Venice: December 1644

Pages 156-167

Calendar of State Papers Relating To English Affairs in the Archives of Venice, Volume 27, 1643-1647. Originally published by His Majesty's Stationery Office, London, 1926.

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December 1644

Dec. 2.
Senato, Secreta. Deliberazioni. Corti. Venetian Archives.
174. To the Secretary in London.
Acknowledge receipt of his letters of the 4th November. The contingencies of war are ever doubtful and subject to constant change. We learn from France of the arrival at Paris of the queen of England, who was welcomed and received with every honour ; also that the parliamentarians have their eye upon her ; that the French are trying to diminish the suspicion of her sojourn ; this differs from what has come to our knowledge by the advices from that quarter (il che sarebbe diverso da quello ci e capitato a notizia per avvisi da quella parte).
Ayes, 126. Noes, 1. Neutral, 3.
Dec. 4.
Senato, Secreta. Dispacci, Inghilterra. Venetian Archives.
175. Gerolamo Agostini, Venetian Secretary in England, to the Doge and Senate.
The king pursues his project to supply the places he holds round Oxford for three months, so that with his retreat secured he can go and waste the associated counties or wherever the hope of advantage may call him. Proceeding to Basing he has at the first encounter slaughtered more than 1,000 parliamentary soldiers. As they still persist in opposing his entry with their whole army, the king on his part is determined to achieve it, even if he has to fight another general action. But the parliamentarians will find great difficulty in meeting him as they are greatly weakened and more involved than ever in confusion and discords.
Serious quarrels have occurred this week between Manchester and Cromuel, chief commanders of the army, about religion and church government, in which many of the soldiers have taken sides, and I hear there has been some fighting. This is most carefully concealed in order not to stir up worse humours in the body of this city, which is seriously affected. The leading parliamentarians, who were zealous on this point when it served their purpose, do not appear so at present but are trying to smoothe matters with unsubstantial expedients and to bring about unity. They will find this difficult as they have allowed the Independents in particular to take too deep root.
The associated counties alarmed lest the king should go to ravage them to supply his men with horses and money, have sent deputies to parliament with a petition for Manchester to return to them with the army which they maintain. Manchester himself desires this as he meets with neither obedience nor respect from the other commanders. But as his force is the principal nucleus for the defence of this city parliament is retaining him on the pretext that as it diverts the royal forces it is of equal advantage to those counties and the country.
Amid this confusion which is likely to increase, especially as General Essex cannot take the field, being sick both in mind and body, the Kentish men foresee a feeble defence to the troubles with which the king threatens them in the spring. Accordingly they have presented a petition in parliament asking that the Scots may be requested to advance with their armies. This request has not only been granted, but was actually promoted by the most seditious parliamentarians, who find that they are incapable by themselves of supporting this great affair, and they did not dare to make the suggestion themselves, knowing well that by the generality of Englishman the Scots are more detested than any other foreigners. With this impulse they have carried the resolution in the Lower House to which the other will easily agree. But the Scots may easily demand hard terms, and they are beginning to behave here with more ostentation than before, now that they have gained a firm footing in England.
The trumpet sent to the king returned with the passes requested for the deputies of parliament taking the peace proposals. His Majesty made no exceptions although some of those previously excluded were nominated, in order to test his anxiety for peace. (fn. 1) There is also a letter from Prince Rupert, as Lieutenant General, in which he says that he expected a request for an armistice, but as they did not make it he hopes they will not take it ill if his Majesty's forces continue their operations, and for this reason his Majesty cannot appoint a definite place, but will be found in the field. The Council of the two Nations tried to raise some difficulties about the passports, although they are most ample, but in the end they are accepted, and the deputies will leave on Wednesday after dinner, with orders to present the proposals and after waiting a proper time for the reply with or without it (fn. 2) that two Scottish commissioners wished to go with the proposals, and as they claimed precedence over one of the lords, who was only a baron, they had to appoint an earl instead. It is believed that the king will express a most ardent desire for peace, and that he will not refuse the proposals, although they are calculated to irritate a private individual having no connection with the crown, let alone a legitimate king, and that he will offer to appoint commissioners to examine them. I shall be able to say more when the deputies return.
It appears that the Upper House, not finding anything treasonable against the Archbishop of Canterbury is putting off the passing of the bill sent them by the Commons for his ignominious death. But that body is pressing the question and at the same time they are getting the people of London to sign a petition in favour of his death. Everyone is eager to do this without knowing anything about the trial or the reasons, in the firm belief that all the evils from which they suffer proceed from this individual. One of the two Irishmen has also been condemned as a rebel, and the sentence is to be carried out to-day. The case of the other is under discussion, but he is a lord of that kingdom and by the laws must be judged by his peers. (fn. 3)
London, the 2nd December, 1644.
[Italian ; the part in italics deciphered.]
Dec. 6.
Senato, Secreta. Dispacci, Francia. Venetian Archives.
176. Gio. Battista Nani, Venetian Ambassador in France, to the Doge and Senate.
I went to condole with the queen of England on the death of her sister, the queen of Spain. I found her in much better health than at my first audience. She expected to return to Gallion after Christmas. She asked permission for the Protestants of her household to practise their religion in the Louvre, but she did not press it. She asked me to let her know any news that reached me from London, as she is very frequently in the dark about events there. I promised to oblige her, but I will act with due caution. With a jealousy equal to that of the parliament over her Majesty's sojourn here, the government here is suspicious of an understanding between the Spaniards and that quarter for some design which it is feared may impede their successes in Flanders. The violence of the English against the merchants of this kingdom increases the ill feeling and they bluster about reprisals, but they have never gone so far, it being sufficient to intimate to parliament that if they intrigue against the interests of this crown it has the means and the will to pay them back. The queen has not as yet received assistance and on this side they do not wish to be the first to stir up trouble.
Paris, the 6th December, 1644.
Dec. 9.
Senato, Secreta. Dispacci, Inghilterra. Venetian Archives.
177. Gerolamo Agostini, Venetian Secretary in England, to the Doge and Senate.
While the king persists in his determination to relieve Basing at all hazards, parliament cherished hopes that the opportunity may give them a victory, the army being piqued by what happened at Donington. The issue has been curious as with the commanders quarrelling among themselves and the soldiers refusing to fight, they have had to retire to Reading, leaving his Majesty master of the country (fn. 2) of the plans without (fn. 2). Thus besides the relief (fn. 2) troops of his cavalry in Sussex, contiguous to the county of Kent which although rebellious has not yet suffered punishment for its fault by the horrors of active war. But the situation protected by the bad weather, preserves them from the worst injuries and does not allow the troops to penetrate very far.
Unable to dissimulate any longer the repetition of such disorders, parliament has sent for some of the commanders to report. They arrived on Monday and accused the Earl of Manchester their superior of cowardice and disloyalty, undertaking to prove that he purposely neglected the most favourable opportunities for fighting, declaring publicly that the king would always be king and the affair would end with the imprisonment for life of all who had opposed him. Hearing of this, the Earl appeared here on Tuesday to defend himself. But General Essex who has been confined to his house under colour of his sickness, seeing an opening for himself and a way to employment, has come out and gone to parliament to oppose Manchester, against whom he professes irreconcileable hostility. The quarrel is of consequence as Manchester also has a strong party, and many take part in it on the score of religion. Cromuel, the chief accuser, is an Independent, while the other is a Presbyterian, and this is the chief reason for their mutual dislike. Meanwhile the army amid its hardships, without pay and without leaders, is going to ruin. This canker of division about church government keeps spreading in London, and the more it is kept under by orders which do not destroy it, the worse, the poison grows, so that there is great apprehension of some massacre, of which every one lives in a state of constant alarm. Parliament has directed that there shall be no preaching or administration of the sacraments except in the public churches, but the order is not obeyed and they do not venture to treat those who infringe it with severity.
The commissioners who took the peace proposals to the king have not yet returned. They have written, and complain that the governor of Oxford made them wait two hours at the gate, but this was because his Majesty had not arrived and he did not wish to receive them in the open country. They had audience in the garden of his quarters. They say that (fn. 2) reading of some (fn. 2) the king himself could not (fn. 2) laughter of the bystanders. When the reading was ended he asked if they had orders to treat. They answered, no, but only to wait for the reply, which he promised courteously. We do not hear that they have received it, but they are expected back with it at any moment.
The disadvantageous situation of the parliament causes no little apprehension among those members who are without hope and who are unwilling to be constrained, by the king's courtesy and by the inclination of many here, to continue the negotiations. To prevent this they are having a petition prepared by some of the most seditious spirits of London, to present to parliament, to put away the charms of peace and to consider preparations for war. They may also add a demand for the Scots to advance, which is desired by the same party, regardless of consequences ; because although this question was decided, it is still opposed by the more prudent, who would like to prescribe the River Trent as a boundary for them. It is not yet known whether the Scots themselves will consent. So far they seem more inclined to secure their prize of Newcastle, and rest for some time in the enjoyment of the great profits from the coal they get there, and from the money they are raising here for their benefit.
Commissioners from Ireland have reached the king, but their business is not yet known. It is known that there will remain (fn. 2) the truce, and that the Protestants themselves there and of Dublin in particular, will not venture to resist his Majesty's wishes, the Viceroy Ormond being won over by the garter and other honours. They are trying here to support their weak party with hopes and have decided to send them 20,000l. sterling. The Upper House offers a vigorous opposition to passing the bill for the death of the Archbishop of Canterbury, not finding him deserving of such punishment by the laws of England. This gives rise to a division between the Houses, an arm which sharpened and skilfully used by the king may defeat his enemies.
London, the 9th December, 1644.
[Italian ; the part in italics deciphered.]
Dec. 16.
Senato, Secreta. Deliberazioni. Corti. Venetian Archives.
178. To the King of Great Britain.
Acknowledge receipt of his letter recommending the merchant Richaut. The case is one that should be dealt with by the law and decided by magistrates to whom it belongs to hear the parties. Promise to give orders, whenever requested by the interested parties, that the case be settled as soon as possible in consideration of the interests of this same Richaut, who is remembered as having shown a willingness to serve the Signory on previous occasions, and also out of consideration for his Majesty's desire. Compliments.
Ayes, 97. Noes, 0. Neutral, 1.
Dec. 16.
Senato. Secreta. Dispacci, Inghilterra. Venetian Archives.
179. Gerolamo Agostini, Venetian Secretary in England, to the Doge and Senate.
The commissioners returned on Saturday from Oxford, who took the parliament's peace proposals, of which I enclose a copy. They gave a full account of all that had happened from their departure to their return, showing his Majesty's generous care to preserve them from outrage from the troops and people, who loving their prince and hating the disturbers of the peace, could not restrain their passion against such presumption a joke (fn. 2) slavery, since he is at present more advantageously situated than he has ever been, both by his own forces and by the weakness of those of parliament, enfeebled by dissensions.
Two days after the king had heard these proposals he sent for the deputies again and asked them once more if they had orders to treat. They said, No, but only to wait for his reply. To this he said, As you have no authority to treat a postillion might have performed your function. But as you desire a reply you shall have it. But I will send a trumpet with you so that parliament may give him a pass for the Duke of Richmond and the Earl of Southampton, whom I have appointed my commissioners, with authority to treat. I give you to understand, however, that on no account shall I ever change my religion, which is the same as that established in the time of Queen Elizabeth. I will not give up the smallest of the prerogatives enjoyed by the king, my father, or abandon my friends. He then handed them a paper containing the substance of this, which I enclose. When they made difficulties about receiving this as they had no instructions the king said : As you have no authority to treat but to receive my reply here it is and you cannot refuse it. It was observed that although there were some of the commissioners of Scotland present and the interests of Scotland were included in the proposals, his Majesty took no notice of them either in his speech or in the reply, as being a kingdom apart, with which he claims other interests.
After the return of the Commissioners the Council of the two Nations deliberated a long while about sending back the trumpet. This happened yesterday with letters from General Essex to Prince Rupert informing him that if the king will write to parliament, recognising it as legitimate and asking for a pass for his two commissioners, he shall have it, otherwise they do not propose to give it. This opportunity has been seized with the utmost delight by the disturbers of the peace to prevent the mission, which could not fail to strengthen the well intentioned, who are numerous but without heart.
The Earl of Manchester, taking note of the accusations made against him in the Lower House by Cromuel, his Lieutenant general, without waiting for these to be laid before the Upper, has sent a paper not only defending himself, but bringing more serious charges against the other. He says Cromuel asked him to join him promising to form an army of Independent sectaries, with which they could lay down the law not only to the king but to the parliament, and they would deliver themselves from this synod tyrannising over consciences. He would be the first to draw his sword against the Scots who wanted to introduce Presbyterianism, and in a short time he hoped to destroy the nobility of England, composed of so many traitors. The Lower House which inclines to support Cromuel, its member, and is not very far from, sharing his opinions, which are those of other leading men there, claims that Manchester by his action has committed a breach of privilege against their House. They have deputed commissioners to consider this and report, which provides an opportunity for forming parties and disclosing opinions, to the increasing disadvantage of this side and corresponding profit to the king.
As the Upper House delays its decision about the execution of the Archbishop of Canterbury, recognising that though an offender he is not deserving of death by the fundamental laws of the realm, the Lower House sent to tell them with excessive arrogance that if they would not pass the bill they would raise a tumult among the people. This threat stirred the most sluggish and General Essex in particular, turning towards his colleagues said, Is this the liberty which we claim to vindicate by shedding our blood? This will be the reward of all our labours and our posterity will say that to deliver them from the yoke of the king we have subjected them to that of the common people. If we do this the finger of scorn will be pointed at us, and so I am determined to devote my life to repressing the audacity of the people. He was supported by some who are still holding out, but the Lower House is determined, and the high spirit of the Lords comes too late, because they have hitherto co-operated with such poltroonery in exalting the pride of the populace. Amid all these confusions the king has the run of the country and is only restrained by the severe weather, which is worse than usual. However, his army is all ready to march.
The French Resident announcing that he has express instructions from (fn. 2) has asked for audience of the two Houses. This has been granted in the same way as before, with an intimation that if he will produce his titles and commissions they will show him greater honour, if he pleases. He has not yet accepted and they do not press him, as it is understood that he is going to complain about irregularities over trade. In spite of their uneasiness about France they do not want to regulate this, since it is profitable, and they have never cared to give any answer to the two papers he presented on the same subject.
Of my uninterrupted stay of seven years in England two have passed, since I occupied this post, amid the perils of a rude civil war among an inhuman and barbarous people, with unbearable expense through the loss on the exchange, the scarcity and the exorbitant taxes, from which none of the foreign ministers is exempt. I have considered it an honour to spend myself and my fortune in the service of my prince, but I hope that in my reduced circumstances your Excellencies will show generosity in relieving my state, so that I may be able to continue my ministry unhampered by such distractions.
London, the 16th December, 1644.
[Italian ; the part in italics deciphered.]
Enclosure. 180. Articles sent by Parliament to the King, for Peace.
26 Articles, with some others, for the city of London in particular. (fn. 4)
[Italian ; from the English.]
181. Reply of the King to the Nine Deputies of Parliament, who brought him the Proposals of Peace.
Dated in the Court at Oxford, 1644. (fn. 5)
[Italian, from the English ; 3 pages.]
Dec. 20.
Senato, Secreta. Dispacci, Francia. Venetian Archives.
182. Gio. Battista Nani, Venetian Ambassador in France, to the Doge and Senate.
The Dutch ambassador has had a long conference with Cardinal Mazarini about the next campaign. France inclined to direct the blow against Dunkirk, in order to relieve this kingdom and the United Provinces of the disturbance to trade, close the passage by sea to the Spaniards for sending succour to Flanders and profit by the troubles of England. It is proposed to demolish the place as it would be a cause of mutual jealousy to which ever side it might happen to fall.
The young Prince of Orange is expected soon, on a visit to the queen of England, his mother in law.
A certain Oge, a Frenchman by birth, but formerly agent of England here, has arrived in Paris in the capacity of minister of the parliament there. Their Majesties will not see him, because it would mean the recognition of that party, and to avoid offending the queen of England. Nevertheless he confers with the ministers because he comes about trade, to give a colour to his mission. The fact that trade is seriously interrupted and suffering extreme prejudice renders it necessary to have some satisfactory agreement for the common advantage of the two peoples. While Oge is here he will observe the actions and negotiations of the queen, and France will take advantage of this occasion to keep the parliamentarians in treaty and far from any sort of declaration in favour of the Spaniards. In the midst of all this one thing is certain that apart from a most courteous entertainment the queen will obtain no assistance.
Paris, the 20th December, 1644.
Dec. 23.
Senato, Secreta. Dispacci, Inghilterra. Venetian Archives.
183. Gerolamo Agostini, Venetian Secretary in England, to the Doge and Senate.
Into the furnace of these dissensions, the king breathes peace, which only kindles it the more, so the machine of this new and ill formed government is thrown out of gear by most extraordinary laws and agitations, as your Serenity shall hear. After the dangerous situation created by the mutual accusations of Manchester and Cromuel, the one a member of the Upper House and the other of the Lower, they decided by a general resolution to punish the first for his own faults, the other for having made known his object of abasing the nobility which has long been present in the minds of the populace and can no longer be concealed. Accordingly the Lower House has resolved that so long as this war lasts no member of the two Houses may hold any military or civil appointment, by land or by sea, but may only take part in parliament. In this way they have secured an object which they would not have attempted in any other, to deprive Essex of the supreme command on land and Warwick at sea, as well as Manchester, Dembi, Waller, Cromuel and all the other subordinates, considerably enriched and therefore greatly envied. The bill being passed it was sent to the Upper House for the same purpose. To ensure that it shall be promptly done and that the Lords shall not dare to (fn. 2) so much to their prejudice (fn. 2) of London to thank them for their action, and have scattered seditious pamphlets reviling Essex and Manchester, demanding the dissolution of the Upper House because it always resists the popular will, mentioning their objection to consent to the death of the Archbishop of Canterbury.
How they will manage the direction of their forces remains obscure amid conflicting reports. Some say that appointments will only be made of ordinary individuals by commission of the Council of State, who will be employed as required, under the superintendence of the senior captain, and special commissioners will also have charge at sea. Others say that as Lesle is coming with a large Scottish army, as has been decided, he will have the command. However that may be the disorder is irreparable, and as all foresight has been neglected it is unlikely that they will reestablish (fn. 2) will have gained the point of changing the individuals.
The king sincerely anxious for peace though with little hope of obtaining it, smoothes the way to negotiation while he encourages dissension. He has sent back the trumpet from Oxford, intimating by letters from Prince Rupert to Essex, that when he has received the pass the Duke of Richmond and the Earl of Southampton will come to treat and they will recognise parliament in his Majesty's name in the most ample form they may desire. They are now discussing the pass, the grant of which is strongly urged by the Upper House which sees no escape from its own ruin except in a suitable settlement. The Scots also seem disposed to it, who are disliked here, so that the promises made to them are broken, both about church government and the subsidies for their armies.
The continued severity of the weather does not permit great progress in the country. His Majesty has sent some troops towards Wales to relieve Chester and open that port for landing the Irish. He has sent others to the West and is making the greatest efforts to capture Plymouth, of which his hopes are higher than ever, the place being of great importance especially for the entry of every sort of succour from France.
Meanwhile he is concluding an agreement with the commissioners of Ireland who are at Oxford for the despatch of 10,000 foot of their countrymen to the North and of 6,000 on the other side to invade Scotland to prevent the advance from Newcastle of the Scots summoned by parliament.
Prince Rupert has had some difference with his Majesty by reason of which he resigned his commission. But everything has been adjusted by the Secretary Digby for his own satisfaction or for some other reason, he who was summoned to command the forces of Waller. Many here have asked me about it but I have told them that I knew nothing whatever (fosse per propria sodisfattione o altro rispetto publico, egli che era chiamato al commando delle armi di Valer di che io da molti interogato qui ho risposto non tenerne notitia alcuna). (fn. 6)
A commissioner of the crown of Sweden, though of Scottish nationality, has arrived in this city. He passed through that country and is accompanied by Lesle's secretary. He has not yet had audience, but brings letters of credence for the parliament with complete recognition and all the greatest honours. (fn. 7) I gather that he comes to treat for a levy in Scotland and the hire of 24 ships of war in place of the Dutch ones paid off, offering a defensive and offensive alliance with the parliament against any one soever. The matter is important and may make an impression upon this desperate government, so I will watch the negotiations carefully.
After nearly a year's delay parliament has at last decided to give an answer to the Dutch ambassadors' offer of interposition for peace. They went for audience about this last Tuesday. They had the same reception as before in both Houses, a paper being read opening with brief compliments, without a word of thanks for their offer, informing them that peace proposals have been sent to the king. They received the paper to send home, but said that it would be interpreted as a refusal and they are not at all pleased. In the Lower House they further added some complaint about the way they are treated in the matter of trade.
Parliament has sent to inform the French Resident that they do not mean to alter their first offer about his reception, so he has again refused an audience, the more so as Oger, sent from here to that Court, writes that he has not been admitted.
The Spanish ambassador has returned from Oxford, whither he went to inform his Majesty of the death of the Catholic queen. (fn. 8)
London, the 23rd December, 1644.
[Italian ; the part in italics deciphered.]
Dec. 30.
Senato, Secreta. Dispacci, Inghilterra. Venetian Archives.
184. Gerolamo Agostini, Venetian Secretary in England, to the Doge and Senate.
The trumpet having been sent back to Oxford with the pass, the Duke of Richmond and the Earl of Southampton have arrived in this city and are lodging in the queen's palace at Somerset House. They had audience of the two Houses united, the commissioners of Scotland being present, at which they presented a paper of which I enclose a copy. Although they have not yet given a reply it seems that as they can find nothing to object to in the direction or contents (fn. 2) do not like appointing commissioners reciprocally for a congress, as suggested. It is probable indeed that they will cut short the treaties at all costs which arouse humours. Meanwhile seeing these lords favoured with visits and entertainment they have made an order, especially in the present dissensions, that no one may see them without permission, and some have been imprisoned for this. Moreover, under their very noses they are to-day celebrating an extraordinary fast, obliging all the members of both Houses, to the exclusion of all others, to attend church. The preachers exhort them to ask pardon of God for not having supported heartily the advantages and aims of parliament, and constrain them to promise and swear to do so in future. This advice, suggested by the leaders, is intended if possible to put an end to dissension, both public and private and force the Upper House to support the Lower in the important bill for excluding members of parliament from civil and military employment. The Lords, perceiving where this will strike have declared at the risk of their lives that they will never consent to this, although there are signs now of their yielding in the affair of the Archbishop of Canterbury.
Through intelligence at Plymouth as well as at Lyme and Reading the king hoped to effect a surprise ; but being discovered at the same time all three have failed and the conspirators are arrested. This being attributed to the Divine assistance encourages the ignorant people to believe in the justice of this cause, which is so protected, while it makes them believe that his Majesty is much weaker than he really is.
The king's chief reliance for the approaching campaign is upon the Irish and Welsh, and to keep open a passage and landing for these he is securing the needful ports and places. It remains for money to be supplied from some quarter, of which he is in the greatest need, though without hope that any foreign aid can reach him.
The five regiments of trained bands sent out have returned to London, so that parliament has few troops left ; but they lay waste the country worse than many, being without pay, without leaders and undisciplined. The associated counties offer fresh soldiers, but as they do not pay the old ones the offer is considered a trick and hurtful, as the Independents are more numerous in those counties than in all the rest of the country. In spite of the efforts to settle the differences between Manchester and Cromuel these sectaries keep them up in order to keep their party to the fore.
1,000 more Irish landed in the West of Scotland have compelled Lesle to (fn. 2) well supplied (fn. 2) with Scots for the defence of their own country. Other Irish are landing at Bristol and the commissioners from that country with his Majesty make him very liberal offers if he will grant them liberty of conscience. He is hesitating in order to act according to the issue of the peace negotiations.
The commissioner of the crown of Sweden has presented a paper in parliament in which he asks for the appointment of commissioners to treat with him upon his instructions, which are, as I reported, to obtain a levy of 5,000 Scots, hire 24 ships of war and conclude a defensive and offensive alliance contra quoscunque. The matter has been referred to the Council of the two nations, which has not yet (fn. 2) I will keep the Ambassador Contarini at Munster advised about this affair (fn. 2) the relations of the peace between Denmark and Sweden and the general one.
London, the 30th December, 1644.
[Italian ; the part in italics deciphered.]
Enclosure. 185. Reply of his Majesty to the Proposals presented to him in the name of the Lords and Commons united in the parliament of England at Westminster and the Commissioner of the Parliament of Scotland, now in London.
Dated at our Court at Oxford, the 13/23th December, 1644. (fn. 9)
[Italian, from the English ; 3 pages.]
Dec. 30.
Senato, Secreta, Dispacci, Ceffalonia. Venetian Archives.
186. Lorenzo Marcello, Venetian Proveditore of the Fleet, to the Doge and Senate.
Reports the seizure of a barque caught carrying contraband to English ships.
From the galley at Argostoli, the 20th December, 1644, old style.


  • 1. The king's pass was dated at Marlborough on the 16th Nov., O.S. The parliament deputies were, the earl of Denbigh, lord Maynard, viscount Wenman, Denzil Holles, William Pierrepoint and Bulstrode Whitelocke, Journals of the House of Lords, Vol. VII., page 68.
  • 2. Obliterated.
  • 3. Macmahon was sentenced on the 17-27 November and executed 5 days later. Maguire was not tried before the following February and was executed on Feb. 20, O.S.
  • 4. Rushworth : Hist. Collections. Part III., Vol. II., pages 850-855.
  • 5. Journals of the House of Lords, Vol. VII., page 78.
  • 6. The text would seem to be faulty, possibly through some omission.
  • 7. Hugh Mouat. His letters of credence were read in parliament on the 19th December. Journals of the House of Commons, Vol. III., page 327. Journals of the House of Lords, Vol. VII., pages 104, 105.
  • 8. Isabella, who died on the 6th October.
  • 9. Journals of the House of Lords, Vol. VII., pages 103, 104.