Venice: June 1653

Pages 80-91

Calendar of State Papers Relating To English Affairs in the Archives of Venice, Volume 29, 1653-1654. Originally published by His Majesty's Stationery Office, London, 1929.

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June 1653

June 3.
Senato, Secreta. Dispacci, Francia. Venetian Archives.
113. Giovanni Sagredo, Venetian Ambassador in France, to the Doge and Senate.
Reports about the siege of Bordeaux. Marsin is receiving reinforcements from Spain, especially of Irish troops, recently landed at Cape Breton. Some of the Irish colonels are already negotiating a change of sides, and 400 of their countrymen are already enrolled under the French flag. There has been some talk at Court of sending the duke of York thither ; that as their native prince he might draw off all the Irish troops from Spain and draft them into the Irish regiments in the French service, but fear of offending England by so pronounced a step has so far witheld them. Meanwhile the duke will try to effect by letter that which political expediency forbids him to attempt in person.
Encloses the usual letter of England.
Paris, the 3rd June, 1653.
June 6.
Senato, Secreta. Dispacci, Francia. Venetian Archives.
114. Lorenzo Paulucci, Venetian Secretary in England, to Giovanni Sagredo, the Ambassador in France. (fn. 1)
The aldermen or chiefs of the guilds this week presented a petition to Cromwell on behalf of the corporation of London (fn. 2) in which after eulogising his resolve to end the long and unreasonable rule of the late parliament they ask him for the gratification of all the people to constitute a new one, as being necessary to the city and the whole kingdom, and in accordance with the hopes frequently held out. The general listened patiently to the address, although he knew its tenor beforehand, but his answer was unexpected and he told the petitioners in a few words to mind their own business and to leave the care of directing and establishing the government to those whose office it was. But he assured them that they would aim at the relief and greater happiness of the people. So, without further reply, the aldermen took their departure, rather mortified than comforted, the result being 0utterly different from their intentions. Subsequently by order of Cromwell and the Council several of those who signed the address have been degraded from their offices, so there is not much encouragement either for them or for others to prefer similar suits. It is supposed that the aldermen were induced to take this step at the special instigation of members of the late parliament, who do not neglect to work underhand to avenge the wrong done them. But any attempt will always prove vain and might well supply the place of right, even were this last greater than it is.
At the same time, at this first hint and realising that without a new parliament the present government lacks the necessary foundation, the general and Council now seem very intent on the choice of members for what they choose to call the new "Representative." No one will sit in it who does not enjoy Cromwell's entire confidence and approval, and if necessary the electors will be compelled to return these by force. This course is rendered necessary by the extreme distrust he feels now and by the mischief which he anticipates from setting up a fresh assembly, Consequently it is impossible to know whether the meeting will come as easily and quickly as they wish people to believe. He is certainly averse from it, but the necessity of giving the government a basis may eventually induce him to consent though always with special care for the maintenance of his own security through the selection of members. Men say that if he should lose ground and find himself unequal to his work he might even favour the royal cause, for his personal advantage, for although mute it exists in this city and in many parts of the country besides, and has very numerous adherents. So he has two strings to his bow and if one breaks he may try the other, retaining influence and authority whatever the event. The general belief is that for the future he will not content himself with a private station, especially as by posters put up in the streets and by the voice of some of the preachers he has been proclaimed worthy of the crown, under the pretence that a monarchical form of government is indispensable for the welfare and quiet of England. Although such ideas tend to his exaltation they may be said to aim at discrediting him and be used to charge him with aiming at the throne. Believing them to issue from his rivals he now tries to silence them, answering all compliments with the greatest humility and in the guise of a private individual. Since the change he has not altered his style of living, indeed his humility, affability and courtesy towards everyone have increased, possibly with a view to making a greater impression on the multitude. So the present crisis is watched with a curiosity befitting its importance, and the outcome cannot fail to be remarkable. If peace does not come with Holland, contrary to his wishes, to win universal approval in London and throughout the country, his popularity may decline. He will study to keep and if possible to increase this, while relying on force and keeping the military as attached to him as possible.
The envoy sent recently to Holland with letters about peace has returned ; but the reply is less satisfactory than had been expected, because the Provinces are not unanimous, three of them, the partisans of the Prince of Orange, being for war. Several private conferences were held on the subject at the Hague, but any decision was postponed owing to differences of opinion. Meanwhile a battle would certainly hasten an agreement, for it has been observed that every naval action, great or small, always induces an immense desire for peace.
A courier recently come from Scotland reports that the fleet is still seeking the enemy, who by advices received was making great efforts to effect a junction with the Danish ships. Much surprise is felt here at nothing more being known and that no engagement has taken place. It is supposed that the two fleets must have missed each other or else that it happened intentionally because each means to take the utmost advantage of circumstances.
M. de Bordeaux has recently had audience of the Council of State in which he stated that as arrangements for a good understanding with his king had already reached a satisfactory conclusion, assuming this to be ratified by the present government they ought not to listen to proposals of the Bordeaux rebels who came here, and they ought to dismiss them at once. They answered in general terms, giving scant satisfaction. In fact they have no confidence here in the negotiations of this minister which they think all artful and chimerical, devised by Cardinal Mazzarini, on whom he is known to depend entirely. If it be true that the French court is in close treaty with the Dutch for an alliance, as is already whispered, they will be even more distrustful of France here and become more friendly than at present towards the people of Bordeaux and the Prince of Conde. Yet when these delegates had audience of the Council of State, they only got fair words, and although they press for an immediate decision, since their affairs at Bordeaux do not permit them to stay long, this does not make them hurry here, and the general belief is that little or nothing will be done for them, since conditions here do not admit of sending troops or other assistance so soon as is desired.
The Swiss Agent is pressing for a reply ; but as regards the mediation for which he came, through Holland, nothing further will be done, for if the government here desired anything of the sort it would not have rejected that of Sweden in favour of the Swiss Protestants. But even if this were not the case the Presbyterian religion professed by them is in itself an obstacle, as they try here to discredit that creed as much as possible. So the intercourse between Switzerland and England will probably be confined to the mere general terms of a good understanding.
I have again called on the Spanish ambassador when we exchanged compliments. He said his king desired peace solely from his own eagerness to relieve Venice in its long war.
I have given a memorial to Sir [Oliver] Fleming to present to the general and Council, asking for audience, to obtain something corresponding to what your Excellency is trying to get from Holland, namely that Dutch ships in the service of the republic may not be molested by the English. The justice of the demand is admitted and I hope it will be granted speedily, if the press of business gives them time. In order to get it as expeditiously as possible I drew up an order in the exact form required and handed it in confidence to Fleming, for when these people have anything out of the usual routine to do they do not know how to begin or to end it. Moreover things have usually been so long drawn out as to cause universal dissatisfaction, but with the change of government it is hoped that this nuisance may be abated.
Acknowledges letters of the 31st ult.
London, the 6th June, 1653.
Postscript :—As I close this despatch a report is circulating that the two fleets have missed each other and the Dutch one has suddenly appeared in the Downs, a short distance from Dover, possibly intending to bombard the castle or some other in the neighbourhood and to land and blockade all the men of war and merchantmen now in the Thames. I shall be able to verify this by my next mail.
[Italian ; the part in italics deciphered.]
June 10.
Senato, Secreta. Dispacci, Francia. Venetian Archives.
115. Giovanni Sagredo, Venetian Ambassador in France, to the Doge and Senate.
With regard to the suggested alliance between France and Holland, although much has passed on the subject between the Cardinal and the Dutch ambassador, nothing positive has been settled as the Cardinal considers that the open enmity of England would do more harm to France than any benefit she might receive from such an alliance. Yet he flatters the Dutch and keeps the negotiations open in case England shows more hostility than she has done so far. This is not likely, as Cromwell, intent on establishing his authority at home and in defending himself against the Dutch, is not equal to any additional embarrassments, and will employ dissimulation rather than open enmity, thus using the very weapons which France is actually wielding against England.
I have informed Paulucci about the mission from the Swiss for mediation between Holland and England, and about that suggested by your Serenity, in your letter of the 29th March. But policy may have undergone some modification with the change of government. Paulucci, who knows the facts, will follow his instructions. It is quite probable that Cromwell, whilst proclaiming a wish for peace, for the sake of popularity, may really desire the continuation of the war, as giving him more consequence and authority, through the support of a military force, the mainspring of a despotic government.
I also informed Paulucci of the news received about the conclusion of peace between England and Portugal. His letters of last week show that it is not yet settled. If it were, he would be much to blame if the first news of so conspicuous a public act performed in London should reach your Serenity from Spain instead of from England.
Encloses Paulucci's letter.
Paris, the 10th June, 1653.
116. Giovanni Sagredo, Venetian Ambassador in France, to the Doge and Senate.
A courier has arrived with news of the surrender of Bellegarde. Several advantages will accrue to the king from this. Among them is the dismay it will cause to Bordeaux. Owing to the discouragement there the Prince of Conti had sent to Conde and Batteville to report the consternation of the people and the need of assistance. It was proposed to send to England and Spain again, but seeing how faint their hopes were of any help from England, they had decided to turn their attention exclusively to that from Spain, though great difficulties were placed in the way owing to the measures taken by the French. He also reported that since the capitulation of Lormont and the surrender of 5 or 600 Irish who had gone over to the French side (fn. 3) (as I reported) the Prince of Conti had made sure of the fidelity of the remainder by obliging them to send hostages into the town.
Paris, the 10th June, 1653.
June 14.
Senato, Secreta, Dispacci, Francia. Venetian Archives.
117. Lorenzo Paulucci, Venetian Secretary in England, to Giovanni Sagredo, the Ambassador in France. (fn. 4)
I went lately to Sir [Oliver] Fleming to find out about the treatment of Dutch ships employed by the republic. I made bold to say that the United Provinces had given an assurance on the subject to your Excellency. Fleming said the demand was perfectly just and he believed it would be speedily attended to. Any delay was due to the present crisis. Owing to this no foreign minister had been admitted to the Council of State during the last few days as they are very busy over the establishment of a solid and well ordered form of government. I understand from another quarter, however, that great differences of opinion exist upon this between Cromwell and the other officers of the Council, in consequence of which all business is at a stand. In this state of transition there is no security for the public acts and it is not known under whose authority to issue them. Although in the main everything depends on Cromwell he is very cautious about proposing or vetoing for fear of being accused at the very outset of too great presumption and of aspiring to absolute ride. Even now, since the rebuke to the aldermen and corporation the city has begun to murmur against a military despotism. But this will always be strong enough to quell all turbulence, nor is it likely that any will be attempted. But all this goes to show how difficult it is for foreign ministers to transact business and similarly with me in obeying your Excellency's commands.
When I was talking with Sir [Oliver] Fleming in the presence of a secretary of M. de Bordeaux and another person of standing, he asked me about affairs in the Levant. I replied hopefully, and he remarked that the war reflected great glory on the state but he regretted that advantage had not been taken of the wish here to help. A levy of 4000 or even up to 10,000 Irish would be granted. He added, I make the offer in the presence of good witnesses. At the place of embarcation the men would not cost more than 25 or 26 shillings per head, there was plenty of transport to take them to Candia or Zante and he would charter them himself. It was only necessary to obtain credits here and by deciding at once the troops might yet arrive in time to save the island. If a good part of these men was not granted to the republic the Commonwealth would be compelled to send them to the West Indies or the Orkneys, but being Catholics they themselves would prefer a foreign land. The raising of troops here would also make the Turks apprehensive of a good understanding between England and Venice, and they take no notice of any but a naval power. I merely thanked him and promised to report the offer at once.
It was confirmed that General Tromp with the main body of his fleet appeared off Dover and began to bombard the town, damaging many of the houses, much to the consternation of the inhabitants (fn. 5) ; but owing to the defence made by the castle and hearing that the English fleet was coming up before the wind and that a number of well equipped ships were on the point of leaving the Thames, he decided to weigh and sail for the coast of Flanders, where he is supposed to be with his whole force, after having safely convoyed various Dutch merchantmen both outward and homeward bound. General Blach furious at the enemy's audacity in approaching so near and encouraged by their leaving Dover, is understood to have left the river with a considerable number of ships, to take command of the fleet, meaning to join the main body and then proceed for action towards Flanders and Holland. The English fleet now numbers 140 sail and will unite or divide according to circumstances, so it is thought they will have fallen in with the enemy by this time and probably have given battle, unless the Dutch have avoided an engagement. News is anxiously awaited here.
Meanwhile it is reported that the United Provinces are on the point of despatching a deputy or commissioner here to negotiate. Possibly that is what they would like here, but martial renown requires such aspirations and good intentions to be dissembled and that both Holland and England should refer the issue to a battle, otherwise the intractability and mutual punctilio will increase, although every day makes it clearer that Cromwell desires peace if possible as the best means of promoting his own interests and plans, which cannot yet be thoroughly understood, although his proceedings afford ample scope for comment and very great events.
The foreign ministers, having little or no business during the crisis are intent on learning what is being done to form the new government. The zealous partisans of the military declare that the army which established, protected and maintained parliament was subsequently compelled to demolish it, and in the future the form of government must depend upon the army, so even if an assembly is convoked with the title of Grand Council or New Representative, it will be absolutely dependent on the good pleasure of the soldiers.
The Bordeaux delegates make no progress in their negotiations and have small hope of success, but as a matter of good policy the English flatter them with assurance of a friendly disposition.
I have just received your Excellency's reply of the 6th about the treaty with Portugal. No further particulars have transpired, as everything remains in suspense owing to the changes now taking place. In all probability it will not be resumed or the peace established until the government here is thoroughly consolidated. I learn that at the solitary audience the Portuguese ambassador has had since the dissolution he merely commended the action taken by Cromwell and abused the late parliament. They did not altogether like this and though his reception was gracious he has not appeared before the Council since, and if he had done anything definite I do not think it would have escaped my knowledge.
London, the 14th June, 1653.
June 14.
Senato, Secreta. Dispacci, Firenze. Venetian Archives.
118. Giovanni Ambrosio Sarotti, Venetian Resident at Florence, to the Doge and Senate.
The seven English ships which recently left Malamocco, put in at Tunis for water and biscuit and to continue their voyage to England if they are not stopped at the Strait. The Vice Admiral Jan Villano is cruising off there with 17 ships of war, it is believed for the purpose of intercepting them.
Florence, the 14th June, 1653.
June 21.
Senato, Secreta. Dispacci, Francia. Venetian Archives.
119. Lorenzo Paulucci, Venetian Secretary in England, to Giovanni Sagredo, the Ambassador in France. (fn. 6)
Although all business, domestic and foreign, is at a standstill because of the crisis, I have applied for audience to execute my commissions and have had to-morrow fixed for appearing before the Council of State. Reports circulated here about the recent sea fight are incredibly confused, victory being claimed in spite of losses. Cromwell and the whole Council have been much agitated the last few days, between hope and fear, owing to contradictory intelligence. At the end of last week intelligence was received of a considerable advantage gained over the enemy by the fleet. This week reports vary greatly. It is stated on good authority that when the battle began, on the 15th at a short distance from the mouth of the Thames, lasting throughout the 16th and 17th, the English were victorious to the point of capturing 9 of the enemy's ships. Not satisfied with this they followed the Dutch to their own harbours, who are supposed to have retreated that way designedly, for meeting with a reinforcement of 50 sail and with the wind in their favour they turned upon the English. In a hot action they took 24 of their ships, compelling the rest to make for the coast of Flanders, where the English fleet is now supposed to be in a shattered condition and practically blockaded. The battle is said to have been obstinate and bloody and the number of prisoners taken by either side considerable. The death is confirmed of General Pen, cut in two by a cannon shot. (fn. 7) The number of killed and wounded is reported so vaguely that it is impossible to learn the truth. A number of wounded have reached Dover with some shattered men of war, together with the prisoners. If the above is confirmed, the English will have had the worst of it although many maintain that 9 Dutch men of war were taken, 6 sunk and two burned, and that the prisoners number over 1,200. The Dutch will doubtless have their share also, and so they are very impatient here for more definite news of the fleet and its actual position.
Meanwhile as very little is said about the action and as the general attitude here is thoughtful rather than elated, their losses are suspected to have been considerable. I will will try to get more authentic information. We hear from Holland that the States incline to send some one here about an adjustment. I may state that last week, to secure the coast and as a reinforcement for the fleet, after the first news of the battle begun in the Downs, 1500 veteran infantry quartered in London were marched off in haste and replaced by other troops from the neighbourhood, to guard against all accidents.
The new Grand Council or Representative does not seem to make great progress, although petitions for it have been presented from several counties and reports are current of its speedy formation. The general belief is that Cromwell will keep the matter to himself for some time, while the army constitutes the parliament. Of his own authority and that of the Council circulars have been sent to several of the counties desiring them to return certain adherents of his as a junto to the new Representative or to the Council of State, which will probably continue in its present form augmented by men entirely devoted to him.
With regard to the peace negotiations with Portugal I am able to assert that it would not be so near but for the change of government, despite the efforts of the Portuguese ambassador. Sir [Oliver] Fleming told me in confidence that some of the members of the administration were opposed to the welfare of the Commonwealth, but with the change he thinks it certain that in a few audiences the Portuguese ambassador will overcome any slight difficulties and that the peace will be concluded, as the Portuguese seem bent on it.
When in Fleming's company I received your Excellency's letter of the 13th and thanked him officially for the offer of the Irish levy. He confirmed the offer and said he had spoken on the subject to Cromwell, who readily concurred, using expressions of regard for the republic. Fleming remarked, the republic should no longer hesitate but decide, and if she wants the Irishmen they shall be furnished immediately and of the very best. As Catholics they will fight boldly for the faith and at a lower rate than the Senate has ever paid before, for the men could be consigned at the place of embarcation for little more than 2 crowns a head ; and for small pay officers might be selected from among them. They could be shipped at once for Candia or Zante or any other place the state wished ; but it is necessary to decide quickly. I said the Senate would consider the offer and meanwhile this powerful government and he himself would be the more esteemed for all these favours and facilities.
Asks for consideration from the state, having served for over a year in this employment. For this and for four years' service in France hasnever had one penny of salary or provision. If considered unworthy to act as Resident or Secretary in any Court, but merely as a stop gap, asks to be relieved of this service and that the ambassador will back his request to the doge. Encloses account of expenses for May.
London, the 21st June, 1653.
June 25.
Senato, Secreta. Dispacci, Francia. Venetian Archives.
120. Lorenzo Paulucci, Venetian Secretary in England, to Giovanni Sagredo the Ambassador in France. (fn. 8)
As arranged I went on Friday to the Council. After waiting some time in a richly furnished chamber, I was joined by two of the members and Fleming, the master of the ceremonies, who told me that they have been appointed to hear me. I spoke of the gratification felt at the letter from the Commonwealth and the republic's regard for England and the commander of her vast forces. The Dutch had ordered their captains not to molest English ships serving Venice against the Turk and it was reasonable that England should reciprocate in such a just cause. Knowing they expected to hear something about the suit of the English merchants, I told them, as instructed, how much importtance the Senate attached to the requests of this government, but a decision to refer the matter to the Admiralty Court here was suspended owing to the claims of the opposite parties to state their case, which could not in equity be denied, As usual I left a copy of my exposition in Italian and English. Fleming answered on behalf of the Councillors that they would acquaint the Council with everything and I should receive an answer. I waited an hour for it, and this morning Fleming assured me I should have it forthwith. I can now only await their answer.
No more authentic accounts of the late sea fight have yet appeared, but it is understood that the losses on both sides are less than at first stated. Here they persist in claiming a great victory. To convince the people the General and his Council have appointed a day next month as one of thanksgiving, which the preachers are enjoined to observe strictly. With these reports of great success, his Excellency has taken the opportunity to assume the following remarkable title " Oliver Cromwell, Captain General of all the forces raised or to be raised within the Commonwealth of England." By order of himself and his Council he has prolonged the monthly tax of 120,000Z. for the next half year as a fund for the naval war. The measure excites little or no complaint, as with the hope of better government and of an adjustment with the Dutch the people submit willingly to this extraordinary burden, although they feel it more and more owing to the suspension of trade, the necessary consequence of these hostilities.
A report is circulating, confirmed by Sir [Oliver] Fleming, that the United Provinces are sending four commissioners here to negotiate an agreement namely, two for Holland and one each for Friesland arid Zeeland. As this project was formed before the battle and seems to have evaporated rather than ripened since then, the inference is that the Dutch had their share of advantage in the action. It also indicates that negotiations for an offensive and defensive alliance with France, which have been held up owing to the appearance of peace, with missions from each side, are now expected to go on. But with a view to the adjustment with England, it is known here that the Dutch ambassador in France has been charged by the States to hold up the progress of this alliance, and in the event of its being concluded he is to insist earnestly on the strictest secrecy about the offensive articles. But here they are well informed and receive punctual notice of the most secret, and important negotiations, encouraging their informants by liberal presents.
Since the battle the fleet has been cruising off the coast of Flanders and Holland, and has detached a considerable squadron as far as the Texel to make an attack there, in revenge for the bombardment of Dover. No news has come yet of the results of this expedition ; but it is known that for the purpose of intimidating the Dutch 200 of their wounded were landed by the English. The fleet will remain there as long as possible for the purpose of incommodating the enemy, at least, if unable to injure him more seriously. To this end every possible effort is being made, further reinforcements of troops having been marched from this city to the coast, together with considerable supplies of provisions, ammunition and military stores, as they fully realise here that the greater the force at sea and the higher the spirit shown in prosecuting the war the more easily will they obtain peace. This is ardently desired and considered likely if the Dutch show themselves reasonable. In that case it is implied that they will not show themselves difficult here.
London, the 25th June, 1653.
121. Lorenzo Paulucci, Venetian Secretary in England, to Giovanni Sagredo, the Ambassador in France.
General Cromwell is studying every possible way to obtain popularity. Aware that many of the city companies and those of the provinces, besides a number of private individuals, are heavy creditors for loans made to the late parliament during the war and that in spite of repeated demands for payment they have never been able to get anything, he has now appointed a committee on purpose to enquire into the matter and have an estimate drawn up of each individual credit, to liquidate the entire debt by an allotment of land in Ireland. This arrangement seems to satisfy all parties. Aware also of the importance under existing circumstances of keeping the soldiers in a good temper Cromwell has desired that all officers and men shall receive their arrears, thus attaching them to his service. They already eulogise his policy declaring that in four hours so to speak he has effected what was denied them for whole years by the late parliament. That body's reputation steadily wanes. Some say that its members will be called to account, while others add that they are to be expelled from this city, but the general keeps his own counsel in the matter, which is much discussed.
The vast personal energies of Cromwell and the Council, which may be considered his are daily active over the new form of government. He has already nominated 120 persons who with 5 each from Scotland and Ireland will constitute the body of the new Representative. In his choice of members few persons of quality are included, and those are his warm adherents, the chief being General Blach and ex-General Fairfax. The rest are all low people who invariably agree to his orders and those of the Council of Officers, which must always give the law. It is said that he means to establish a solid and well organised government with a view to consolidate his own power and authority, since it is observed that without show he yet noiselessly continues to advance and gain ground.
From other sources I hear that his real object is to model this Commonwealth by that of Poland, possibly with a view to his own supremacy, and for the attainment of the crown as bestowed by the Polish Diet, meaning the sovereignty to be periodically elective, with certain prerogatives for his own descendants. This is imposed upon him as it were by the general outcry that a monarchical rule is indispensible for the welfare of England. Such is the tale here, and although at a crisis of this sort much is uncertain, it may safely be asserted that all decisions will depend on his good pleasure and that of his followers and Council.
Owing to the death of the Prince royal of Portugal (fn. 9) two councillors went to-day with Sir [Oliver] Fleming in Cromwell's coaches to offer condolences to the Portuguese ambassador. But for this sad news, which obliges the ambassador and his large suite to go into mourning, the finishing touches might have been put to the peace between the two countries. This is expected at the next audience, unless it be postponed by the necessary formalities of the government.
Nine or ten ships captured in the last sea fight have been brought into the Thames, and some 200 prisoners landed from them are already in London.
The negotiations of the delegates from Bordeaux are not supposed to have made the least progress. In spite of their urgency they have so far received fair words only : The utmost they could obtain here at present would be some of the Dutch prizes as transports, if they have money to pay for them, but they are not believed to have come sufficiently well provided to pay for these or other supplies.
London, the 25th June, 1653.
June 28.
Senato, Secreta. Dispacci, Firenze. Venetian Archives.
122. Giovanni Ambrosio Sarotti, Venetian Resident at Florence, to the Doge and Senate.
A barque which has come from Messina in eight days reports the capture by the English ship Henry Buonaventura of a Flemish ship from Venice, bound for Amsterdam, believed to be the Stella. It is hoped that Captain Tromp, who has been sighted off Taranto with seven ships, will be able to take revenge.
News has come that six English ships from Morocco have reached Alicante. They tried to capture three Dutch ships in that port, which took refuge under the defences of that place.
Florence, the 28th June, 1653.


  • 1. Forwarded with Sagredo's despatch of the 10th June.
  • 2. On the 20th May, o.s.
  • 3. Lormont surrendered on the 26th May as the result of 600 Irish of the garrison under Col. Dillon going over to the French. Devienne : Hist. de la Ville de Bordeaux L, p. 464. Archives Departmentales de la Gironde, Vol. VIII., pp. 161, 171.
  • 4. Forwarded in Sagredo's despatch of the 17th June.
  • 5. On Wednesday 28th May, o.s. (7th June). Cal. S.P. Dom. 1652-3, page 358.
  • 6. Forwarded with Sagredo's despatch of the 24th June.
  • 7. It should be Richard Deane.
  • 8. This and the following letter forwarded with Sagredo's despatch of the 1st July.
  • 9. Theodosius, who died on the 15th May.