Venice: June 1522, 16-30

Pages 244-253

Calendar of State Papers Relating To English Affairs in the Archives of Venice, Volume 3, 1520-1526. Originally published by Her Majesty's Stationery Office, London, 1869.

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June 1522, 16–30

June 16. Contarini's Original Letter Book, Letter no. 171, St. Mark's Library. 478. Gasparo Contarini to the Signory.
Yesterday the Court received intelligence of the sack and capture of Genoa, which caused great joy. On the 11th [Denis Poillot] the French ambassador and [Chavigny] the envoy from Madame [Louise] took their departure. (fn. 1)
The Spanish fleet, which was expected from Flanders, has not yet arrived in England. The Emperor's embarkation is therefore delayed; and in the meanwhile he will reside at Winchester.
Windsor, Monday, 16th June 1522.
[Italian, ½ page.]
June 16. Sforza Archives. 479. Treaty of Windsor. (Imperial Counterpart.) (fn. 2) Charles, &c.—At a time when the Sovereign of the Turks is threatening all the Christian powers, has sacked and ravaged Hungary, and meditates still greater undertakings, the King of the French is levying war in Christendom. After violating the treaties and breaking the peace whilst Pope Leo X. was still alive, he first openly attacked the States of the Church, and then, though to his own damage, invaded our own realms and dominions in French Flanders and Spain, without any previous defiance, and laid them waste with sword and fire. For this reason Henry King of England and France, Lord of Ireland, our very dear brother and uncle, deservedly styled “Defender of the Faith,” having been requested in virtue of treaties to keep his faith and oath, as the French King has rejected equitable conditions of peace or truce, has declared himself his enemy.
Having met together, being both Defenders as well of the Catholic Church as of the orthodox faith, and desiring to secure peace among Christians, in order that the forces of Christendom may be combined against its cruel enemies, we have made this indissoluble treaty and perpetual peace.
(1.) This treaty is nowise to disparage existing treaties between Charles and Henry, though it is to take precedence of all others.
(2.) They shall henceforth heart and soul be united for the preservation of their persons, dignities, dominions, and revenues, by whomsoever unduly detained or occupied, declaring themselves friends of friends and foes of foes. This treaty to include any dominions hereafter acquired by them.
(3.) Should any potentate attack the Emperor, the King of England is to render assistance at his own cost; the Emperor doing the like by the King.
(4.) As the expedition against the Turks cannot be effected until chastisement be first inflicted on the guilty peace breakers among Christians, and as the root of this evil proceeds from the undue occupation by the King of the French of what belongs to others, the contracting sovereigns, having already declared themselves his enemies, will continue the war against him by land and sea.
(5.) Neither party to recall his army or fleet until each recover what belongs to him.
(6.) Neither to desist from the war without the consent of his ally; and should the enemy make proposals for peace they are to be communicated.
(7.) Mutual transit to be allowed through the territories of the contracting parties for vessels, troops, etc.
(8.) Any acquisition to be surrendered to the party to whom it rightfully belongs.
(9.) The enemies and rebels of each are to be deemed enemies and rebels of both, and banished.
(10.) Pope Adrian VI. to be invited to become the head of this league within three months.
(11.) If the Venetian Republic make peace or truce with the Emperor, and alienate itself entirely from the French alliance, and, according to the treaty of London [October 1518], declare against the French, the Republic is to be held as a confederate.
(12.) As the Switzers are well affected to the Emperor and the King of England, envoys are to be sent to them to renounce the yoke and alliance of France and enter into the present treaty. Should they fail to do so, the contracting parties are to endeavour through their envoys to prevent them from adhering to France, and to secure their neutrality.
(13.) No power to be included in the present treaty, save by consent of the contracting parties, who nominate as their friends and confederates the Kings of Hungary, Denmark, Portugal, and Poland, the Holy Roman Empire and its Princes Electors, Don Ferdinand, Infant of Spain and Archduke of Austria, Lady Margaret, Archduchess, widow relict of Savoy, and Countess of Burgundy, Cardinal de' Medici with the Florentine Republic, the Cardinal of Liege with the city of Liege, the Cardinal of Lyons with his dominions, the Dukes of Savoy, Milan, Juliers, and Cleves, the Marquises of Montferrat and Mantua, and the Bishops of Utrecht and Minister.
These articles, we, Charles Emperor elect, promise Henry King of England and France to keep and observe inviolate; and for their observance bind under mortgage (hypotheca) and bond all our goods wherever existing. And we have signed these our letters with our own hand, and commanded that our Great Seal be set to them.
Given in Windsor Castle, 16th June 1522.
Collated with the original by Philip Nicola, the Emperor's secretary.
June 17. Deliberazioni Senato Secreta, v. xlix. p. 91. 480. The Doge and Senate to the Venetian Ambassadors accredited to the Emperor and the King of England.
Have received Antonio [Surian]'s letters of the 19th, 22nd, and 29th May, and those written by Gasparo [Contarini], dated from Bruges on the 20th and 22nd May, and from Dover on the 28th. Were extremely glad to hear by the latter of the Emperor's safe arrival in England, and of the loving conferences between him and the King. The ambassadors are to congratulate the two Sovereigns.
By Surian's letters of the 19th May learn what the King said to him about the union between the Emperor, himself, and the Signory. For this gracious office on the part of the King are bound to him for ever. When on the point of answering this letter of Surian's, there arrived the despatch from Canterbury written on the 31st May.
The State is much gratified by the good offices which Cardinal Wolsey hoped to perform with the Emperor with respect to the negotiations. Are awaiting news of the communication which the Cardinal promised to make at Greenwich. The State must necessarily await this announcement to enable them to make a decisive answer; and the ambassadors are to notify this to the Emperor and to the Chancellor [Gattinara], lest they be surprised at the delay.
Although aware that to delay the despatch of the Flanders galleys is extremely detrimental to the Venetian nation, nevertheless, by reason of the Signory's ancient friendship with the King and his ancestors, it has been very agreeable to the Doge and Senate to have an opportunity of doing pleasure to the King by accommodating him with the galleys, of which he may dispose as of his own.
Desire that on quitting Spain they may come back with their cargoes without any impediment.
Ayes, 178. Noes, 14. Neutrals, 1.
[Italian, 60 lines.]
June 17. Deliberazioni Senato Secreta, v. xlix. p. 92. 481. The Proposed Triple League.
Reply made by the Signory to the Imperial Ambassador [on the 20th of June], in accordance with the letter to the Venetian Ambassador in England on the 17th.
Your magnificence on a former occasion demanded the Signory's reply to the Viceroy [Charles de Lannoy, Viceroy of Naples], and was told that the State having received letters from Contarini, ambassador with the Emperor, on the same subject, it was necessary in the first place to answer them, in order that the reply to the Viceroy might be to the like effect.
We inform yon, therefore, that the State wrote to Contarini, announcing its intention of forming a union with the Emperor, but the Ambassador Surian, on the 19th May, wrote that the King of England had proposed to him a league between their two Majesties and the Signory. Subsequently, by joint letters from Surian and Contarini, dated Canterbury, the 31st of May, the Signory understood that Cardinal Wolsey had told them the Emperor had acquainted his King and himself with all the Signory's negotiations. As there were certain difficulties, the Cardinal hoped to devise a mode of adjustment, and desired Surian and Contarini to meet him at Greenwich, when he would let them know the decision, which the State is expecting hourly. Until then the Signory can give no reply. This you can announce to the Viceroy.
[Italian, 27 lines.]
June 17. Sanuto Diaries, v. xxxiii. p. 280. 482. The Proposed Triple League.
The Senate sat in the afternoon. The Doge was present.
An apologetic letter to England was written and carried; the Signory requires the King to let them know what terms the Emperor would give them should they adhere to him and desert France.
Motion that a letter be written to Badoer, the Signory's ambassador with the King of France, who is at Lyons, sending him copies of the letters from England, and of the King's conversations with the Venetian ambassadors.
Francesco Contarini spoke againt the motion, and moved for delay, on the ground that the letters of the late Emperor, which were sent to France, caused the formation of the League of Cambrai. Lunardo Mocenigo answered him. Mafio Lion, late State Attorney, showed that these letters would bring about immediate war with the Emperor and the King of England. He was answered by Donà da Leze.
The motion and amendment were put to the ballot, but Marin Zorzi, LL.D., counsellor, was in favour of delay.
For the motion, 84; for the amendment, 118; and this last was carried.
June 19. Sanuto Diaries, v. xxxiii. p. 307. 483. Antonio Surian and Gasparo Contarini to the Signory.
The Emperor is still here (sic), as the fleet has not yet arrived from Spain. The [Flanders] galleys have all been made to unload at Hampton, and the merchandise has been placed in warehouses. The like has also been done by the wine ship of Mafio Bernardo, in order to exact a certain duty, which the owners refused to pay. They therefore wrote to the ambassadors to mention this to Cardinal Wolsey, and to represent that it was wrong to have the ship unloaded.
With regard to the agreement, Wolsey said the articles were being drawn up, and he should send them to Rome to the English ambassador, Richard Pace, who would go to Venice to show them to the Signory, and, if approved, the agreement will be stipulated. (fn. 3)
London (sic), 16th and 19th June. Registered by Sanuto, 5th July.
June 19. Contarini's Original Letter Book, Letter no. 172, St. Mark's Library. 484. Gasparo Contarini to the Signory.
Today went to Windsor from a distance of five miles thence, having been unable to find lodging in the town. Accompanied the Emperor and the King to the mass and procession, it being Corpus Christi Day. The two sovereigns wore the robes of the Garter, and all the knights of the order were habited in like manner, as usual.
After the procession and mass, their Majesties went with Cardinal Wolsey and the Chancellor Gattinara to the high altar, to which they summoned the Papal Nuncio, Surian, and myself (Contarini).
On the altar was a missal (open at the page representing the Saviour on the cross), whereon the two sovereigns took their oath. Then two instruments, filling several sheets of parchment, with pendent seals, were brought to them, besides two other smaller instruments, also on parchment.
Gattinara told me (Contarini) that the two first were the articles of alliance contracted between their Majesties, and that one of the two last was signed by the Emperor (commencing “Nos Carolus”), and the other by the King.
These instruments were exchanged by the Emperor and the King. The Emperor gave both of his to the Chancellor, and the King gave his to Cardinal Wolsey. After these ceremonies they celebrated those of the Garter, as usual.
The ambassadors having accompanied the sovereigns to their apartments, Wolsey invited the Papal Nuncio [Caracciolo], the Duke of Alva, the Marquis of Brandenburg, Surian, and myself to dine with him. While at dinner Wolsey said that the French had compelled England to go to war with them, and that the King of France never chose to listen to their admonitions, being of opinion that last year a league to his detriment had been stipulated at Bruges, though the act celebrated this day (the 19th) would convince the world that the conclusion took place now, and not at Bruges. The Cardinal sought to impress this on his guests. He had previously, on the 7th instant, in London, informed Surian and me that the Imperial and English ministries were on the point of commencing mutual negotiations.
After dinner, Cardinal Wolsey having withdrawn into his chamber, Surian acquainted him with the communication made by the Turkish ambassador at Venice, adding that it was suspected their object was to pick a quarrel with the State, and expatiating on the vast expenditure required for defensive preparations.
Wolsey replied that he saw the perilous state of Christendom, nor was it credible that Sultan Solyman would neglect the opportunity. He then alluded to the good will ever borne by England towards the Republic, and said that in conformity with the demand then made of us (Surian and Contarini), and which would be repeated at Venice by the Imperial and English ambassadors, it was very fitting that the Signory should declare against the French, according to the tenor of the treaty [of London, October 1518?].
We gave assurance of the Republic's gratitude to the King and the Cardinal, who then commenced speaking of the galleys. He said he did not mean them to go into Spain, but merely to accompany the Emperor beyond the enemy's confines; that this would much gratify the Emperor, and that he (Wolsey) caused the galleys to unload for the benefit of the State, for if they have their cargoes on board, and the agreement between the Emperor and the Republic fail to take place, both the galleys and the merchandise would run very great risk. He added that the “masters” had disgraced themselves extremely by declining to take the slightest possible step without pecuniary recompense from the King, who was very indignant, and had not Wolsey pacified him he would have proceeded to disagreeable demonstrations against their persons, but the Cardinal said he would not allow so old a friendship as subsisted between his King and the Signory to be broken for such a trifle, about which he made grievous complaints.
We answered in moderate terms, thanking him for his good offices in favour of the State, from whom we said we had received no orders about the galleys, though we well knew the Republic had a general wish to oblige the King in everything.
We said the Cardinal must not be surprised at the masters, as they are private individuals who really have a great amount of property at stake, and therefore remonstrated. Promised, however, to write to them, and use every possible effort to secure compliance with the wishes of the King and Cardinal.
Wolsey said nothing about the articles of the treaty, which he said on a former occasion he intended to show us, but during dinner the Bishop of Durham told Surian that the ministers had already settled what part of the treaty was to be communicated to us, and that we were to see it, though in secret.
Neither the Spanish nor the Flemish fleet has yet arrived at Hampton, but this morning we heard (the fact being confirmed to us by a letter from the captain of the Flanders galleys, dated Hampton, the 16th) that the English fleet would by this time have put to sea, or be on the eve of departure, but its destination was unknown. Some days ago, in London, we heard that it was bound for Spain, where apparently the English have some understanding. (fn. 4)
On Saturday the Emperor and the King will quit Windsor for Winchester.
This morning (the 19th) Surian was informed that the French have made several forays in the direction of Calais, and destroyed all the places belonging to England between that city and Boulogne and in that neighbourhood.
It is reported that the King of France has quitted Lyons, and ridden post to Switzerland. Others say he is going into Picardy. I (Contarini) was told so by the Chancellor Gattinara.
Surian apologizes for sealing the packet with his ring, as he went to Windsor solely to be present at the festival, and heard there accidentally that a courier would depart this evening. We therefore wrote with such accommodation as we could obtain in the house of the postmaster.
Windsor, Thursday, 19th June 1522.
[Italian, 4 lines.]
June 24. Deliberazioni Senato Secreta, v. xlix. p. 96, tergo. 485. The Doge and Senate to Giovanni Badoer, Venetian Ambassador in France.
An audience was given this morning by the College to the French ambassadors. They denied that any truce between King Francis and the Emperor had been proposed in England, and knew their King would reject it. They requested a decision from the State respecting the Venetian men-at-arms in Cremona, and declared that the King of France would persevere in the undertaking.
(Read in the College on the 24th of June 1522.)
[Italian, 52 lines.]
June 26. Contarini's Original Letter Book, Letter no. 173, St. Mark's Library. 486. Gasparo Contarini to the Signory.
On the 20th the Count of Geneva [Philip of Savoy, Count of Geneva and Duke of Nemours], the brother of the Duke of Savoy, arrived at Windsor. (fn. 5) He was met by the Governor of Bresse and many other gentlemen of the Court. On the 21st the Emperor and the King quitted Windsor, and, having stopped at several places, always off the road, arrived at Winchester on the 24th.
Surian and I came another way, the country thereabouts being thinly peopled, and unable to afford lodging for one Court, still less for two. We arrived at Winchester on the 25th, and hoped the sovereigns would remain there until the Emperor proceeded to Hampton to embark. In this we were disappointed, as this afternoon the Emperor and the King went together to a village some seven miles off [Bishop's Waltham], containing but six or seven houses, so that neither the Chancellor nor the Bishop of Palencia could be accommodated there.
The whole Court, both Imperialist and English, was therefore ordered to Salisbury; but regardless of this command, we sent our purveyors to try and obtain accommodation of some sort in any village between Bishop's Waltham and Salisbury, in order to be at hand for negotiations, if necessary, although the sovereigns shun business. If unsuccessful, we shall go to Salisbury, like all the rest.
This morning, the 26th, Chancellor Gattinara assured me that the Emperor had never asked the King of England for the Flanders galleys, either as convoy to Spain or for any other purpose, and that all that had been done in this matter was done by desire of the English, who (he understood) meant to employ these galleys, together with their own fleet, which was already at sea, in an expedition against France. If it failed they would return immediately to Calais, and there land their infantry, amounting to from 10,000 to 15,000 men, who were to join the Emperor's forces in Flanders, and invade the French territory. The Chancellor had also heard that the King of France was gone from Lyons to Paris with the intention of passing into Picardy, this intelligence having been brought by the English ambassador [Sir Thomas Cheney], who has returned from France. The Chancellor added that it was reported from Italy that Prospero Colonna, hearing of the descent of a French force, sent infantry and men-at-arms to the passes to oppose them; but ascertained subsequently that these troops were destined for Genoa, which having fallen, they returned to France. Gattinara complained that the Signory was raising troops at the suit of France, and urging the French King's return into Italy for the recovery of the duchy of Milan. I replied that the State was raising troops for the security of her territories, because all Italy was in arms.
Winchester, Thursday, 26th June 1522.
Postscript.—This letter has been detained until the 29th. Our purveyors being unable to find us lodging, we determined to see what could be got. Yesterday morning we went first to Hampton, and then to a village three miles distant thence, and seven miles from Bishop's Waltham, where the Emperor and the King are now residing.
At Hampton we heard of the arrival there on that day (28th June) of the Papal Nuncio, the Bishop of Astorga, accredited by Adrian VI. to the Emperor. The Pope is said to have sent another Nuncio, the Bishop of Bari, to the King of France. The Nuncio Caracciolo and others say that the object of these missions is to make peace between the Emperor and France,—a very difficult affair, as matters are too far advanced.
When on the eve of departure from Winchester, we received the Signory's letters of the 7th, and will comply with their contents when able to see the Emperor and the King. We will also acquaint ourselves more fully about the removal of the guns from the Flanders galleys, as announced to us by the captain, who, we believe, gives particulars to the State in the accompanying letter.
Sunday, 29th June.
[Italian, 3 pages.]
June 28. Sanuto Diaries, v. xxxiii. p. 355. 487. Letter from Bruges.
On the 22nd of May, the Emperor went to England, and there espoused the King's only daughter, seven or eight years of age, whom he places as a pledge in the hands of the Lady Margaret, my mistress here in Flanders, until the consummation of the marriage, so that in the course of time the Emperor will become King of England.
On the 3rd of June the King of England proclaimed war against the King of France in favour of the Emperor, who was present. A vigorous and cruel commencement has already been made in Flanders, and all tremble. In six days the Emperor quits England for Spain, and on his departure the King will land at Calais for the attack on France, of which he has the title. Madame Margaret my mistress, has two very powerful armies, one within the borders, towards France and Burgundy. (fn. 6) The result cannot fail to be very auspicious for the Emperor, as he is most Christian, and has the whole world at his disposal.
In 20 days, more or less according to the wind, you will have the Pope on the coast of Rome. An agreement is in course of negotiation between the Emperor and the Signory. A Papal Legate has arrived, a very distinguished person. I have shown him much kindness, and we live together like brothers. There will soon be universal peace throughout Italy.
Bruges, 28th June 1522.
[Signed:] Jo. Maria Chaneus, of Brescia, doctor and knight, in the service of the Archduchess Margaret.
Registered by Somuto, 31st July.
June 28. Deliberazioni Senato Secreta, v. xlix. p. 97, tergo. 488. The Doge and Senate to Gasparo Contarini and Antonio Surian.
Wrote to them on the 17th instant, stating that the Signory would make no reply respecting the negotiation with the Emperor, and the proposal made by the King of England to Surian about the triple league, until they knew what the Cardinal proposed.
Subsequently received the letters dated London, the 5th, 6th, 7th, and 8th inst. Are surprised to find that, when asked about these negotiations with the Emperor in the presence of Cardinal Wolsey, the ambassadors said they were awaiting a reply from the Signory. The ambassadors must remember having written the words uttered by Cardinal Wolsey in Canterbury Cathedral, which caused the reply to be delayed until the State became acquainted with the mitigation of the harsh terms to which Cardinal Wolsey alluded. When the Imperial ambassador [in Venice] reminded the Signory that it would be well to make a reply, they based their apology solely on the words of Cardinal Wolsey at Canterbury. Will send their reply on receiving the articles which Cardinal Wolsey offered to draw up. The Signory much prefers the triple league to any other adjustment with the Emperor alone, as they hold in great account the favour and protection of the King of England and Cardinal Wolsey.
Ayes, 208. Noes, 9. Neutrals, 1.
[Italian, 47 lines.]
June 28. Deliberazioni Senato Secreta, v. xlix. p. 98. tergo. 489. The Doge and Senate to Giovanni Badoer, Venetian Ambassador in France.
On the 23rd instant, in answer to his letters of the 10th and 11th, stated that although they wished the Milanese expedition to be continued, yet, owing to the tergiversation of the Switzers, it was the State's opinion the King of France would do well to accept the two years' truce on both sides the Alps offered him by Cardinal Wolsey, because in the meanwhile the forces might be recruited. Requested the King of France, in accordance with his offer, to mention the Signory in the truce, considering the indissoluble union between Venice and France.
Ayes, 191. Noes, 7. Neutrals, 0.
[Italian, 60 lines.]
June. Mantuan Archives. 490. Emperor Charles V. to Pope Adrian VI.
Reply to a letter from the Pope in favour of Francesco Maria, Duke of Urbino, and of the Marquis of Mantua.
London, — June 1522.
[Latin. Copy.]
June. Mantuan Archives. 491. The Same to Don John Manuel, Imperial Ambassador in Rome.
Letter on the same subject.
London, — June 1522.
[Spanish. Copy.]


  • 1. See Mr. Brewer's Calendar, Hen. VIII, vol. iii. no. 2241.
  • 2. Concerning this treaty, the following note occurs at p. 308, vol. vi. part v., State Papers:—“The treaty of Windsor was concluded on the 19th of June 1522, between Henry VIII. and the Emperor Charles V. in person. It is remarkable that this treaty is not printed either by Rymer or in the 'Recueil des Traités de Paix.' The original minute of it is preserved in the State Paper Office.”
  • 3. Sonic of the particulars in Sanuto's summary do not exist in the Contarini letter book.
  • 4. In the original, “dove par havesseno certi trattatii;” i. e., where apparently the English and Spanish forces have to make some joint attack.
  • 5. In date of Oudenarde, 12th December 1521, Gasparo Contarini wrote to the Signory that the Count of Geneva was then on the eve of departure thence for the purpose, it was supposed, of detaching the Duke of Savoy from France and bringing him over to the Emperor's side. It is probable that his appearance at Windsor in June 1522 was connected with this negotiation.
  • 6. “La Madama mia de quì à due potentissimi partiti, l'uno intra el confine verso Francia et Borgogna.”