Venice: June 1654

Pages 217-229

Calendar of State Papers Relating To English Affairs in the Archives of Venice, Volume 29, 1653-1654. Originally published by His Majesty's Stationery Office, London, 1929.

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June 1654

June 1.
Senato, Secreta. Dispacci, Zante. Venetian Archives.
264. Lunardo Contarini, Venetian Proveditore of Zante, to the Doge and Senate.
The English ship Maria Susanna has arrived here from Venice with 54 thousand of biscuit from the state for the magazines here, and 117 cases and 26 casks of currants. The captain said he had laded the latter at Venice, though he had no warrant and only the bill of lading. This is against the law, but I considered it best to dissemble, as I had no force to deal with an English ship and it would only have led to confusion. I would point out, however, that currants taken to Venice pay very little duty and if they are taken away without licence or payment of the new customs the example might lead to other disorders and prejudice.
Zante, the 1st June, 1654, new style.
June 2.
Senato, Secreta. Dispacci, Francia. Venetian Archives.
265. Giovanni Sagredo, Venetian Ambassador in France, to the Doge and Senate.
The popular outcry against the article directed against the House of Nassau has been appeased by an assurance from the government that the infant prince of Orange and his adherents will continue to enjoy their prerogatives and offices, provided only that when the prince is of an age to command the Dutch forces he shall take oath never to bear arms against Cromwell. It remains to be seen whether this modification, devised to prevent insurrection, will be accepted in England or whether Cromwell will insist on the observance of the treaty.
The Dutch ambassador has been to inform me about the peace, which he felt sure would be agreeable news to your Serenity. I returned the compliment.
Besides the peace the English and Dutch have concluded a defensive alliance, with a place for other powers. The king of Denmark, the Duke of Oldenburg, the Hanse Towns and the Swiss Protestant Cantons have already joined, The parties are obliged to defend each other in case of attack, and the fact is very remarkable, as it becomes a religious league, and although defensive at present it might one day become offensive. Some who remark the union of the Protestant powers reflect on the discord among the Catholics, observing that the pope, who is the head of them, is not on good terms with anybody, with neither France nor Spain.
Encloses Paulucci's letter.
Meaux, the 2nd June, 1654.
June 2.
Cinque Savii alla Mercanzia, Risposte. Venetian Archives.
266. With respect to the petition of John Obson, we have seen the letters of the Protector Cromwell of the 18th February last, selecting him as consul, which he asks your Serenity to confirm, and we consider he deserves this favour as he has lived and traded here for very many years, and your Serenity may derive great advantage from his employment.
Dated the 2nd June, 1654.
Battista Sanudo. Savii.
Piero Badoer.
Gerolamo Zustinian.
June 5.
Senato, Secreta, Dispacci, Francia. Venetian Archives.
267. Lorenzo Paulucci, Venetian Secretary in England, to Giovanni Sagredo, the Ambassador in France. (fn. 1)
As stated before it is now seen that the more despotic Cromwell becomes the greater are the efforts of his enemies to destroy him. But the task, besides being perilous and difficult requires extensive cooperation, so it cannot proceed with the necessary secrecy. Through the numerous spies whom the Protector maintains for the discovery of such conspiracies as the disaffected, who are certainly very numerous, may form against him, a plot was lately discovered devised by a number of persons for his overthrow and that of the entire government. It had been intended to make the attempt on the way from Hampton Court to London, and if he had returned by water, as he went, instead of by land, the plot, which was only discovered on the night of its intended execution, would not have miscarried. Before morning numerous patrols of cavalry had seized various individuals accused of complicity in the matter, who by order of his Highness, were all sent to the Tower. So far ten have been arrested and on examination they denounced others, so it becomes more and more evident that the enterprise was bold and sanguinary and backed by a strong party. To crush them Cromwell gave orders immediately for all passes to be stopped and simultaneously issued a proclamation enjoining the strictest search for the rest of the conspirators, charging all letters of lodgings to give lists of their tenants to the Lord Mayor within four days. To this end the constables of all the parishes have been instructed to forbid any change of domicile within the next ten days. No one is allowed to quit London without a passport from the Council of State or the Lord Mayor, as the Protector is bent on seizing as many of the conspirators as possible, for since the discovery his fears and suspicions have increased to such a pitch that he and his Council have attended to little else than the discovery of those involved. But the disaffected increase so in numbers that he will have great difficulty in extirpating them, and it will prove a more and more arduous task for him to ensure a long and tranquil existence. Many of the prisoners are said to be persons of condition, a good part being on parole as malignants, having been originally arrested because of service rendered to the late king. So they will now probably lose their liberty for ever as promise breakers, unless the ringleaders suffer death instead of imprisonment, although it is said that the Protector will avoid shedding blood as much as possible. At any rate everything combines to show the precarious nature of his rule and if the Scots gain another victory, and both sides expect an engagement, it is thought that Cromwell's ascendancy will decline.
On arriving in Edinburgh Gen. Monch issued a proclamation granting pardon and a reward of 300l. for each of the ringleaders who might be brought prisoner to him within a specified time. But so far this policy has not succeeded, as force must be the best means of reducing the enemy and bring the Scots to submission. But the way is difficult and perilous as the insurgents are in a position to meet force by force, and fully disposed to do so.
To secure his position and get his authority regularised the Protector announces the meeting of parliament in September next as arranged. He is issuing the writs in advance so that the country may see that he means it to enjoy its ancient electoral privileges, and if he sees anything therein contrary to his personal interests, he will be in time to counteract it. At the present moment it certainly seems his wish and intention that parliament should meet, so in one way or another change is inevitable, and no opinion can be formed of the stability of the government. Depending on the military it is much weakened at present by the departure of the best troops to Scotland, and unless a strong and prompt remedy is applied there it is feared that the disease will spread.
The only news of the fleet is that after the failure in Brittany, reported, which is confirmed, it continued cruising off the French coast with 60 men of war. Since then nothing has been heard though they still say a squadron will go to the Mediterranean to assist the cause of Venice. Only the day before yesterday, kept as a holiday to celebrate the peace and pray for rain some of the preachers spoke to that effect, a like tone being taken by the public press. God grant it be confirmed, but the point of religion may not weigh enough with this nation, which is more prone to ambition and vainglory. Besides as secrecy is an object in all warfare this report may be intended to mislead some enemy, so no opinion can be formed until the fleet has taken a decided course, especially as home affairs and the attitude of Holland do not allow the government to scatter its naval forces or remove them to any great distance.
The appointed commissioners have held several conferences with M. de Bordeaux but nothing positive has yet been settled. He complained to the Protector about the affair in Brittany and demanded redress. His Highness expressed regret and said that admitting the fact to be proved it took place without the knowledge of himself or the Council of State. It is unlikely that an act calculated to exasperate both parties should be perpetrated against the wish of the commander in chief, though it looks as if the English mean to gain time until ready to begin naval operations on a larger scale, when their real object will become more manifest.
London, the 5th June, 1654.
[Italian ; the part in italics deciphered.]
June 6.
Senato, Secreta. Dispacci, Roma. Venetian Archives.
268. Nicolo Sagredo, Venetian Ambassador at Rome, to the Doge and Senate.
The prospect of the entry into the Mediterranean of a strong squadron of English ships causes a great commotion here. The pope has been under the impression that it is aimed against Leghorn. He said so to me and I reported it. He has spoken about it to others. The Florentines, when they heard of this resented it and pointed out that it was the result of his unfriendly disposition towards them. They say that while they are sure of the goodwill of England it is quite possible that this storm will burst upon those who least expect it. A Cardinal of repute told the pope on Monday that the strength of these northern fleets was overwhelming. In the wretched condition to which Italy is being reduced, as is only too well known, they were utterly destitute of forces of their own and there was no means of offering the very slightest resistance at sea. It behoved them to keep wide awake and to be very apprehensive. Civita Vecchia, which is possibly more exposed to a surprise than any other place, should be guarded. He spoke so forcibly that the pope was sensible of the danger and asked for advice as to what could be done. Since then another Cardinal, a dependant on one of the two crowns, has been to audience. The pope raised the subject of his own accord, expressing his fears, and when he heard that the Cardinal agreed about the danger he said that they would have to commend themselves to God.
Rome, the 6th June, 1654.
June 6.
Senato, Secreta, Dispacci, Firenze. Venetian Archives.
269. Giovanni Ambrosio Sarotti, Venetian Resident at Florence, to the Doge and Senate.
Owing to the naval activity of the English, the Dutch and the French, the Grand Duke is taking measures for the defence of Leghorn. In a long conversation with him yesterday I gathered that he fears and believes that a considerable part of the English fleet may come to these waters. But owing to the situation at home his Highness does not believe that Cromwell will find it easy to break with the French ; a point of the highest consequence.
His Highness has received letters from the Lords States. I learn from the Dutch consul that they contain a remonstrance about the ill treatment of their ships, with a demand for compensation for a frigate which the English captured by a stratagem inside the very port, (fn. 2) and for the release of the captain of the ship San Pietro, arrested because the sailors assisted in the capture of an English ship by the White Elephant.
Florence, the 6th June, 1654.
June 10.
Senato, Secreta. Dispacci, Spagna. Venetian Archives.
270. Giacomo Quirini, Venetian Ambassador in Spain, to the Doge and Senate.
The loss of the French ships off St. Malo, overcome by the English to the number of 100 sail, has produced two dissimilar results. The first has proved entirely satisfactory to the government who look forward to this affair as certain to bring about a rupture between those two nations, stimulated by their own inclination and by the incitements which Spain is constantly supplying, although the wiser heads say that with all this pretended confidence they would not like the English to fall in with the fleet of Peru, which would be so opportune and so eminently suited to their interests. The second result is the exceedingly severe blow inflicted on the traders interested in the permissory traffic, for goods sent to the Indies, and the traders of Cadiz and Seville are also sensibly affected.
Madrid, the 10th June, 1654.
June 12.
Senato, Secreta. Dispacci, Francia. Venetian Archives.
271. Lorenzo Paulucci, Venetian Secretary in England, to Giovanni Sagredo, the Ambassador in France. (fn. 1)
The Protector's orders about the late conspiracy continue to be enforced. Many were arrested on mere suspicion, but released after examination while others were placed in yet closer confinement. From the investigations made so far it appears that the plot was made by the Anabaptists, the open enemies of the present government, but utterly opposed to the monarchy, as they are in fact all common people. The efforts made to root out this mischief are vigorous and incessant, but practically fruitless for those who conspire against the present order include not only the majority of the population of London, but of the whole country, for in defiance of all penalties everybody abuses the government. Since the detection of the plot, to render the Protector even more odious, in spite of the night patrols, which were doubled in consequence, placards are constantly being posted about the city denouncing his Highness himself as having invented the conspiracy for his own personal security, to avail himself of this pretext to annihilate the remains of the nobility, especially those most suspected by him. It has indeed been remarked that persons of quality were sought after and arrested on this occasion. So a succession of plots may be expected against the present government.
Owing to these suspicions the sentries have been doubled and as many troops as possible are ordered to London, where during the last few days the drum has been beating for recruits in every direction, though with scant success, in spite of a bounty of 3s. a man, promised by the Protector's order in addition to the usual pay. So it is quite evident that no enthusiasm exists for the service of the government and as his Highness does not venture to raise levies by force, for fear of the consequences, while troops are wanted for his personal safety and for Scotland, he finds himself in a great dilemma.
The meeting of parliament seems settled for the 3rd of September, and the writs will be issued in the course of the present month. By their tenor the electors may not return any who have borne arms against the parliament, or delinquents and malignants, as they are called, especially Catholics. The Protector apparently intends, with these exceptions, to allow the electors to return what members they please. If these are not to his taste he will contrive to class them among the ineligible and thus pack a parliament suited to his purpose. It is expected more than ever to mean a higher title and greater authority, and so it may be supposed that the form of the government will be better authenticated and established in Cromwell's person, or else the same end will be obtained by a change of administration.
His Highness has lately received a courier from Scotland with news that the royalists have gained a great victory. Gen. Monch crossed a river expecting to fall upon the enemy unawares, but these had wind of it and were prepared. So they did not appear at the passage of the river but Gen. Middleton issued his orders and prepared to meet Monch. In the ensuing fight they killed 500 of his men, taking a number of prisoners and surrounding the government forces. This news induces them here to redouble their efforts to send reinforcements since the lack of confidence in the old troops, the difficulty about ships and the successes of the enemy render the affair more serious than was expected. With the suspicion that the rising is fomented from abroad, and with help from France in particular, they have decided unless an adjustment is made soon, to send 25 men of war to blockade the Scottish coast and prevent succour by sea. Some other ships are destined for the coast of Ireland, on a similar service, so if any squadron is sent into the Mediterranean, it will be smaller than was originally intended, and as the English have enough to do with domestic affairs, they will probably not interfere with those of their neighbours for the moment.
Whitelocke is expected back from Sweden, where it is understood that in consequence of fresh instructions from the Protector, he succeeded in establishing a good understanding with that crown and settling the articles of peace, which amount to a commercial treaty for free trade between the two countries.
From Portugal also they are expecting the ratification of the treaty with that country, the ambassador having at length overcome certain difficulties on account of which the king has hitherto refused to confirm it. Although the peace was agreed the government refrained from making any formal announcement, on this account, of a good understanding and free trade with the Portuguese, though after all it is possible that the more the Protector seeks to stand well with neighbouring foreign powers in the hope of enjoying quiet and consolidating his sway, the stronger will he find the opposition to the present order of things at home. The people grow daily more impatient of the iron rod which they so inconsiderately placed in his hands. But although the mistake is now acknowledged, repentance rarely serves to remedy misfortune, so they resign themselves for the moment to silence and submission.
London, the 12th June, 1654.
[Italian ; the part in italics deciphered.]
June 13.
Senato, Secreta. Deliberazioni, Corti. Venetian Archives.
272. To the Ambassador in France.
You will direct Pauluzzi to continue his negotiations for a levy of infantry. If the last offer of 1000 men has not fallen through or if there is some other opening, he is to get on with the business, altering the place d'armes from Candia to Zante. We have every desire to give satisfaction to Galilei, who is recommended by the Protector Cromwell, when we have received authentic particulars of his claims, since we are most anxious to gratify the Protector in every possible way.
Ayes, 63. Noes, 0. Neutral, 60 ; on the substance of the letter.
Second vote, omitting the part about England :
Ayes, 102. Noes, 1. Neutral, 18.
June 17.
Senato, Secreta. Dispacci, Spagna. Venetian Archives.
273. Giacomo Quirini, Venetian Ambassador in Spain, to the Doge and Senate.
Don Luigi spoke to me about their hopes from England. I tell you frankly said he, at the present moment the Court of London has rendered itself conspicuous by the number of its negotiations with foreign powers. That crown has made itself the third power in Europe. The Dutch are well able to confirm this, as in little more than a year they have exhausted themselves and have evacuated Brazil with the famous loss of Arecif, one of the fortresses which is considered impregnable. (fn. 3) In short we shall soon be seeing them take a leading hand in affairs. In the North pendet omne malum. Cromuel is strengthening his forces day by day and making provision of men, money and munitions. The Ambassador Cardenas had our proposals and the replies from Madrid in his hands in forty days. He assures us of the confidence with that government and it is certain that, taking into consideration what has gone before and arguing from what ensues, the man may prove a prophet (e certo che con la consideratione degli antecedenti et con la ragione de' conseguenti l'uomo puo essere profeta).
The fact is, most serene prince, in the present circumstances and so far as Spain is concerned, the business of England is a commodity which is highest in reputation and in most demand, because everyone tries to take it out of the hands of his rival by dint of offering more. Their good intentions here are always leading them to expect more than the results warrant. So far they have not derived any advantage beyond a delay in taking the field. In the matter of preparation they are unable here to measure swords with France, being altogether too dependent on receiving and waiting for their supplies from the remotest confines of the monarchy. This is clearly demonstrated by the armies of the three princes assembled in Flanders.
Madrid, the 17th June, 1654.
[Italian ; the part in italics deciphered.]
June 19.
Senato, Secreta, Dispacci, Francia. Venetian Archives.
274. Lorenzo Paulucci, Venetian Secretary in England, to Giovanni Sagredo, the Ambassador in France. (fn. 4)
Repeated examination having shown the bold and mischievous character of the late conspiracy, arrests are still being made, the troops have this week seized some more persons of quality, the prisoners so far numbering 50. On this same errand the soldiers entered the Inns of Court where the lawyers dwell and captured a gentleman who called for rescue, shouting out lustily that the site was privileged and a sanctuary, and that the soldiers were taking an innocent man to prison in direct violation of their rights. (fn. 5) A number of law students gathered at the cry, with their arms and compelled the soldiers, who were only a handful, to release the prisoner, beating and dealing roughly with the soldiers. Although the outrage may be considered a matter of state, it is thought that to avoid greater mischief the Protector will not notice it further, as the present state of the country makes it inexpedient to subject these lawyers either to insult or punishment, as if anything of the sort were attempted they would do worse. Not only would the other Inns help to maintain their privileges, but they might also reckon on help from many other Londoners. So in all probability the government will turn a deaf ear and the violation of this sanctuary will be attributed, not to the Protector, but to the licentiousness of the military, who do as they please, and may with good reason be styled the masters just now. Under their escort a considerable sum of money reserved for state purposes in case of urgent need was lately removed from a private building in this city to the Tower. Cromwell considered this advisable owing to the discovery of so much disaffection. Before this was done pickets were posted along several of the London streets, where they still are, to keep the populace more in check and facilitate any combined military movement in the event of riot or insurrection. Three full companies of infantry have also arrived this week from Yarmouth and have been quartered in those parts of the capital least provided with troops. The immense number of malcontents and indeed of conspirators induces the Protector to take every possible precaution for his own preservation.
Several Dutch ships have lately come into the Thames. In spite of the peace they were searched, as the English continue to enforce the act of parliament which forbids the Dutch to import into England any goods but those of their own country, otherwise the ships of the United Provinces, being worked with fewer hands and at a cheaper rate would take all the trade out of English hands. To avert this evil Cromwell maintains that the peace merely restores the status quo ante and that the acts of the late Parliament concerning commerce continue to be the law of the land. According to the terms of peace the ports of England and the United Provinces are open to either flag, so that British merchantmen may go where they please. But the chief object in making this stipulation was to diminish the immense trade of the Dutch merchants at Amsterdam. To thwart this I understand that a special envoy has been sent by the States to the Archduke in Flanders with an offer from the States to pay the king of Spain 100,000 crowns a year if he will exclude the English from the coasts of Flanders and so maintain the important trade of Amsterdam, which the English aim at destroying and getting for themselves. The proposal was received graciously, as offers of money generally are, though all decision will probably be delayed because the incessant negotiations of France with England at a moment when the campaign is about to begin, as well as the daily expectation of their fleet from the Indies, do not permit the Spaniards to sanction any act at all calculated to irritate the English.
The fleet is not yet destined apparently for any definite service, though all the neighbouring powers view it with alarm. 50 fine men of war are said to be in the Downs awaiting either orders or a fair wind. Possibly before leaving this coast they may wish to see the French and Spanish naval forces occupied with each other. In this state of suspense a deputation from the Levant Company waited on the Protector lately, requesting him to take measures to make the sea safe and for the protection of their trade. He promised to do so and that a squadron should be sent to the Levant, the application may therefore prove effective, unless Cromwell's reply is a mere blind for the concealment of other projects. But as the season is advancing the operations of this fleet must soon begin, whatever they are.
The news from Scotland represents the last engagement as more and more important and favourable for the insurgents. The government lost over 2000 men, including killed and prisoners. A number of soldiers have returned without its being known exactly if it is of their own accord or by command of the Protector. Unquestionably at the moment it is Scottish affairs which occupy the chief attention of the government and cause the greatest anxiety. The Protector has actually issued the writs to all the counties and boroughs entitled to be represented in parliament to elect men of probity to sit in it thus confirming his intention that that body shall meet on the 3rd September next.
A special envoy arrived here lately from Oldenburg to congratulate the Protector and present him with 8 magnificent horses on behalf of the Count. His Highness accepted them with signs of the greatest pleasure returning the most ample assurances of England's goodwill.
London, the 19th June, 1654.
June 20.
Senato, Secreta. Deliberazioni, Corti. Venetian Archives.
275. To the Ambassador in France.
We enclose a copy of the letter to the Protector Cromuel, which Pauluzzi will present with remarks in conformity with the contents expressing our sincere satisfaction at his exaltation and prosperity. You will further direct him on some other occasion, if the character and condition of internal affairs there admit it, to take steps to intimate to the Protector and other leading members of the government our great obligations from the present war against the Turk and the outstanding glory that would follow upon assistance with a certain number of ships, especially as England has so great an abundance that she can do this without the slightest inconvenience. Pauluzzi must continue his negotiations for a levy of infantry. We are ready to satisfy Galilei when a petition has been presented by his agents and when the amount of his claim has been proved.
Ayes, 132. Noes, 0. Neutral, 2.
276. To the Lord Protector of Great Britain. (fn. 6)
Satisfaction at his accession to the office of Protector, which so well befits his rare and eminent qualities, and the ability shown by him in the functions he has exercised. Additional delight felt at the conclusion of peace under his prudent guidance with the States. Expressions of esteem and a desire to afford proofs of cordiality at all times, with every wish for the greatest properity, length of days and increase of glory.
Ayes, 132. Noes, 0. Neutral, 2.
June 23.
Senato, Secreta. Dispacci, Francia. Venetian Archives.
277. Giovanni Sagredo, Venetian Ambassador in France, to the Doge and Senate.
The Dutch also are contemplating sending 24 ships to the Mediterranean. The real object is to protect their merchantmen from French piracy. This continues as severe as ever notwithstanding the captures made by England in revenge, and the protests of Holland. The Dutch ambassador spoke roundly to the king on the subject, telling him that the pirates made no distinction in favour of the friends of France, and they had powerful protectors, some in the king's very Council. His Majesty promised redress.
Encloses Paulucci's letter.
Rettel, the 23rd June, 1654.
June 26.
Senato, Secreta, Dispacci, Francia. Venetian Archives.
278. Lorenzo Paulucci, Venetian Secretary in England, to Giovanni Sagredo, the Ambassador in France. (fn. 7)
The depositions of those arrested have increased the fears of Cromwell and his government while an idle report of the presence of the king in London incognito led to further stringent clauses in the proclamation and the strictest search to ascertain what truth was in the rumour. Probably the real object was intimidation. By order of his Highness domiciliary visits were paid at night by the military all over London. They thus arrested all persons suspected among whom are many Frenchmen, especially recent arrivals, almost all of whom were taken. The headboroughs of the various parishes imitated the zeal of the military and secured their prisoners in the place of their preaching. The numbers are estimated at over 500, but many were allowed to bail themselves, after examination, though a great number are still in confinement, mostly Frenchmen. They are deeply suspected since the discovery of the plot, the wires of which are said to have been laid by the subtlety of Cardinal Mazarini. But this may be a malicious report to discredit France in accordance with the ill will felt here, for I understand on good authority that in spite of the specious proposals made to the Protector by France an adjustment will prove difficult, and he will continue to seize all the French property he can at sea, a policy most rigorously observed both in the Ocean and the Mediterranean.
A number of frigates which had put in here to refit and victual are now gone to sea with sailing orders for the whole fleet or a good part of it. The admirals have been in London where they held very secret conferences with the Protector and then rejoined their ships as hurriedly as they left them. The report still prevails of a squadron for the Strait of Gibraltar, to disperse the Turkish pirates which have become more daring than ever, owing to England's preoccupation with the Dutch war. But this project may give way to an attack on France to redeem the disaster in Brittany ; at any rate the movements of the fleet cannot certainly be longer delayed.
A regiment of infantry has been sent from Ireland to reinforce the army in Scotland. No news has been received thence since that of the last victory gained by the enemies of this government. The garrison in London has been considerably increased since the plot, so that including two regiments of horse which arrived lately there is now a force of 10,000 men in the capital. The counties have received fresh orders for the parliamentary returns to be made with all possible despatch. The Protector apparently thinks that by anticipating the period of the new parliament he may strengthen and legalise his position, as his personal interest certainly requires, and so take advantage of this assembly in which he will be both proposer and disposer though in the present state of his fortunes and however much they may yet ascend, it is generally believed that he cannot taste the sweets of supremacy without a considerable infusion of bitterness.
His Highness has ordered 2000 gold medals to be struck, their obverse bearing the arms of England, Scotland and Ireland and the reverse a sea fight, as he means to distribute them to those who distinguished themselves most in the state's service during the late Dutch war.
Acknowledges letter of the 20th. The appreciation of the state heartens him to persevere. Encloses accounts for May. Could not live in England a fortnight if help from the state failed him.
London, the 26th June, 1654.
[Italian ; the part in italics deciphered.]
June 27.
Senato, Secreta. Deliberazioni, Corti. Venetian Archives.
279. To the Ambassador in France.
You will commend Pauluzzi's adroit and suave methods for cherishing and increasing confidence. He should continue the same course and it must be frankly understood that the Senate desires nothing more earnestly than to cultivate a reciprocal correspondence and friendship with that government, and is ready to afford the most sincere public testimony of this if it is certain that the demonstrations which we make will meet with an equal response from that side.
There is nothing more to say about the levy, but Pauluzzi will no doubt report if Irish and Scottish prisoners can be had in London, since it is understood that Cromwell will readily grant these. We shall be glad for him to treat for hiring ships which have been paid off, if they are disposed to serve in the next campaign. He will find out the terms and assure them of prompt payment.
Ayes, 160. Noes, 2. Neutral, 1.
June 27.
Senato, Secreta, Dispacci, Firenze. Venetian Archives.
280. Giovanni Ambrosio Sabotti, Venetian Resident at Florence, to the Doge and Senate.
They are keeping a close watch on the proceedings of the Genoese, the arming at Toulon and Cromuel. His Highness has recalled his galleys from Sicily and has issued orders that all the inhabitants of Leghorn, who are mostly French, English and Dutch, shall be deprived of fire arms.
The behaviour of Cromwell, who threatens in several directions and who neither breaks nor comes to terms with the French or with the Spaniards leaves his Highness in a state of uncertainty with regard to what may happen and what the Protector may ultimately decide to undertake with his powerful naval force.
Florence, the 27th June, 1654.
June 30.
Senato, Secreta. Dispacci, Francia. Venetian Archives.
281. Giovanni Sagbedo, Venetian Ambassador in France, to the Doge and Senate.
After a whole week in discussion the States decided to order the ambassadors in London to return forthwith all the documents and secret articles arranged with Cromwell. But the representatives of Holland protested and sent diametrically opposite instructions to the ambassadors, who concluded the treaty and are of their own province, desiring them not to obey, but to consign the secret act to Cromwell himself immediately, a proceeding which may create a perilous schism between the Provinces.
Encloses letters of England.
Retel, the 30th June, 1654.
June 30.
Senato, Secreta. Dispacci, Napoli. Venetian Archives.
282. Andrea Rosso, Venetian Resident at Naples, to the Doge and Senate.
The English and Dutch nationals here have celebrated the peace by entertaining each other at banquets and by bonfires.
Naples, the 30th June, 1654.


  • 1. Forwarded with Sagredo's despatch of the 16th June.
  • 2. The Phœnix.
  • 3. The Recif (Pernambuco) surrendered on 25 January, Aitzema : Saken van Staet en Oorlogh, Vol. iii., p. 1124.
  • 4. Forwarded with Sagredo's despatch of the 23rd June.
  • 5. This raid must have been made on the Middle Temple, though sanctuary had been abolished there in 1624. Inderwick. Calendar of Middle Temple Records, Vol. ii., p. xxv.
  • 6. The full text in Italian given in Barozzi e Berchet : Relazioni, Inghilterra, p. 356. Also in Thurloe : State Papers Vol. ii., p. 470.
  • 7. Forwarded with Sagredo's despatch of the 30th June.