Venice: March 1643

Pages 247-259

Calendar of State Papers Relating To English Affairs in the Archives of Venice, Volume 26, 1642-1643. Originally published by His Majesty's Stationery Office, London, 1925.

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March 1643

March 4.
Senato, Secreta. Dispacci, Haya. Venetian Archives.
236. Zuanne Zon, Venetian Secretary at the Hague, to the Doge and Senate.
The queen of England left for Newcastle five days ago. The States of Holland after seizing her ship with military provisions, let it go at her request, and the two parliament ships, which blockaded it at the mouth of the Meuse with arrogant threats, were at length made to leave, by express command of the Assembly. We hear that these and five other parliament ships are scouring the waters off Newcastle in order to prevent the queen landing. Owing to this last show of disrespect to her and her ship she goes away with very bitter feelings against the Hollanders in particular, leaving behind such bitter protestations as to show how very ruffled her feelings are and how little favourable for future relations with this state.
The Hague, the 4th March, 1643.
March 5.
Senato, Secreta. Deliberazioni. Corti. Venetian Archives.
237. To the Secretary in England.
Acknowledge receipt of his letters of the 5th ult. A conspiracy against the queen is reported from the Hague, to which place she has returned in poor health, after suffering much loss. Fresh occasions for the exercise of his prudence and observation are constantly arising. The Ambassador Zustignan is waiting for his passports in Holland. Enclose the usual sheet of advices.
Ayes, 126. Noes, 0. Neutral, 1.
March 5.
Senato, Secreta. Deliberazioni. Rettori. Venetian. Archives.
238. To the Proveditore in Terra Ferma.
The excuses which have been made to you by Colonel Duglas have been taken into consideration. In this connection we have to say that since he abandoned the service in the way he did at a time of need, he does not deserve to be heard and consequently you will let all proposals drop.
Ayes, 130. Noes, 2. Neutral, 14.
March 6.
Senato, Secreta. Dispacci, Inghilteria. Venetian Archives.
239. Gerolamo Agostini, Venetian Secretary in England, to the Doge and Senate.
Perilous altercations have occurred this week between the two Houses of parliament. The Lords are moving steadily towards peace. Allured by the hope of resuming their places at Court they have, at their own risk, made known to the king their devoted efforts to obtain it, according to his pleasure. But though the Lower House cannot escape from the justice of the proposals, supported by the desires of a great part of the people of London, now tired of the present privations and violence, yet they do not fail to invent subterfuges for destroying the treaties and to render vain the decision about the armistice.
Recognising the need for approaching as nearly as possible the wishes of the people in their first decision, in order to carry it through, the Lords have again voted that there shall be an armistice for 20 days, beginning on the 1st March, English style, in which time the treaty of peace should be made, beginning with the first article of each side, viz. : the restoration of the fortresses, magazines, ships and revenues to the king, and the disbanding of the armies.
The Lower House was not able to refuse assent in its votes, but on condition that the armistice shall not be considered as resolved if it is not accepted by the House after receiving information from Essex of the manner of observing it ; and that the first article of the treaty in any case must be the disbanding, without which they cannot go further, and that they cannot devote more than the 20 days to the treaty.
Although the conditions were known to be captious, yet the Upper House thought it advisable to approve them, believing it a step forward. They are now waiting for the information for which they have asked Essex, and which will easily provide material for long discussions until the season will compel active operations. Some of the most seditious members of parliament have been specially directed to go and make sure of this.
The Upper House having observed this calculated respect of the Lower for the general has got its president to write a letter also to him, of which I enclose a copy, to which he has testily replied that they have asked his advice after the decision has been made.
I also enclose a copy of another letter from the king to parliament, which is kept secret, in which he reproves the delay in a decision over this armistice. He exonerates himself from all blame for any accidents which may happen in the mean time. He shows the necessity of arranging the conditions with him, and declares that he does not consider himself bound to anything for the moment.
Amid these negotiations parliament is raising money and men with the utmost violence. They have sent to Essex enough to satisfy the army for five weeks, and the city has orders to have 60,000l. sterling in the space of eight days. Sixteen ships have been ordered to sea and to watch carefully the coast of the North so that the queen may not land with provisions, or any others coming from Denmark. On the other side the king finds himself powerful and is reinforced daily with soldiers deserting from this side ; a whole company of horse has passed over to his service. His Majesty does not think it wise to refuse these troops which strengthen his own side and weaken the enemy ; but he has not perfect confidence in them, fearing that there may be a plot to assassinate him personally, of which he is reasonably suspicious.
Quite recently some of the London preachers have recommended from their pulpits devout prayers to God for a design which a zealous youth had undertaken for the good of the republic. This has served as a warning to his Majesty, who has doubled his guards, and whereas every one used to have free entry to the presence chamber, the doors are now guarded by trusty gentlemen, and they allow no one to enter but persons of quality and those who are known.
A serious riot took place on Sunday in one of the parishes here between Protestants and Puritans. The latter wished to prevent the minister from performing the usual ceremonies, but supported by the others he joined battle with weapons, in which two persons paid for their zeal with their lives.
The Scottish commissioners, who reached the Court as I reported, have presented their demands to the king. These correspond with the petition asking his Majesty to come to terms with the parliament of England ; to give them permission to call their own before the appointed time ; and, a very unreasonable request, that he shall put at the queen's service persons to instruct her in the religion of the country. So far they have received no reply, but in spite of this they immediately asked permission to come on here. But the king has dexterously contrived to delay this, clearly understanding from the nature of their proposals that they have some other object in view. It is not believed, however, that under present circumstances he will use violence to detain them in order to avoid providing that nation with a stronger motive for declaring themselves actively on the side of the parliament of England which would be the most prejudicial thing that could happen to his Majesty's rising fortunes.
London, the 6th March, 1643.
[Italian ; the part in italics deciphered.]
Enclosure. 240. Letter from the king to the parliament, on 20 February, 1643, old style. (fn. 1)
[Italian, from the English, two pages.]
241. Letter from the earl of Essex to the President of the Upper House.
Would have given his opinion as requested if asked before the vote was taken ; but now he knows his duty. The army is very dispersed and there are many other difficulties. No doubt the President has considered all the inconveniences which may arise during the armistice and the way of meeting with them. Knows nothing about the affair as was not present when it was discussed, but will give an opinion if able to do so. (fn. 2)
From Windsor, the 20th February, 1643.
[Italian, from the English ; 2 pages.]
March 9.
Collegio, Secreta. Esposizioni, Principi. Venetian Archives.
242. A gentleman for the Resident of England came into the Collegio and presented the following memorial :
On the 3rd inst. about midnight the Captain Grande broke into the house of one Domenico Minelli and carried him off to prison, where he was afterwards condemned to 18 months in the galleys merely for having played at the Resident's ball, and in order that the sentence may not prejudice the victim or the reputation of the house, to which he had gone merely to give the usual and innocent carnival sports to the servants there, recourse is made to your Serenity, it is hoped that you will not consider your laws violated or even spurned because the Resident did not consider himself included in a public prohibition for porters on hire, and in not having considered such a privilege, if it may be called so, too great for a public representative.
After this had been read the doge said, The proclamations are made for our subjects. The man in question is our subject and if such do not obey there would be no prince. That is all on one head. On the other, the affair belongs to the Council of Ten, which acts prudently after due consideration, and it is difficult to do anything after sentence has been passed. However, these Signors will see. With that the gentleman made his bow and departed.
March 13.
Senato, Secreta. Deliberazioni. Corti. Venetian Archives.
243. To the Secretary in England.
The English secretary has sent a memorial to the Collegio complaining of the arrest of a musician, a Venetian subject, who played the carnival at a dance given by that secretary. Ballots as well as scandalous places of resort in general have always been proclaimed and prohibited. Accordingly as this person transgressed, justice took action against the transgressor, and this has been done without there being any occasion for any minister to complain. This information is sent in case anything is said or if the secretary writes, to enable him to make a suitable reply.
Acknowledge receipt of his letters of the 13th ult. and enclose the usual sheet of advices.
Ayes, 104. Noes, 3. Neutral, 5.
March 13.
Senato, Secreta. Dispacci, Inghilterra. Venetian Archives.
244. Gerolamo Agostini, Venetian Secretary in England, to the Doge and Senate.
The commissioners who went to the earl of Essex for his opinion about the conditions to propose to the king for an armistice, have returned from Windsor with the articles, of which I enclose a copy. These have been considered by both Houses of parliament, and after some dispute, approved. Yesterday they sent the usual Chiligre to Oxford to obtain a safe conduct for the deputies who are to present them, they are the same persons who went before, though no confidence is felt in them, indeed there is considerable apprehension about their intentions which on the present occasion were openly expressed in the king's favour, into which, it is known they are restored, and they guide their conduct by his instructions. It is thought that his Majesty may claim during the armistice to have free intercourse, to which they are not disposed to consent here, knowing the prejudice that this would bring to the armies upon which they are bound to depend for the attainment of their personal ends (de quali sopra i proprii fini si fonda la necessita di doversi valere).
The present captious negotiations which only aim at affording an apparent satisfaction, are not calculated to raise the slightest hope in sensible men of seeing peace in the kingdom by these means, since at the very same time they are plotting mischief against those who are seeking it sincerely, and are adopting the most violent methods to make provision for war, as your Serenity shall hear. Among the members of the Commons who continue more heated for sedition than ever, there have been several secret meetings these last days in which they have discussed at length the means of having arrested five of the Upper House who have been more venturesome than the others in speaking in favour of peace. But they have not yet discovered a way to lay hands on them with safety, as they do not find a pretext that would satisfy the large number of those who agree with these lords in wanting peace, and it is now unlikely to happen, because those concerned are warned.
All the greatest hopes of maintaining the war are founded upon the city of London. The Council there with the Mayor have been to offer parliament 10,000l. sterling a week until the end of the war. But for the fulfilment of this offer (fn. 3)
since few are willing to pay the twentieth and other new taxes which have been imposed and which are raised daily with the help of paid troops, who sack the houses and shops of everything without any reference to the amount due, so that everyone is trying to escape, and already a large number of the houses are empty, some of the shops closed and the rest contain little or no merchandise.
There was some difficulty about getting away exported goods, as the English were afraid of making known their wealth and losing their property through too much greed of gain. They therefore adopted the expedient of bringing over some Jews from Amsterdam who provide the money and carry away the goods in instalments.
Dreading the approach of the royal forces to this city and unable, owing to their violent proceedings, to trust their safety to the devotion of the citizens, they have decided in parliament to fortify this vast circuit. They have sent to Holland for engineers and already they have begun the work with great energy and a large number of navvies. But it will take a very long time and will be most difficult to defend.
Parliament has taxed all the counties of the realm in the same proportions as London. From these they reckon to obtain 60,000l. sterling a week. But the collection can only be carried out where their armies have the upper hand.
It is now six days since the queen arrived at Bridlington, a small village on the coast only 16 miles from York. She landed there not only because it is so near York but to evade 16 parliament ships which were waiting for her off Newcastle. She brought with her 1000 soldiers with 300 officers and they say she also brings 80,000l. sterling and 20,000 suits of armour. She is now staying at a gentleman's house only two miles from York, waiting for a safe opportunity to proceed with Newcastle's army to Oxford. The country there is now so ravaged that it does not admit of the union of larger forces until the season has arrived for taking the field. Her arrival does not leave the parliamentarians without some apprehension, not so much because of the succour she has brought, but because of her violent resentment against them, which they reciprocate, and the fear that her ardent French temper may inspire the king's flegmatic one to vigorous resolution. Thus in the secret discussions mentioned above I understand something was plotted against her, but their deliberations and designs have not transpired.
Sir [Ralph] Obton was closely besieging Plymouth where he had shut up the parliamentary army of that county, when two days ago the secretary of the earl of Stanford who commands it, arrived here with the news that the trained bands of Devonshire had raised the siege and captured 5 guns, although not more than 18 were left in the fortress. There has been no confirmation since and they are eagerly waiting to hear, as the event is considered of no slight importance.
Prince Rupert with 4000 horse and dragoons left his quarters at Oxford last Tuesday. His intention was to surprise a part of the parliamentary army near here, but as this did not succeed he has gone on to Cambridge with other designs which the result will show.
The Scottish commissioners are still being adroitly detained at Oxford. To one of their proposals the king replied that as the English were not interested in the differences which exist between him and Scotland, he did not consider that they should interfere in those which he now has with England. The other demands are so exorbitant that he did not think they deserved an answer. His Majesty seems to consider that his own party is sufficiently strong to prevent any army leaving that kingdom in any case.
The duke of Vendome, hoping to obtain very speedily the permission of the Most Christian, his brother, to return to France, has desired to see the king before he takes the field, fearing that it may not be so easy to approach him afterwards. He carried a passport of the parliament expressing the respect that was due to him, but in spite of this he was arrested by order of the general, searched and most scurvily treated, at which he is much incensed. (fn. 4) With the difficulties and perils of proceeding to the Court I have followed the orders of the 9th January by sending a letter to the secretary of state of which I enclose a copy, together with one of his reply, thanking your Excellencies for the favour shown to his Majesty's subjects and to Mr. Talbot in particular. He asks in a postscript that steps may be taken so that the despatches of the English ambassador at Constantinople and those which go to him may not suffer from delay or loss, as apparently has already happened.
London, the 13th March, 1643.
[Italian ; the part in italics deciphered.]
Enclosure. 245. On the 23rd February, 1642 at Windsor.
Terms on which an armistice may be arranged, as settled at a conference between the Commissioners of the two Houses of Parliament and the Council of War for the Army raised for the defence of the realm. (fn. 5)
[Italian, from the English ; 5 pages.]
246. Gerolamo Agostini, Venetian Secretary, to the Secretary of State Nicolas.
The Ambassador Giustinian, before he left, informed the republic that you had expressed his Majesty's desire for the good treatment of his subjects, and especially of Mr. Talbot, his minister at Venice. I am instructed to assure you that English subjects will always receive the best of treatment, and that Mr. Talbot shall receive the most unmistakable tokens of good will. I cannot discharge this office orally because of the difficulties of the way, so I take the present means in order that you may inform his Majesty and assure him at the same time of the unalterable regard of the most serene republic.
London, the 26—16 February, 1643.
247. The Secretary of State Edward Nicolas to Sig. Agostini.
Thanks for the communication and appreciation of the friendly offices of the Ambassador Giustinian. Asks that instructions may be given to the officials concerned, at Venice, that letters to and from his Majesty's ambassador at Constantinople, may be forwarded in accordance with their direction, if by chance the occasional delay and loss of the letters is due to them.
Oxford, the 22nd February, 1642.
[Italian, from the English.]
March 20.
Senato, Secreta. Dispacci, Inghilterra. Venetian Archives.
248. Gerolamo Agostini, Venetian Secretary in England, to the Doge and Senate.
In the important matter of the currants I have to report that some days ago the ship "William George" arrived in the Downs, which was expected with 700 thousand of the fruit, laded in Cephalonia. Those interested and especially the Sheriff Langam had tried their hardest to obtain permission from parliament to unlade it. Failing in this they had it conveyed on a small ship under the pretence of sending it to Holland, but this came into the River and the fruit was secretly unladed in this city. Although this has come to the knowledge of the Directors of the Levant Company, they dare not denounce persons of such influence under present circumstances, especially as the governor of the Company is in prison for refusing to pay taxes. (fn. 6)
This incident may possibly influence the Directors to seek general freedom for the trade, in order that it may not be restricted to persons of influence. with the abuses involved. Having had occasion to speak with Mr. Henry Wen, chief of the Commissioners for Trade, I have been able to satisfy myself how little those Commissioners incline to the introduction of currants from the Morea, especially as the Company has not made the smallest request for this, since the presentation of their petition, so long ago. But in order to sound their views I did not neglect to mention the inferior quality of the Morea fruit while drawing attention to the facilities and good treatment always offered to English ships and subjects in the islands of your Excellencies.
At the meeting of the Levant Company last month, with the appointment of their officials, Giles Bol was chosen for the consulship in the Morea in the place of Ider. (fn. 7) He will start for there in a few months, and I shall watch to see what orders are given to him.
London, the 20th March, 1643.
249. Gerolamo Agostini, Venetian Secretary in England, to the Doge and Senate.
The long discussions about the conditions for the armistice, which have delayed the appearance at Oxford of Chiligre, who was only sent to ask a safeconduct for the commissioners, have enabled the king to get information about them. Accordingly his Majesty has decided to forestall them by sending here Mr. Cheri, his chamberlain. This helps him to make plain to his subjects his desire for peace and their welfare, which parliament is trying to suppress by false information. He arrived on Saturday evening and brought complaints from his Majesty about the loss of so much time, so that the armistice can no longer begin on the 1st of March, as decided. To facilitate it he granted the 12th of this style, and agrees to all the articles except the use of the ships under other commanders than those appointed by him, and the prohibition of trade, as he understood they required safeconducts for the passage of munitions of war and soldiers so he was determined for his part that there should be free transit for his subjects and for all other persons. He further wished that during the period of the armistice no one should be molested in his person or goods for any cause soever.
On Monday morning, the first meeting of parliament since Cheri's arrival, as they were reading this message of the king, Chiligre arrived back with the safeconduct. From this Baron Se, one of the commissioners to whom the Lower House had communicated its most secret intentions, is excluded, but room is left for someone else to be nominated provided he is not publicly declared a traitor, like Se.
Excitement was so great in the Commons that even the Lords who favour the king were obliged to declare that it was not proper to consent to such proposals, and in any case, if they could not find a way to continue the negotiations, they would share fortunes with them ; this in order to avoid some passionate decision which would have been taken had they chosen to support the king. The offer was accepted, and in order to try them, although they did not trust them much, among the commissioners appointed to consider the message and the king's reply they have included all the Upper House and 40 of the Lower. So far these have come to no decision except to send six deputies to the earl of Essex for his opinion, who have not yet returned.
Meanwhile the city of London when asked to advance 60,000l. sterling upon the offer and contribution of 10,000l. per week, has refused unless the Lords are the first to be taxed, and unless it is decided to give the people the oath of association, to show in whom they may trust. Against this oath the king has sent a proclamation denouncing as rebels and traitors those who take it. This increases the difficulties in the way of imposing it, which have been under discussion for some little time.
With incredible cost and effort they are proceeding with the fortifications of this city, and they do not even cease work on Sunday, which is so strictly observed by the Puritans. The plan of the work is commended by experts, but to complete and defend them must necessarily be most difficult.
The queen sent a page to the king from Bridlington with the news of her arrival and of the bad behaviour of two parliamentary ships, which fired their guns at her as she was landing and afterwards. The page fell into the hands of the parliamentarians, and the letter has been sent here. They have been impressed by another letter from the Princess Palatine to her son Prince Rupert, in which she encourages him to serve the king. They have sent this back to the princess with remonstrances and it affords a reason for further delay in paying to her agent some money of her pension, for which he is constantly asking.
With the permission of parliament they have published the protest left by the queen in Holland at her departure against the States, in order to increase their irritation against her and the Prince of Orange, and to add to her unpopularity here, as she speaks in terms of absolute and independent dominion.
Baron Brach who went to Warwickshire to take the small village of Lizfil, has been killed in capturing it, with only five of his soldiers. (fn. 8) The loss is very serious to parliament as he was one of the most trusted leaders of the party, and at one time there was some idea at entrusting him with the command of all their armies (e sopra cui gia correva disegno di appogiare la condotta di tutte le armi).
The king had an understanding with Colonel Essex, governor of Bristol for the surrender of that very important place, but the inhabitants having found this out, they lured him out of the castle by a stratagem and put him in prison.
A Spanish merchant ship driven by stress of weather to the coast of Lancashire, with men and munitions of war on board, has been seized by order of parliament, on the supposition that it was proceeding to Ireland. (fn. 9)
London, the 20th March, 1643.
[Italian ; the part in italics deciphered.]
March. 27.
Senato, Secreta. Dispacci, Inghilterra. Venetian Archives.
250. Gerolamo Agostini, Venetian Secretary in England, to the Doge and Senate.
The commissioners sent to General Essex report that in his opinion it is not convenient to agree to freedom of intercourse during the armistice as desired by the king, unless all persons proceeding to Oxford are thoroughly searched. This was promptly accepted by the Upper House. But the Lower has not yet concurred, and continues its discussions without a decision, affording further confirmation how little they wish to arrive at any sincere treaty. But in the same Chamber, however cold they may be in the time spent over peace, they make up for it in the ardour they show in the time devoted to preparation for war, from which the prime movers still cling to the hope of extracting the profit they have set before themselves, even though at the moment they are not encouraged to make the supreme effort. They believe that they have nothing to fear, whatever happens, basing their confidence upon these very important heads, supposing these to be substantially sound : the absolute control of the city of London, the command of the ships and the hopes of assistance from the Scots. But any movement of the last is meeting with difficulties, while as they have to entrust the command of the ships to a single chief, who might by that means adjust his interests with the king, it would seem that their chief ground of confidence rests upon the city of London alone. Even here they suffer no slight opposition and peril, so that they cannot be sure that the offer of the mayor and council of 10,000l. a week will not fall short in its realisation owing to evasions and the flight of the inhabitants, or whether their violence may not be of short duration, without other support than the opinions of the favouring party, which are subject to change. So they decided on the fortifications. These are being pushed forward with all diligence, and from the progress they are making seem likely to be of some consideration. The shape they take betrays that they are not only for defence against the royal armies, but also against tumults of the citizens, and to ensure a prompt obedience on all occasions. In consequence of this, to furnish the most important positions, the city itself has decided to raise 6000 foot and 2000 horse, whom they have already begun to enlist.
Moved by hopes of taking Bristol owing to the understanding with the governor, and others, the king sent Prince Rupert in that direction with 8000 men ; but with the discovery and imprisonment of the accomplices, the prince had to return empty to his quarters. But the move caused great alarm to the General Essex, who gathering his forces with difficulty, was preparing to march. This has been stopped through the emergency ceasing. At the same time Prince Maurice who went to invest Gloucester with other troops, has been obliged to retire with loss. Obton, who now has the title of viscount, being forced by the militia of the neighbouring counties to withdraw from the siege of Plymouth, suggested a suspension of hostilities to the earl of Stanford, the parliamentary leader, fearing that he could not hold out against so many hostile armies in that province. It seems that the earl was inclined to agree, on very advantageous conditions, when parliament sent an express from here to stop him. However, Obton has profited by the gain of time to increase his strength through the arrival of a merchantman from Bordeaux with munitions, of which he was in the greatest need.
On the arrival of the queen at York, Fairfax, the parliamentary general in that province, sent to ask a passport for a gentleman whom he intended to send to her with some offers. This being granted he sent a relation of his (fn. 10) to tell her that if she wished to proceed to Oxford without men, money or arms, he would have her escorted safely to the border. The queen not only refused the offer, which was a dangerous one, but had the gentleman who came arrested, greatly to the disgust of Fairfax.
The government of Scotland also has sent four leading lords to her Majesty, (fn. 11) it is supposed to pay their respects, but no news has yet arrived of their reception or offices, which is awaited with interest.
An express has reached Oxford to the Scottish commissioners to learn the reason of their delay, and with orders to return with or without a reply, if the king will not allow them to proceed to London.
Parliament has intercepted several letters of his Majesty, some for the queen, others for Mr. Montegu at Brussels. Some were in cipher, to which they have given their own interpretation, in a printed paper which does not, however, contain the letters definitely.
An Assembly of bishops gathered by the king at Oxford has established the liturgy of the Anglican Church in conformity with the ancient methods and with the other observed in the time of Queen Elizabeth. He sent it on here with a proclamation ordaining its observation in all the parishes, in virtue of his supremacy over the Church. Its object is to control the Puritans, but in the present disorders which are sustained by the liberty of conscience and the multiplicity of religions, force has superseded the laws, and does not allow any other influence to prevail.
On representations made by a private individual complaining of the stay of the Capuchin fathers here an order was passed in the Commons to direct them to leave at once. But upon the remonstrance of the agent of the Most Christian (fn. 12) and through the offices of the French gentlemen here, the Upper House has tried to obtain a postponement until the 15th April next, which may easily be extended through the efforts which are expected from France from the king there, who shows himself very ardent in upholding this cause.
The duke of Vendome, with the permission of that monarch, has left for France this morning. He leaves deeply offended with the parliamentarians here. At the very moment when he was taking ship in the river they sent a company of horse to arrest him, and he would not have got away to-day had not the duke of Epernon and the marquis de la Wieville who remain here, made themselves answerable for him to the parliament.
London, the 27th March, 1643.
[Italian ; the part in italics deciphered.]
March 28.
Senato, Secreta. Deliberazioni. Corti. Venetian Archives.
251. To the Secretary in England.
Acknowledge receipt of his letters of the 20th and 27th February and the 6th March. His diligence and caution are called for amid the conflict of interests, both in arms and in negotiation. Have received information that deputies are being sent from Scotland to France for the renewal of the old treaties. Enclose sheet of advices.
Ayes, 117. Noes, 0. Neutral, 7.


  • 1. Journals of the House of Lords, Vol. V, page 615.
  • 2. Id. page 614.
  • 3. Hiatus in MS.
  • 4. He was stopped at Uxbridge, and searched by Sir Samuel Luke. Journals of the House of Lords, Vol. V, page 632.
  • 5. Journals of the House of Lords, Vol. V, page 619.
  • 6. Sir Henry Garraway.
  • 7. Giles Ball, chosen at the Court held 2—12 February, 1642—3. S.P. For. Archives, Vol. 150.
  • 8. Lord Brooke was killed at Lichfield on the 2—12 March.
  • 9. A frigate called the St. Anne of Dunkirk. Journals of the House of Lords, Vol. V, pages 652, 656.
  • 10. His nephew, Sir William Fairfax. Markham : Life of the Great Lord Fairfax, page 124.
  • 11. The marquis of Hamilton, the earls of Montrose and Traquair and James lord Ogilvy. Spalding : History of the Troubles, Vol. II, page 122.
  • 12. In the Journals of the House of Commons is called de Bure or de Bures.