetian Archives.
157. To the Ambassador in England.
Commend his action about the currants. The consideration in his letter of the 26th ult. about the necessity in which the ships will find themselves on their return from Constantinople of being left without any other cargo should serve as a strong inducement to restore the trade. It cannot be long before the result of this is seen. For the rest there is nothing to add. Promise to take into consideration the expenses incurred by him in his journey to the Imperial Court. Enclose the usual sheet of advices.
Ayes, 88. Noes, 0. Neutral, 3.


  • 1. Catherine, widow of Henry lord Stanhope who in 1641 had married Jan van der Kerkhoven, lord of Heenvliet, who had arranged the English marriage.
  • 2. Fight at Powick Bridge on the 3rd October.
  • 3. The petition was voted on the 21 Sept.-1 Oct. Journals of the House of Commons, Vol. II, page 775.
  • 4. Signed at Venice on the 31st August, to check the encroachments of the Barberini. Siri : Mercurio Vol. II, page 851.
  • 5. The text is printed in Journals of the House of Commons, Vol. II, page 776. The order for publication was passed on the 26th Sept., o.s., id. page 782.