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Venice: November 1673

Pages 160-181

Calendar of State Papers Relating To English Affairs in the Archives of Venice, Volume 38, 1673-1675. Originally published by His Majesty's Stationery Office, London, 1947.

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November 1673

Nov. 1.
Senato,
Secreta.
Dispacci,
Francia.
Venetian
Archives.
225. Francesco Michiel, Venetian Ambassador in France, to the Doge and Senate.
It is said that from England, Scotland and Ireland soldiers will be sent across to this country in large numbers; that from the kingdom they pretend that they will draw 30,000 men, that from Piedmont the king can promise himself fresh succours and that from the Swiss he is about to obtain levies of great consequence. But those who are most disinterested do not believe that these expectations will be punctually fulfilled seeing that England will not be able to meet such pressing demands, being greatly weakened with the harvests of the past years and they also entertain doubts about the kingdom itself being of sufficiently robust constitution as to be able to display such great forces in the service of its sovereign.
Paris, the 1st November, 1673.
[Italian.]
Nov. 1.
Senato,
Secreta.
Dispacci,
Francia.
Venetian
Archives.
226. Francesco Michiel, Venetian Ambassador in France, to the Doge and Senate.
Yesterday the duchess of Yorch arrived with her mother, the duchess of Modena at Fontaneblo, where she is lodged in the royal palace, being served by the officials of the crown. Here in Paris at the Arsenal they have established the dwelling where she will stay for some days in order to meet the obligations of the various requirements needed for the adornment of the bride. There is some talk of her proceeding to Versailles to see the queen, and some assert that it is not yet settled at Court whether she shall have the honour of sitting in the presence of the queen. Her mother has brought with her a scanty equipage and it would seem that in this respect she has not entirely risen to the rank in which she has established her daughter or to the happy occasion of her nuptials. The first gentleman of the Bedchamber, the Count of St. Aignan, (fn. 1) had been to Fontaneblo to pay his respects to their Highnesses in the king's name and he has instructions to accompany them to Paris where they are expected at any moment.
Paris, the 1st November, 1673.
[Italian.]
Nov. 3.
Senato,
Secreta.
Dispacci,
Inghilterra.
Venetian
Archives.
227. Girolamo Alberti, Venetian Secretary in England, to the Doge and Senate.
The opening of parliament took place last Monday. The king did not make an appearance but the Lower House was summoned to the Lords by commissioners, who prorogued it until Monday next, as I intimated though others whisper that his Majesty meditates a fresh prorogation. The usual prayers were omitted at the suggestion of a member named Possel, (fn. 2) who said it was a superfluous ceremonial, especially when they were so pressed for time. During those few moments the members did not fail to bring forward at once the tartest of topics. Mr. Thomas (fn. 3) declared in exaggerated terms that preventive measures against the Catholics would be of no avail unless they prevented the duke's marriage to the Modenese princess, who was allied to the popes, to the Holy See and to all popedom. The House passed a vote petitioning the king to forbid the consummation of the marriage. They would not even allow Sir [Thomas] Huggons to finish his speech, in which he was endeavouring to stem the tide and avert any such pledge.
The news did not surprise the duke who was expecting some blow from this desperate crew; but the king showed anger against the chancellor whom he had ordered to send for the Commons the moment they met and thus leave them no time to discuss anything. The duke is aware that the chancellor, his enemy, has chosen to play him this trick, but is unwilling to believe that the king had any share in it, although this turbulent people insinuated as much, being unable to imagine any better device for the repute of their faction than to proclaim that it has the support of his Majesty. The fact is that when the vote of the Lower House was brought to the king he at once replied that he was too far committed to break his word. At a cabinet council held later it appears that they decided to send an express to the bride in Paris to remove any such bad impressions and scruples as might have been caused by this incident.
The duke's entire household is on the point of departure. A part has gone on ahead to Dover. Preparations for the meeting are not being delayed in any way. This enrages the opposition who murmur against the government, under pretence of zeal for religion, though they aim solely at sapping the monarchy which, as it sins in the matter of religion, is punished therein and thereby.
If the fruits produced in the course of the session correspond to the first flowers they will be ill tasted; but as they have to be digested by time and nothing in England is constant, it is impossible to form any sort of idea of the future. The present instability is one of the most visible signs of the confusion in the cabinet. All the leading ministers here have obtained a general pardon from the king for all misdemeanours committed by them, including the acceptance of present and secret pensions. (fn. 4) They expect in this way to escape parliamentary inquiry, but those who have a grudge against the duke of Lauderdale pretend that he will not be saved either by the royal pardon or by the patent of first commissioner in the parliament of Scotland, where he now is and considers himself safe. The others, who were attacking the late treasurer Clifford, were surprised to hear, by the last letters from his country seat, that he has died of stone, (fn. 5) and Arlington is seeking supporters in every direction to avoid a fall.
London, the 3rd November, 1673.
[Italian.]
Nov. 3.
Senato,
Secreta.
Dispacci,
Inghilterra.
Venetian
Archives.
228. Girolamo Alberti, Venetian Secretary in England, to the Doge and Senate.
Although fresh letters have arrived from Spain they give no clue to the opinions of that Court about the declaration against England. Here they live in hope that the queen will prefer to temporise rather than risk a rupture, and that she will keep back a few cards to be played with this crown. Arlington flatters the Court with this fair expectation which is scouted by the cabalists in parliament and declared utterly false. Regardless of the quiet of the country and relying on the king's good nature, they seek to throw everything into confusion that they may then be bought by the Court at the price of pensions, offices and titles. The king adheres to the policy I reported, and puts up with everything to extract money. He declares that he assumed his crown for one sole purpose, namely that he might load his subjects with taxes, thus exercising the authority with which he is invested. But if on the present occasion he abandons his brother as well as the ministers it may easily happen, when he has no further sacrifices to make and parliament has nothing more to ask, its members may resume their privilege of calling the crown to account. Such is the opinion of the most loyal and the most timid subjects. Others flatter the king that when he has rid the people of the fear of Catholicism and expelled the leading agitators, he will enjoy his throne with ample revenue. But as Catholicism and agitation have no limits the king secures nothing for himself but perpetual turmoil.
His Majesty's chief object none the less is to persevere in the alliance with France, towards which the whole nation displays an irreconcileable antipathy. It seems that the country would subscribe any sum for an open war with France rather than now break with Spain, against the interests of England and to the ruin of trade. The Spaniards and their friends encourage this language, saying they have provided sufficient occupation for the Most Christian and consider the work perfected. They have not the least doubt of the success of this their grand alliance. The honour of contriving it, of inducing the emperor to figure in it and committing him thereto are conceded by them to the Baron dell'Isola.
Every day I hear it said more and more openly, that the most serene republic of Venice is the only power free to mediate. I venture to report this for the consideration of the Senate.
I am urgent about the Zante incident but can get no reply from Lord Arlington, as he is distracted by his other endless engagements.
London, the 3rd November, 1673.
[Italian.]
Nov. 4.
Senato,
Secreta.
Deliberazioni,
Corti.
Venetian
Archives.
229. To the Secretary Alberti in England.
Commendation of his proceedings at audience of the king and with Lord Arlington. The Senate is expecting to hear that the matter has been settled and when the king's new letter arrives with the sentiments which Alberti intimates, it will be received as the result of his diligence.
With regard to the ship Amicitia we are satisfied that the orders to the Proveditore General have been carried out. The papers which were sent to you last week will enable you to demonstrate the evil intentions of that consul at Zante. If you can succeed in some adroit way in securing his removal, without committing yourself, it will certainly prove a great public boon.
We are sending you copies from the letters of the Ambassador Moresini in Germany and the Ambassador Mocenigo at Rome to show what is happening about the dispensation for the marriage. In consideration of your expenses over the marriage the Senate has decided to allow you the sum of 300 ducats of good value as a gift in relief of such expenses and as a testimony of their entire satisfaction with your service.
That it be determined that of the money of his Serenity 300 ducats of good value be paid by the Camerlenghi di Comun to the legitimate agents of Girolamo Alberti, secretary in London, as a gift, for once only upon the occasion of the wedding of the duke of Yorch.
Ayes, 99. Noes, 1. Neutral, 6. It requires four-fifths.
On the 4th November in the Collegio:
Ayes, 17. Noes, 0. Neutral, 1. It requires four-fifths.
[Italian.]
Nov. 4.
Senato,
Secreta.
Dispacci,
Roma.
Venetian
Archives.
230. Pietro Mocenigo, Venetian Ambassador at Rome, to the Doge and Senate.
To proceed to the dispensation for the marriage of the duchess of Jorch your Excellencies will marvel that the affair is not yet settled. This interest is discussed by persons who are unable to recognise the prudential expedients even when examined by the very persons who have as a fundamental maxim of the good government of the Church never to detach themselves from the rigorous observance of their tribunals. Cardinal Altieri, in the pope's present condition, chooses to take the matter upon himself alone, conscious of having made a mistake or having been deceived. Accordingly he has submitted the matter to the most severe critics of the Court. Thus when, in accordance with what had been arranged, I presented to Cardinal Cibo the formula of the dispensation which Cardinal Barberino has had drawn up, they would not receive it, because it contained the expression that the dispensation was given by the pope Motu proprio, when they pretended it was given in virtue of a petition, and here there cropped up the pretention that a petition ought to be presented.
Although this point had never been required before I succeeded in overcoming it, by arrangement with Cardinal d'Etre and the ambassador of France, it was agreed that Cardinal Barberino should present the petition in the name of the duchess of Jorch. Similarly, in conformity with the petition, they adapted the formula of the dispensation which is desired. Both papers shall be submitted to your Excellencies for your full information of what is happening.
The petition being presented at the palace and the formula of the dispensation handed in, another objection was raised, to the person of Cardinal Barberino, as they did not wish him to figure at all in this business. This also was put right and they consented to put the name of the duchess of Modena, the mother petitioning for the bride, her daughter.
Now the affair has reached this stage I believe that other difficulties will be raised as the congregation does not appear to be satisfied with certain expressions which are contained in the same formula. While Cardinal Barberino is impatient to see the end of this business, the French remain absolutely astounded that an interest in which they are engaged to save the reputation of the Apostolic See about a marriage already contracted, they should seek for difficulties with minute observation. But all affairs at Rome with foreigners proceed in this fashion, as the priests are as circumspect as they are subtle and ready to take advantage in negotiating.
Rome, the 4th November, 1673.
[Italian.]
Enclosure. 231. Form of Petition presented by Cardinal Barberino.
Cardinal Barberino, protector of England sets forth humbly to your Holiness how the duchess of Yorch, after it had been intimated to her that your Holiness inclined to the treaty of marriage of the duke of Yorch with her because of the advantages that might accrue to the Catholic religion in the progress of time, and the earl of Piterbor having come with a special proxy from the duke and with precise orders of the king of Great Britain for establishing this marriage with complete security for the exercise of the Catholic Apostolic Roman religion for the said duchess and her Court, in the manner permitted to the queen regnant, of which she was similarly assured by letters credential of the Most Christian king written to the duchess of Modena her mother and brought by the marquis d'Angiu, his Majesty's envoy, and having besought your Holiness for the dispensation which could not be obtained through the omission to bring the aforesaid justifications to Rome, and being urged to the conclusion and the departure through an open declaration of the earl of Piterbor that the treaty would be broken off if it was not settled in the time prescribed to him, she found herself under compulsion not to postpone either the marriage or her departure, but she has never for this reason departed in mind or heart from the reverence which she owes to the Holy See and to your Holiness or from her original intention to obtain from your Holiness the said dispensation which she humbly proposed to ask and obtain from your Holiness.
[Italian.]
Enclosure. 232. Formula proposed for the Dispensation.
Dilectae nobis in Christo filiae nobili mulieri Mariae de Este modernae Ducissae de York ex Mutine Ducibus natae salutem, et apostolicam benedictionem.
Optima Indoles, ac simul cum lacte enutrita pietas, nec non eximia nobilitas generis, Progenitorumque tuorum merita promerentur, ut ea que ad Catholice, Apostolice, ac Romane Religionis incrementum, ac eximie tue pietati conveniunt, proficua esse possunt, et a nobis humiliter postulas, illa sibi favorabiliter concedamus, prout verum, Personarum, ac temporum qualitatibus debite pensatis conspicimus in Domino salubriter expedire. Exibita siquidem nobis nuper pro parte tua petitio continebat, quod haud dudum fuerit initum matrimonium inter se et nobilissimum virum Jacobum Ducem de Jork et interpositis officijs Charissimi in Christo filij nostri Ludovici Francorum et Navarre Regis Christianissimi, qui dilectum filium Marchionem d'Angieau ad hoc per agendum, et absolvendum matrimonium, Jacobus vero Dux Nobilem Virum Comitem de Petrebourg cum speciali procuratorio Libello ad idem tecum contrahendum matrimonium Mutinam miserunt. At quia tu sic contrahendo matrimonio abnueras, nisi prius nostra et sedis apostolice intercederet dispensatio, sive permissio; jam ex predicti Comitis de Petrebourg, quametiam ex eiusdem Marchionis d'Angieau partibus fuit denunciatum, quod nisi quam primum sine dilatione matrimonium perfiniretur, impendente limitati temporis prescripta brevitate preter huiusmodi tractatus dissolutionem varia exinde damna, signanter adversus Catholicam, Apostolicam, ac Romanam Religionem orirentur. Cumque tibi indicata fuissent predicta damna ab non contractum matrimonium huiusmodi oritura, de nonnullarum Personarum usu rerum, ac etiam sacrarum literarum studio excultarum consilio ad huiusmodi sic contrahendum matrimonium tuum prebuisti assensum, quod de facto inter te, et predictum Jacobum Ducem fuit contractum interposita persona eiusdem Comitis de Petrebourg, qui non solum specialem ad huiusmodi matrimonium contrahendum procuratorium libellum jam exhibuerat, venim etiam alterum serenissimi Caroli magne Britannie Regis Illustris, quo Rex ipsa Catholice, Apostolica, ac Romane Religionis exercitium. Tibi, tuisque familiaribus se relicturum in Verbo Regis spondebat ad eandem normam, qua moderna eiusdem magne Britannie Regina ipsiusmet Regis Uxor ad presens fruitur, et gaudet; quorum omnium predictus Ludovicus Rex dilectam nobis in Christo filiam nobilem mulierem Lauram modernam Mutine Ducissam certiorem reddiderat. Quare pro parte tua, ac maiori tua quiete Venerabilis frater noster Franciscus Episcopus Ostiens et Veliternens Cardinalis Barberinus nuntius S.R.E. Vicecancellarius, ac Collegijs Venerabilium Fratrum nostrorum eiusdem S.R.E. Cardinalium Decanus, nec non Anglie et Scotie Protector nobis humiliter supplicavit, quatenus super predicto matrimonio dispensationis promissionis et apostolice nostre benedictionis gratiam impertiri dignaremur. Nos igitur, qui salutem querimus Animarum, et damnis, que propterea oriri poterunt, obviare cupimus, considerantes bonum, quod Catholice, Apostolice, ac Romane Religioni a sic contracto matrimonio speratur, commisso antea hoc negotio ad discutiendum speciali nonnulorum predictorum Cardinalium Congregationi, Te a quibusvis Excommunicationis, suspensionis, et interdicti, alijsque Ecclesiasticis sententijs, censuris, et penis si quibus quomodolibet innodata existis, ad effectum Presentium dumtaxat consequendum, absolventes, et absolutum fore Censentes;
Tecum super prefato matrimonio apostolica auctoritate tenore presentium de specialis dono gratie, ac eiusdem Congregationis Voto, quatenus opus sit, dispensamus, et pariter, ut in illo libere permanere valeas, permittimus. et approbamus; Dummodo tamen predictus Ludovicus Rex in verbo Regis responderit, quod pro suis viribus apud eundem Carolum Regem instabit, quod Tu, tuique familiares predicte Catholice Apostolice, ac Romane Religionis libero exercitio fruemini, et gaudebitis, Prolesque ex te nascitura, saltem usque ad pubertatem a nutricibus, et Curatoribus a Te, ad tui natum, ac beneplacitum libere deputandis, educabitur. Non obstantibus quibusvis etiam in Provincialibus, nationalibus, et oecumenicis Concilijs editis, Canonibus, Decretis, ac Constitutionibus, et ordinationibus Apostolicis, nec non quorumvis Regnorum Civitatum, oppidorum, et locorum etiam iuramento, confirmatione Apostolica vel quavis firmitate alia roboratis statutis, et Consuetudinibus, nec non Imperialibus, et Regijs Regnorumque predictorum legibus, et Juribus municipalibus quomodolibet editis, et edendis, privilegijs quoque, Indultis, et litteris Apostolicis per quoscunque Romanos Pontifices Predecessores nostras, ac nos, et sedem huiusmodi directe, vel indirecte, sub quibuscunque tenoribus, et formis, ac cum quibusvis Clausulis et decretis, in genere; vel inspecie quomodolibet concessis, approbates, et innovatis. Quibus omnibus, et singulis, etiamsi de illis, eorunque totis tenoribus specialis, specifica, expressa, et individua mentio, ac de verbo ad verbum, non autem per clausulam generales idem importantes, aut alique alia exquisita forma ad hoc servanda foret, tenores huiusmodi ac si de verbo ad verbum, nihil penitus ommisso, et forma in illis tradita observata, inserti forent, eisdem Presentibus pro plene, et sufficienter expressis, et insertis habentes, illis alias in suo robore permansuris, hac vice dumtaxat harum serie specialiter, et expresse, ac latissime et plenissime derogamus ceterisque contrarijs quibuscunque Dat. etc.
Nov. 8.
Senato,
Secreta.
Dispacci,
Francia.
Venetian
Archives.
233. Francesco Michiel, Venetian Ambassador in France, to the Doge and Senate.
The princesses of Yorch and Modena were greatly upset by the news that came from England that on the assembling of the Houses the lower had claimed to prevent the marriage of the duke to a princess of the Catholic religion. But their minds have been set at rest by a courier who has arrived since who assures the bride that not only has the king rejected their representations but has placated the minds of those who wished to upset the marriage. Accordingly they are waiting with impatience for the time when they will be able to get away from this Court to perform the function so greatly desired.
Here they have been received with the most desirable forms of honour. For the meeting of the duchess of Yorch with the king, the queen and all the persons of the royal House, their own coaches were sent. The king despatched his first gentleman of the Bedchamber and desired that she should be served by the officials of the crown with sumptuous furnishings of dwelling place and table. The king went to call upon her a day after her arrival. They both descended the stairs to meet him and his Majesty responded with the most punctual terms of courtesy and kindness. In sitting down the king was given the first place, the duchess of Yorch on the right on an equal seat and the duchess mother on the left on a seat without arms. On the following day they went to pay a call on the queen who received them by giving an equal seat to the first and a simple taburet to the second, as is done with foreign princesses, ambassadresses and duchesses of the kingdom. The duke of Orleans with the duchess his wife went to see them with the little princess (fn. 6) and at this function also the duchess of Modena was present with a seat without arms. In returning the visit the question was raised whether the duchess of Modena should go there and allow herself to be given a seat inferior to that of little Mademoiselle. This point has not yet been decided and so with ostensible excuses of indisposition the compliment is being postponed, although the matter ought to be settled to-day at Versailles. For the rest all the ceremonies have been performed.
By the king's order this princess will be defrayed and served by all the officers of the crown as far as Cales. Pederboru, who is the ambassador destined to conduct the bride to the kingdom, was at Court yesterday morning and took leave of his Majesty, by whom he was received incognito in the secret apartments and without any formality, either about covering or attendance.
They have letters of the 4th from Dieppe which bring word of the landing in this country of 4000 English soldiers who are being supplied as a reinforcement to their armies here, (fn. 7) fine troops, so they write, although in rags (spogli) and ill armed.
Paris, the 8th November, 1673.
[Italian.]
Nov. 10.
Senato,
Secreta.
Dispacci,
Inghilterra.
Venetian
Archives.
234. Girolamo Alberti, Venetian Secretary in England, to the Doge and Senate.
The Houses of parliament having assembled last Monday the king appeared in the Lords in the royal robes. Having sent for the Commons he said that he was continuing the war against his will and asked for a subsidy for the cost with such despatch as the need required. He announced his readiness to consent to such new remedies as were demanded for the maintenance of the reformed religion and ended by asking for an assignment with which to pay his old debt to the goldsmiths. I enclose a copy of the speech in translation. I also add a copy of the speech made by the chancellor, at greater length on the same points. After the two Houses had made some comments on these, they adjourned, the Lords until to-day, Friday, the Commons until yesterday, without voting any reply of thanks to his Majesty. But the Commons did not fail to examine their Speaker, (fn. 8) at the instigation of a member who wanted the office for a friend of his, but as no lapse of any consequence was found, the holder continues in office.
This Speaker produced in the House a wooden shoe which he found on his chair. It had the arms of the king of France carved on one side and those of his Britannic Majesty on the other, with a crown and crucifix. In it was a note with the words “of one of the two.” The most plausible explanation given is that the deviser suggests that they must either be French and Catholics or remain English, and that this depends on chance, the shoe being thrown into the air to see what their fate may be.
After this pleasantry on the first day of the session some were of opinion that the king and the duke had bribed the opponents of the marriage. But yesterday, when Secretary Coventry presented the king's reply to the Commons, to the effect that he was too far pledged to retract and that as parliament had not opposed the negotiations with the archduchess of Innsbruck, which were in progress during former sessions, his Majesty did not expect the Commons to object to the princess of Modena, who were both Catholics. Thereupon the members voted a second petition to the king not to permit the consummation of this marriage, with a proposal to banish the priests and Catholics to a distance of 30 miles from London, and further to exclude Papists from parliament, the only thing that is left for them in the government of England. To-day they voted to give the king money, but the manner of doing so will not be discussed until their demands are either granted or averted.
In the mean time the king has written a letter to the bride encouraging her to come to London without any hesitation; and every one is preparing to go and meet her at Dover next week.
This affair seems more embroiled than ever because of the consequences to the duke after the marriage; but in my presence he remarked to some of his confidants that he will always show his face to his enemies and not give them the advantage of striking him in retreat. By this he means that he will not go to France, as recommended by his enemies. His faithful servants maintain that should the king die, the crown is his without hindrance from the laws of parliament, which expires with the king, nor is there any statute which can prevent the duke from succeeding to the crown.
The queen will soon appear upon the stage; but if the king follows Anglesea's advice to dissolve parliament and continue doing so until he can get one to his taste, exposing the members, shorn of their privileges, to arrest and imprisonment, he may possibly extricate himself soon from embarrassment. The fact is the king is afraid of faring worse, if the wealthy Presbyterians get seats through their money and wage a treacherous war against him. But if he arms himself with constancy he will conquer more easily than by opposing reason to obstinacy.
London, the 10th November, 1673.
[Italian.]
Nov. 10.
Senato,
Secreta.
Dispacci,
Inghilterra.
Venetian
Archives.
235. Girolamo Alberti, Venetian Secretary in England, to the Doge and Senate.
On Saturday last a Dutch vessel arrived off the coast of England with a trumpet, bringing a letter from the States to the king. He was stopped by the royal order to prevent him from sowing discord throughout the country and the letter alone reached the Court together with two others for the Spanish ambassador which were punctually passed on to him by Lord Arlington.
The letter, as Arlington himself told me, is the identical one which the Dutch have been threatening to print for a long time past, in reply to the English declaration of war, and they seek to impress this country with the belief that they are anxious for peace, in order to accuse the king of the alliance with France.
No one is able to explain why the people of England detest the French alliance so violently or why they wish for peace with Holland at any cost. The royalists do not fail to demonstrate the necessity and advantage of the war. If assisted with money from parliament there is no doubt that in the end the king will reap advantages, for he is undoubtedly destroying the strength of Holland by annihilating her trade, although he may fail to take her fortresses. The effort she is now making drains the life blood from her veins and she will find it very difficult to replenish them.
It is reported that Capt. Harman has captured the 800 Dutch fishing boats which were returning with full cargoes to their shores. If the news is confirmed the king will obtain 600,000l. which would be of marvellous use to him at the present crisis. As the money is taken from the purses of every individual in Holland, where all by custom are concerned in that trade, they may possibly clamour for an immediate peace.
The unwillingness of England to be content with such satisfaction as the Dutch offer about the flag proceeds from this, that the States, in renouncing their claim, practically imply that they had the right, whereas here they insist on the States admitting the right and that they had never claimed or disputed it with England.
What the people fear is war with Spain because of the stagnation of trade, which in the mean time is entirely suspended with those parts.
Lord Arlington when conferring again with me about the Zante incident said that he had not yet laid the matter before the Privy Council. He said that for himself he would be better satisfied if Consul Hayles corroborated the statements made by others. I replied that he could not expect the consul to know all the private business transactions at Venice, and an attestation was required. After I had expatiated on the rights of the case Arlington said that I need say no more until I was asked by them to give further particulars. So I perceive that they wish to let the whole matter drop without binding themselves to any public retraction. Huggons told me indeed that Arlington had been convinced by me. So I shall let the whole affair sleep unless your Excellencies order otherwise or unless the friends of the captain of the Jersey frigate give me cause and an opening to insist on his Majesty writing a letter to your Serenity, different from the first and withdrawing his complaints. I have received the ducali of the 8th October.
London, the 10th November, 1673.
[Italian.]
Nov. 11.
Senato,
Secreta.
Dispacci,
Roma.
Venetian
Archives.
236. Pietro Mocenigo, Venetian Ambassador at Rome, to the Doge and Senate.
The affair of the dispensation for the marriage of the duchess of Jorch is hampered by fresh obstacles. A new pretension is raised at the palace to cause the duchess in her petition to confess that she has committed a fault and therefore to send to ask pardon and to beg for absolution. Being aware of the intention of Cardinal Barberino and of the French ambassador not to agree to such extravagant and indecorous demands I begged Cardinal Cibo to permit me not to receive this new formula for the petition made at the palace, indeed I urged him to hand it back as inadmissible. This was done with satisfaction to Barberino and the French ambassador. Matters being in this state they have been advised to leave the business in suspense for the time being until letters arrive from France, because at Paris the king will be seeing the duchess of Yorch and her mother and he will hear their opinion about this interest and the ambassador will then be advised what he is to do. This is what M. di Pompona writes in his last letters to the duke of Etre and his Excellency has told me. Your Excellencies may imagine the amazement of sensible men at seeing this affair twirling about in such a whirlpool of difficulties. Cardinal Cibo himself, who is by nature most moderate, cannot refrain from blaming the conduct of the one who directs this interest.
Rome, the 11th November, 1673.
[Italian.]
Nov. 11.
Senato,
Secreta.
Dispacci,
Firenze.
Venetian
Archives.
237. Giovanni Giacomo Corniani, Venetian Resident at Florence, to the Doge and Senate.
The ambassador of England left that same Sunday morning although he had only achieved the final resolution of all his negotiations on the Saturday evening preceding. These consisted of the matters already reported. I have only to add that the capital conceded to him as full compensation for the booty of the ship Mediterraneo, besides the effects which were found sequestrated in it on that account, was settled for the sum of 25,000 reals. As this individual has had previous experience here, his chief object, as on earlier occasions, has been to show in his first representations that he may easily proceed to sharp sentiments as he has previously given them cause for misgiving that he was capable of upsetting that perfect correspondence which they have so many pledges of being excellent so far as the relations of the king go towards the Grand Duke personally. Accordingly they were at great pains to let him leave, so far as was possible, in such a way that his reports to the Court should not turn out to be sinister in any way. One of the leading ministers remarked that there will not lack means, when he has got away from here, if anything should prove somewhat hard, to consider middle terms with respect to exemption.
With regard to the proposal mentioned about the exchange of fabrics between this side and that nation I have confirmation that no progress was made with the ambassador. (fn. 9) But I know that it is not lost to sight and that they would gladly put something on the table in London if there was a minister of standing for this part at that Court. The correspondence is supplied by the well-known Salvetti the original of which had the character of resident of this prince. The family, although native of this place, has a record of over sixty years of domicile and connection in that kingdom. I know that for recondite causes there is a partiality for the family, but the principal living representative is not of sufficient ability (spirito) for such an employment. (fn. 10) In the policy of this prince to shun the observation of his negotiations, he will not be wanting subjects either resident there or who might go there, of whom to make use. If I find out anything I will advise the Senate.
I am able to report that after mature consideration, the Art of silk being summoned these last days, the Grand Duke has intimated to them that he is ready to issue money for the relief of the Art but he intends that for every 1000 crowns he wishes to be assured that 20 thalers are preserved whole. From this it is concluded generally in the city that there are hopes of getting for the manufacture which they are seeking to increase, a corresponding market for sales. But I have no more information about this.
I have confirmation that the announcement of the departure for the Ambrogiana was made prematurely in order to oblige the ambassador of England to take his departure, because we had been led to believe for the second time that it was for last Thursday; it has been postponed until tomorrow.
Florence, the 11th November, 1673.
[Italian.]
Nov. 15.
Senato,
Secreta.
Dispacci,
Francia.
Venetian
Archives.
238. Ascanio Giustinian and Francesco Michiel, Venetian Ambassadors in France, to the Doge and Senate.
The ministers of Genoa here, who believed that they had complete security in the mediation of England, find that they were under a delusion, as that country will not diverge in the slightest degree from what is satisfactory to the king here, promising to assist them upon every occasion that they consent by their decrees to afford testimony of the greatest respect towards this crown. But it would seem that they show a more steadfast determination to resist and that they make themselves stronger with the motive of present commotions.
The duchess of Yorch, although she has received every attention, has found it ill timed and unfortunate for her health, being obliged to keep her bed. The misfortune is the greater because she is unable to respond to the royal impatience of her brother in law who calls upon her by repeated couriers to come so that she may arrive before the fresh meeting of the Chambers there (fn. 11). These have indeed quieted down after the past commotions by reason of this marriage, but that does not leave their Majesties exempt from the fear of new troublesome outbreaks.
Messiers Ruvigni and Gramont are to go to that Court for the occasion of the parliament. The latter may stay on although they have not yet given permission to M. di Colbert to come home, because of his successful negotiations.
Paris, the 15th November, 1673.
[Italian.]
Nov. 17.
Senato,
Secreta.
Dispacci,
Inghilterra.
Venetian
Archives.
239. Girolamo Alberti, Venetian Secretary in England, to the Doge and Senate
I wrote last week of the Commons' vote against the duke's marriage; after which they began to discuss how and when they should raise the money. The members resolved not to impose any new tax until after payment of the old one imposed last session, which remained in force for the next nine months. They also decided to require from his Majesty full satisfaction about religion; to dismiss the new troops raised against the liberty of the subject; to prove to them that the Dutch are obstinately averse from peace and that it is not he who will not give it to them, and that the popish ministers and counsellors be dismissed; all of which are encroachments on the royal good nature and authority. They further talked of an inquiry into his Majesty's private pleasures and his privy purse as being too costly. After they had covered so much ground when sitting for only two days, the king deferred listening to the petition against the marriage until Monday afternoon. He then replied briefly that he would examine the matter and give his answer. He did this in an unexpected manner for on Tuesday he went to the House of Lords in his robes. Having sent for the Commons, he spoke as follows: I will not tell you how unwillingly I send for you at this time being sensible what advantages my enemies will reap from the least appearance of a difference betwixt me and my parliament. This it shall be my chief endeavour to prevent and therefore I think it necessary to make a short recess that all good men may consider whether the present posture of affairs does not rather require their application to religion and support against our only competitors at sea than to things of less importance. In the mean time I will show my care for the effectual suppression of popery and it will be your fault if your laws be not effectually executed against it. I shall not be idle in some other things which may add to your satisfaction, and I shall expect a suitable return from you.
On Wednesday the 15th, which was a holiday to celebrate the anniversary of the Gunpowder Plot, attributed to the Catholics, the populace vented their wrath by burning the pope in effigy in the bonfires. (fn. 12) They abstained from doing the like to the effigy of a Frenchman, in order to shoot it, because they accuse the French of having shirked in the sea fights.
The truth is that parliament being prorogued, the people are disheartened and no longer what they were under the protection of the two Houses, when everything is permissible. Their violent language is now subsiding and revolutionary projects are discussed only in closets. It cannot be denied that this nation allows itself to run riot, not merely from natural instinct but also at the instigation of others.
The Ambassador Colbert proposes to depart at Christmas and M. de Rouvigni is expected with express commissions from the Most Christian, but it is not known who is to succeed him in the embassy.
The Modenese Count Negrelli has arrived with complimentary messages from the two duchesses and is going back to meet them to-day.
My suspicion that the report of the capture of the Dutch fishing fleet was untrue proves correct and so the prize money which had been counted into the royal purse so prematurely, is good for nothing.
London, the 17th November, 1673.
[Italian.]
Nov. 17.
Senato,
Secreta.
Dispacci,
Inghilterra.
Venetian
Archives.
240. Girolamo Alberti, Venetian Secretary in England, to the Doge and Senate.
In my foregoing letter I stated matters of fact, I will now give their causes. The boundless licence and audacity of the House of Commons produced the insolent demands presented to his Majesty. They were preparing others even worse, so at the request of the duke of York the king held a cabinet council last Sunday. The majority pointed out that, taking example from the late civil war, there was now an attempt to start a rebellion, arming it with religion, and to separate the king from the duke of York and then vanquish both of them. The only remedy was to dissolve parliament, to render the members liable to imprisonment and expense through the loss of their privileges and to summon twenty parliaments if necessary, so as to obtain satisfaction from the last.
The opposition to the Modanese marriage proceeded from the princess being the nominee of France and not of Spain, like the archduchess of Innsbruck. They then reproached the Spaniards for encouraging whatever tends to break the French alliance. They added that the country was indifferent about preventing Catholics from attending the chapels of the foreign ambassadors, as pretended by the House of Commons, but those members who closeted themselves with Fresno and who receive pensions from him in proportion to the violence of their speeches in parliament, ought to be sent to the Tower. Nothing was said against France who, for her own interest compelled the king last session to sacrifice the Catholics by retracting the grant of liberty of conscience, Spain alone being blamed for availing herself of the pretext of religion to exasperate parliament and dissolve the alliance with France.
This is the gist of what was said in the council at which the king, not being the soundest of its members and lacking courage to be resolute, refused absolutely to dissolve, but let himself be induced to prorogue parliament. But he made the announcement so tamely that some think his enemies will be encouraged to do worse at the next meeting.
In the mean time, whether from boldness or necessity, the step has been taken. The duke, brave and determined, who is the leader of the party, has two schemes. The first is to obtain money from the French for the war or by means of the Spaniards to compel the Dutch to make peace. The second to deprive bad subjects of their offices and to bestow them on the faithful servants of the crown.
The king agrees to the first proposal and overtures are already being made; but Rovigni, who is expected as the successor of Colbert, will bring the secret. With regard to the second proposal, the king is mortally averse from it from fear of stirring up too many pecant humours, although the duke constantly impresses upon him that his authority is destroyed by delegating it without method and that by preferring evil counsellors to good ones he ruins the government, such a policy being an inevitable sign of ruin, which ought always to keep a monarch on the watch.
His Highness, who is thoroughly resolute has in the mean time sent for the chancellor, the head of these divisions. Rebuking him sternly he applied to him the abusive epithet of madman. If this pleases the other ministers because of their hatred of Shaftesbury, the example of their colleague shows them what may befall themselves, inspiring them with fear of the duke if not with love. It is still uncertain what final result may be produced by these impressions.
London, the 17th November, 1673.
[Italian.]
Nov. 22.
Senato,
Secreta.
Dispacci,
Francia.
Venetian
Archives.
241. Ascanio Giustinian, Venetian Ambassador in France, to the Doge and Senate.
If the disturbances continue in England, as there is only too much reason to fear, instead of deriving advantage from that quarter there is much more likelihood of their experiencing heavier burdens here. All these things combined may serve to dispose them more to the boon of peace which is so much desired.
Paris, the 22nd November, 1673.
[Italian.]
Nov. 24.
Senato,
Secreta.
Dispacci,
Inghilterra.
Venetian
Archives.
242. Girolamo Alberti, Venetian Secretary in England, to the Doge and Senate.
The duke of York is resolute and courageous in his projects for expelling the agitators and providing beforehand against the king being reduced to ruinous extremities of which evil disposed persons would avail themselves to usurp the royal authority Accordingly he told the king that the prorogation of parliament, by merely exasperating the members and rendering the people suspicious, would fail to soften the obstinacy of wicked men and induce the respect that is looked for, unless he made a special and severe example by punishing the seditious leaders and promoting individuals of known worth. If he continued the practice of winning men by rewards alone to render that obedience that might easily be obtained by inflicting the punishments reserved for the use of sovereigns to maintain their authority, it would not be long before he would have nothing to bestow. He ought therefore to husband rewards. When given to the deserving they are wonderfully useful for swelling their ranks; but when lavished on bad men they become proud and covetous, vice is encouraged and virtue disheartened. After giving utterance to these self evident truths, he expatiated on the insolence of the chancellor, of Lord Carombery, the queen's chamberlain and of many others, with such warmth that in the end the king deprived the chancellor of the seal and gave it, with the title of “Keeper of the Seal” to his Attorney General, Sir Heneage Finch, brother of the ambassador at Constantinople.
The king had also expressed his resentment against the others; but his usual fickleness prevailed and it seems that he will allow himself to be reconciled with them, though it is whispered that the names on the list of disgrace numbered fifty. From this it is clear that his Majesty lacks courage and his faithful servants complain that for this reason they dare not declare themselves, lest they be left at the mercy of their opponents. They declare that the king's policy of winning the affection of the people by blandishment is a mistake, as having lost their esteem and respect they consider his favours a mark of weakness and they will not allow themselves to be governed otherwise than by force. On the other hand the king, who has conceded so much to the party of the agitators and thinks to win them by giving a little more, maintains that it would be more dangerous to leave them and to throw himself into the arms of the others, without having wherewith to satisfy them; and it seems to him more possible to find safety in the ranks of his enemies than probable that he could recover his lost authority through new channels.
The king has brought himself to this pass by an improper distribution of favours. He merely consulted his personal convenience, regardless of the merits of his faithful servants and believes that he could subsist by the aid of bad and vicious men. No one anticipates any good result from the removal of the chancellor, as his colleagues, who remain in the cabinet, will thwart everything. Now no one dares to say a word for the king from fear of being deserted by him and left to their fate.
It is also doubtful if the duke's policy will succeed, since it is not known whether his authority, unacknowledged by the king, will add to the number of his enemies or intimidate them, from fear of being similarly maltreated.
In the mean time, to discourage the king, they tell him that the greatest harm he can do himself is to show the people that he is ruled by the duke, whom they suspect of being a Catholic. But if his Majesty does not agree entirely with his brother's suggestions, still less does he listen to those of the other faction and he seems determined not to give way to any jealousy which might again divide and estrange them, to the delight of those whose sole aim is to establish on the ruins of the two brothers and of the monarchy what they call republican liberty; and as the English have neither sufficient industry nor moderation for this, they will simply end in a new tyranny.
London, the 24th November, 1673.
[Italian.]
Nov. 24.
Senato,
Secreta.
Dispacci,
Inghilterra.
Venetian
Archives.
243. Girolamo Alberti, Venetian Secretary in England, to the Doge and Senate.
The duke of York is becoming every day more attached and engaged to the French party from which he hopes not only to to gain the fitting remedy for present necessities but also promises himself its support on all future occasions. On the other hand he accuses the Spaniard of having raised all the difficulties and vexations of the last session. He maintains that without the money of the Ambassador Fresno there never would have been so many zealous politicians busying themselves with the state of the country and bewailing it. He charges him with having rendered the present war unpopular in England by declaring that his queen was willing to compel the States to grant an honourable and advantageous peace.
In the mean time the duke urges the French ambassador to obtain money from his master to rescue the king out of the hands of the parliament. As Rouvigni arrived last evening the negotiations will begin, the French being required either to unite and agree about the peace or to supply money for the war. The duke's adherents, the enemies of these agitators, have suggested another plan, to wit that the king should accuse them all of treason, send them to the Tower and confiscate their estates to defray the expenses of the war. But the king eschews violence and, on the contrary, listens to proposals for disbanding the troops, to rid himself of the cost. But he does not listen to the advice of the chancellor who, to ruin the duke and deprive him of his hopes of the crown, offered the king plenty of money from parliament provided, at their request, he would repudiate the barren queen and make a second marriage. The chancellor intended thus to defeat the duke and ruin the Catholics, having failed in his attempt to send the princess of Modena back to Italy. He now calls himself the martyr of the Protestant religion, for the sake of which he so violently opposed the duke's marriage and the aggrandisement of the Catholics. This claim, which challenges the king to justify his intentions to the public, will perhaps compel him to declare himself against the Catholics, to confute the charge of protecting them; but severity will be better received direct from his hands than from the indiscretion of parliament.
Besides the outbreak against the pope's effigy, ballads were circulated on the subject, contrary to the custom of former years, showing hatred and greater license; but the Court took no notice of it and in the mean time the duke hastens the coming of the duchess as much as possible.
The French ambassador perceiving such a split in the cabinet and how much the policy of the government depends on the disgrace of the ministry, speeds his departure as much as he can, lest fresh accidents destroy what he has so fortunately effected in England. His dread of the next session is indescribable.
London, the 24th November, 1673.
[Italian.]
Nov. 25.
Senato,
Secreta.
Deliberazioni.
Corti.
Venetian
Archives.
244. To the Secretary Alberti in England.
The Senate commends the mention which you have made repeatedly about remarks made there that the republic alone may be free to mediate the peace. We are waiting for you to inform us what basis there is for this idea, from whom in particular it comes and anything else that is relevant, for our illumination and guidance.
The Ambassador Michiel reports the arrival of the duchess of Modena at Paris. In England you will show the duchess of Modena every attention in our name and at every encounter you will adopt with the royal persons those forms which are in harmony with our affectionate regard for that crown.
As yet we have received no official intimation of the marriage.
Ayes, 89. Noes, 0. Neutral, 1.
[Italian.]
Nov. 28.
Senato,
Secreta.
Dispacci,
Inghilterra.
Venetian
Archives.
245. Girolamo Alberti, Venetian Secretary in England, to the Doge and Senate.
An express has arrived from France announcing the departure of the duchess of York from Paris and that she would be at Calais to morrow evening with the intention of crossing to Dover on Thursday. The duke will leave London to morrow morning and everybody is following him in haste, performing the journey in one day, although a distance of 70 miles, so as to be ready for the landing. On his return the duke will embark at Gravesend and come with the barges to London, where it seems that the king has decided to meet him.
In the mean time his Majesty has sent the earl of Ossory to compliment the duchess at Dover, and he may cross over to Calais. All the ships are ordered to go and receive her and at Court great entertainments are being prepared for the same purpose, an incredible expenditure being incurred.
In accordance with what I hinted last week, the king not only charged the judges to consult together and inform him of the best way to enforce the laws against the Catholics, but has issued an order in Council forbidding the Papists or those suspected as such from coming to his palace or into his presence, charging the Grand Master and Grand Chamberlain of his Household to see that this is carried out (fn. 13).
This severity of the king does not yet seem sufficient and flames of religion spread more and more every day. It is not beyond possibility that they may produce an effect the reverse of what was anticipated by the incendiaries, who may perhaps burn their fingers.
In Scotland also Lauderdale has been obliged to prorogue parliament to avert impending mischief; indeed it is necessary for the king to apply speedy remedies in every quarter. He answered the letter of the States General as by the accompanying pamphlet.
London, the 28th November, 1673.
[Italian.]
Enclosure. 246. Letter of the States General of the United Provinces of the Low Countries to his Majesty, together with his Majesty's answer to the said letter. Published by his Majesty's special command (fn. 14).
[Pamphlet of 22 pages.]
Nov. 29.
Senato,
Secreta.
Dispacci,
Francia.
Venetian
Archives.
247. Francesco Michiel, Venetian Ambassador in France, to the Doge and Senate.
The ebullitions of the Chambers in London are felt to be very tiresome because from the evil impression they give they are likely to prove the motive for fresh resolutions on the part of the British king which will turn out prejudicial to the alliance with this crown, whatever form they may take. It is considered that there is no way out of the dilemma, either not to summon parliament, and suffer the prejudice in the provision of money, which is so necessary and the sole means of support for the forces, or else to summon it to secure something definite which will inevitably involve separation from this side and a reconciliation with the Dutch, who have persuaded them to believe that they are ready to satisfy the British king with all that he may desire. This is what increases the apprehension, of more difficult complications in the coming campaign and causes misgiving that it may be advisable to accept peace even upon conditions disadvantageous to this side.
M. di Colbert, who is in London, is pressing for leave to come home as he sees the blue sky of his operations changing to unsettled weather and cloudy, and it is believed that he will soon be seen in this city. The Sig. di Ruvigni has already arrived to uphold those operations. The Sig. di Gramon has also left for that side, and although he has told his friends that he is going on his private affairs, nevertheless a person in his confidence told me that he had undertaken the journey with precise instructions, as a man of wit and parts, acquainted with the country and with many relations for the conduct of those interests and to do everything in his power to act as a counterpoise to the finesse of the Spaniards and Dutch, who have co-operated so well together for the advantage of their side.
Here they consider that every attention and care are thrown away and fruitless, the English being too prejudiced against this nation. Their dislike and rancour have also been increased by the unfortunate affair of the 4000 infantry destined as a reinforcement of these armies. Being ill provided with food by their captains, who had only made provision for three days, a large proportion of them perished of hunger; being obliged to stop where they were for a fortnight before arriving at Castelnovo, in Normandy, their place of destination.
The duchess of Yorch departed on the 23rd exceedingly well pleased with her royal reception. His Majesty chose to put the seal on this by granting her a favour she asked by setting at liberty the marquis di Frene, who was sent to prison two years ago at Lyons, accused among other things of having wished to sell his wife to the Turks, who saved herself by flight. The duchess will be attended as far as Cales by the royal coaches and officials of the Court. There she will be received by leading Englishmen who are awaiting her. At Dover she will find the duke, her husband, who is sighing for her arrival, feeling confident that once the marriage is consummated the thread of greater disturbances will be cut and expedients found to soothe the Houses, which have been exacerbated by this very cause.
The cavalier di Locar is expected at any moment in the character of ambassador of his Britannic Majesty and for his arrival they are hurrying on with his train, which is being prepared in this city.
Paris, the 29th November, 1673.
[Italian: the part in italics deciphered.]
Nov. 29.
Senato,
Secreta.
Dispacci,
Spagna.
Venetian
Archives.
248. Girolamo Zeno, Venetian Ambassador in Spain, to the Doge and Senate.
Although war has not yet been proclaimed with the usual stridency I am unable to say whether this is due to the natural slothfulness and irresolution of this government or whether it derives rather from a desire to wait for the reply upon the commissions sent to the marquis del Freno, ambassador with the British king. These were sent by an express despatch charging him to do his very utmost to see that the assistance given by that king to the Most Christian shall be diminished or at least that it shall not be directed against the immediate realms of this monarchy. It still remains the intention of the Court that if England persists in the determination to keep the union of her forces, with those of France, without any regard to the prejudice of these states, they will be forced to come to an open rupture with that crown as well as forbidding trade to its subjects. This much is certain, that the ambassador Villars took congé of the queen on Thursday last.
Madrid, the 29th November, 1673.
[Italian.]

Footnotes

  • 1. Paul de Beauvilliers, eldest surviving son of François de Beauvilliers, duc de St. Aignan.
  • 2. There is no member of the name in this Restoration parliament. He probably means Henry Powle, member for Cirencester.
  • 3. The only Thomas mentioned in the Return of Members is Sir William Thomas, member for Seaford.
  • 4. This seems to refer to the act for a general free pardon, passed the day before the adjournment in March, by which the king's ministers were freed from all accusation for things past. Cal. S. P. Dom. 1673, pages 99, 127.
  • 5. His seat was at Chudleigh and Ugbrooke in Devon and he was buried in the church of the latter place on 19 October. G.E.C. Complete Peerage revised ed, Vol. III, page 304.
  • 6. Anna Maria, youngest child of Philip of Orleans by his first wife, Henrietta Anne of England. She was born 27 Aug., 1669.
  • 7. Apparently the men of Lord Vaughan's and Sir William Lockhart's regiments with 16 more companies, sent to recruit Monmouth's regiment. Cal. S.P. Dom. 1673, page 545.
  • 8. Edward Seymour, who had been chosen in February to succeed Sir Job Charlton. The debate was held on 27 October, o.s. Cobbett: Parliamentary History, Vol. IV. 591. Journals of the House of Commons, Vol. IX, pages 253, 282.
  • 9. Writing on 10 November Finch says that he has got a paper from the Grand Duke promising to admit English woollen manufactures provided his silk manufactures might always be admitted to England. He asked that some small abatement of the custom on his silks might be allowed; but he did not insist upon this; he desired it as a blind to his own subjects and to foreign princes. S. P. Tuscany, Vol. XV.
  • 10. A gentleman of Lucca, Alessandro Antelminelli, exiled from his native city, took refuge in England where he assumed the name of Amerigo Salvetti. From 1618 he began to send regular reports to Florence of affairs in England, and in due course he became accredited resident of the Grand Duke at the English Court. He continued in this employment until his death in July 1657, when his eldest son, Giovanni, who called himself Giovanni Salvetti Antelminelli applied for the post and received his appointment as resident in September following. Pearsall Smith: Life and Letters of Sir Harry Wotton, Vol. I, page 35. Vol. XVII of this Calendar, page 98 and Vol. XXXI, page 84.
  • 11. With reference to the agitation in parliament, James said it was important that the duchess should lose no time in coming to England, but Colbert adds “Je ne sais s'il ne serait pas plus apropos que la princesse attendit la fin de cette seance … j'avoue que dans la consternation ou je vois les plus affectionnés serviteurs du roi et de M. le due et ces princes memes, je ne sais quel jugement faire de la fin de ce parlement. Colbert to the king, 2 November. P.R.O. Paris Transcripts.
  • 12. This night the youths of the city burnt the pope in effigy after they had made a procession with it in great triumph, they being displeased at the duke for Altering his religion and marrying an Italian lady. Evelyn's Diary, 5 Nov., 1673,
  • 13. Proclamation of 20 November. Steele: Tudor and Stuart Proclamations. Vol. I, page 433, No. 3584.
  • 14. The letter of the States General is that mentioned in Alberti's despatch of the 10th November at page 169 above. It was dated 25 October. The king's answer is dated 7 November, at Whitehall. Both letters are printed in Aitzema and Bos: Historien onses Tyds, pages 684–5. 690–2. The letter of the States is in S. P. Holland, Vol. CXCV.