Calendar of Treasury Books, Volume 27, 1713. Originally published by Her Majesty's Stationery Office, London, 1955.
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THE TREATY OF UTRECHT AND THE COMMERCIAL TREATY WITH FRANCE
The Introduction to the preceding Volume dealt with the preliminary moves towards a Peace Treaty and with the attack by the Public Accounts Committee and in the House of Commons on the Duke of Marlborough; deprived of his Offices and accused of peculation, the Duke left England for Ostend in December 1712 and set out for Antwerp and Maastricht; Cadogan, but only at the sacrifice of all his appointments, obtained leave to accompany him. Early in 1713 his Duchess also joined him and after a stay at Aix-la-Chapelle the two reached Frankfort in May 1713; there they lived quietly until towards the end of the year (Churchill, ‘Marlborough: His Life and Times’, Vol. IV, Chapters XXXV and XXXVI, pp. 601–603).
Meanwhile the negotiations for a Peace proceeded. As early as the autumn of 1712 the English Ministers had determined to send an Ambassador Extraordinary to France but the Duke of Hamilton, their first choice, was killed on November 15, on the very eve of his departure, in a duel with Lord Mohun; his place was taken by Charles, Duke of Shrewsbury. Lord Strafford and the Bishop of Bristol remained throughout the winter as Plenipotentiaries at Utrecht, where at length, though only after a threat from Viscount Bolingbroke to renew the War, a series of Treaties was signed between the several Powers. The Emperor alone held out until March 1714 when, by the Treaty of Radstadt, Strasbourg and Landau were given to France and the Emperor of Bavaria was reinstated (Churchill op. cit. pp. 594–600; Trevelyan, ‘England under Queen Anne’: Vol. III ‘The Peace and the Protestant Succession’, pp. 223–226, 228, 245–247).
The Treaty between Great Britain and France, which was signed 31 March/11 April 1713, provided inter alia for Peace and Friendship between the two Countries (Articles I–III); for French recognition of the Protestant Succession (Articles IV and V); against the Union of the Crowns of France and Spain (Article VI); for the razing of the fortifications of Dunkirk (Article IX); for British rights in Hudson's Bay (Articles X and XI); for the cession to Great Britain of St. Christopher's and Nova Scotia (Article XII); for the British right to Newfoundland, subject to certain French fishing rights (Article XIII); for inhabitants of places ceded to Great Britain to be allowed to remove themselves or, if remaining to practise their Religion (Article XIV); and for the rights of the ‘Five Nations’ in Canada (Article XV). With this Treaty went also a separate Treaty of Commerce and Navigation, Article VIII of which was intended to provide for the right of the Subjects of each Country ‘as to all Duties, Impositions, or Customs, whatsoever’ to ‘use and enjoy the same Privileges, Liberties and Immunities, at least, and have the like Favour, in all things which any Foreign Nation, the most favoured, has used and enjoys, or may hereafter have, use and enjoy’. By Article IX it was ‘further agreed that within the space of two months, after a law shall be made in Great Britain, whereby it shall be sufficiently provided, that no more Customs or Duties be paid for Goods and Merchandizes brought from France to Great Britain than what are payable for Goods and Merchandizes of the like Nature imported into Great Britain from any other Country in Europe; and that all Laws made in Great Britain, since the year 1660, for prohibiting the Importation of any Goods and Merchandizes coming from France… be repealed; the General Tariff, made in France the 18th day of September in the year 1664, shall take place there again…. But whereas it is urged, on the part of France, that certain Merchandizes; that is to say, Manufactures of Wool, Sugar, Salted Fish, and the Product of Whales; be excepted… within two months Commissaries on both Sides shall meet at London… for removing the Difficulties. .’. Article X provided for a reduction of the Duties on Tobacco imported into France and Article XI for the cessation of the Taxes on British Ships in France and on French Ships in Great Britain. The particulars reserved for the discussion of the Commissioners under Article IX were also appended: also the exceptions of whale-products, cloth, etc., salt-fish and sugar desired by France. The General Treaty with Spain followed the same lines as that with France; Article X ceded Gibraltar to Great Britain; Article XI Minorca; Article XII granted the ‘Assiento’ for thirty years; Article XIII was intended—but failed— to protect the Catalans; Article XIV ceded Sicily to Victor Amadeus of Savoy (to be exchanged with the Emperor in 1720 for Sardinia). (‘Journals of the House of Commons’, Vol. XVII, hereinafter referred to as C.J., pp. 319–344.)
The ratified Treaty of Peace and Commerce with France and the concluded Treaty with Spain were laid in translation before the House of Commons on May 9. The critical articles in the Commercial Treaty with France were obviously the Eighth, Ninth and Tenth. Special Duties had been imposed on French Wines, French Goods and French Ships, notably by Stat. 7 & 8 William III, c. 20. Already on May 2 it had been resolved by 144 to 104 ‘ That Leave be given to bring in a Bill to suspend, for Two Months, the Duties of Twenty-five Pounds per Tun on French Wines imported’ (C.J., p. 310). The Bill was accordingly presented on May 4; the Motion for its Second Reading was carried and on May 6, after the defeat of an attempt to delay its Commitment, it was to be considered by a Committee of the whole House (C.J., pp. 314, 315) whereafter it appears to have been superseded by the Bill to approve the Commercial Treaty.
On May 6 a Petition against the removal of the Duties was received from Merchants in the City of London trading to Spain and Portugal. Other Petitions followed from merchants trading to Italy and other parts of the Mediterranean, to Turkey and the Levant, and to the Plantations; from bay-makers and others engaged in the manufacture and dyeing of wool in Essex, London, Suffolk, Leeds, Witney and the West Country; from fruit-growers and distillers in Worcester, Bristol, London, Liverpool and Chester; from linen manufacturers in Lancashire and in Somerset, Dorset, etc.; from silk-weavers in London and Canterbury; from the Company of Gold and Silver Wire-drawers in London; from stocking-frame-work-knitters of Nottingham and others. In addition the Committee of the House considering the Commercial Treaty was able to hear certain of the Petitioners; previous Treaties and other papers were laid before the House including the Methuen Treaty with Portugal of December 1703 (C.J., pp. 348, 349) and Returns by the Commissioners of Customs (C.J., pp. 361–367). The Petitions are of peculiar interest as showing the distribution of industry at this time, the wool-trade still thriving in Essex and East Anglia but more especially in the West of England, the linen trade in Lancashire, the beginnings of silk-weaving in London and Kent and the flourishing trade in home made ‘brandies’ from apples, corn and coarse sugar. The merchants and woollen-manufacturers alleged that the Trade to Spain and Portugal had always been beneficial by taking off great quantities of fish, corn, leather and all sorts of woollen manufactures, in return for which wines and species of gold and silver had been imported; that the Italian trade had taken off great quantities of fish, copperas, lead ore, tin, lead, pepper, and woollen manufacture, in return for which was received about 2,000 tuns of wine and the remainder in useful commodities; that a Law to reduce the Duties upon French wines as low as those of Portugal might induce Portugal to prohibit, or lay a high Duty on, the woollen manufacturers of Great Britain; that the finest cloth was made entirely of Spanish wool and the French might now have silk wool cheaper than British subjects; that vast tracts of land in France had lately been converted into sheep-walks; that wool was at a low price in France and materials cheap, and that, as the hire of labour was not above two-thirds of the price in Great Britain, no exports of woollen goods from Great Britain to France could therefore be expected. With regard to the silk trade it was represented that the silken and woollen manufactures were inter-dependent; that Worcester white cloths were chiefly sent to Turkey in exchange for raw silks; that France was now at an advantage in importing Spanish wool and could export Spanish and other cloths to Turkey in exchange for raw silks for manufacture in France; that the silk trade in and about London employed above 40,000 persons engaged for the greatest part in winding, throwing and preparing silk raw from the worm, imported from Turkey, but that the apprehension of a too open Trade with France had already caused there to be little or no demand for British thrown silk. The fruit growers and distillers alleged that they had fruit trees planted for making verjuice, cyder and perry for distillation; that the materials used in distilling brandies in the Kingdom were of its own growth as above or imported from its own plantations as coarse sugar and ‘Molosses’, and that the liquors made by such distilling produced a good and wholesome brandy which, when rectified and kept to a good old age, was hardly known from French brandy. It was said that in Lancashire alone 60,000 persons were employed in the Linen Trade. In the parish of St. Giles, Cripplegate, above 6,000 persons, employed in the gold and silver manufacture, might be ruined were the Duties on Gilt and Silver Wire to be repealed.
On May 14 the House resolved itself into a Committee to consider the Eighth and Ninth Articles of the Treaty. After most of the Whigs had left the House leave to bring in a Bill to make these two Articles effectual was granted by 146 to 12 (C.J., p. 354; ‘Parliamentary History of England’ or ‘Cobbett's Parliamentary History of England’—both printed by T.C. Hansard but for different Publishers—Vol. VI, pp. 1210–1213). Mr. Lowndes presented the Bill accordingly on May 30 and, after a division to postpone the First Reading had been defeated by 89 to 147, it was read a First Time and ordered to be read a Second Time on Thursday, June 4; a motion that the Bill be printed was defeated by 86 to 148 (C.J., p. 386). The Bill was duly read a Second Time and committed by 202 votes to 135 to a Committee of the Whole House to which the several Petitions were to be referred (June 4, C.J., p. 402). The Committee duly sat on June 9 and June 10 and reported on June 15; on June 18 the House considered the amendments made in Committee and voted on them severally but upon the question being put ‘ That the Bill with Amendments, be ingrossed’ the Motion was lost by 185 votes to 194 (C.J., pp. 410, 416, 417, 425, 426, 430).
The Whigs on this occasion were reinforced by Sir Thomas Hanmer, M.P. for Suffolk, by Mr. Aislabie, a Lord Commissioner of the Admiralty, and by Mr.Francis Annesly, a Commissioner of the Public Accounts. Sir Thomas in ‘a long and elaborate speech’ explained that, though previously he had given his vote for bringing in the Bill, he was now convinced that the passing of it would be of great prejudice to the woollen and silk manufacturers of the Kingdom, would increase the number of the poor and, in the end, affect the land. (Trevelyan op. cit. pp. 254–258; ‘Parliamentary History’, Vol. VI, pp. 1221–1223.)
AFFAIRS IN SCOTLAND
In March 1712 an Act of Toleration had been passed for the relief of Episcopalians; in May of that year the restoration of patronage in the Church of Scotland had become law; these two Acts had done much to disgust Presbyterians with the Union. But all parties in the country were displeased by the economic policy of the Government; the duty on the export abroad of British linen, imposed in 1711, fell heavily on Scotland's staple industry. In the spring of 1713 and actually before the signing of the last of the Treaties, that between England and Spain, a tax of 6d. a bushel was voted on British malt. Scottish malt was of poorer quality and sold at a lower price than the English and the Act of Union had expressly stipulated that malt to be made and consumed in Scotland should not be ‘charged with any imposition on malt during this present War’.
Nevertheless by majorities of 35 and 32 Votes the extension of the 6d. Duty to malt made in Scotland was carried in the Commons (C.J., pp. 348, 350, 352, 373). This was followed by several private meetings of Scots of both Houses; on May 26 the Duke of Argyll, the Earl of Mar and Messrs. Lockhart and Cockburn attended the Queen to protest; on June 1 the matter was debated in the Lords, together with other grievances occasioned by the Union; the Earls of Finlater and of Mar demanded Repeal; Lord North and Grey led for the continuance of the Union, which the Earl of Peterborough compared to a marriage that once made could not be broken; the Duke of Argyll on the other hand said that the Malt Tax could only be collected in Scotland by a Regiment of Dragoons; after many speeches on both sides the motion was defeated by four proxies only. The Malt Bill was nearly lost on the motion for its reference to a Committee of the Whole House but was finally passed by 64 voices to 56. (Trevelyan op. cit. pp. 238–242; ‘Parliamentary History’, Vol. VI, pp. 1215–1220.)
THE REDUCTION OF THE ARMY
It has been estimated that the maximum strength of the Army abroad during Queen Anne's reign, attained between 1707 and 1709, may be taken at some 70,000 men, including six Troops of Household Cavalry, eleven Regiments of Horse, sixteen Regiments of Dragoons and seventy-five Regiments, forming seventy-nine Battalions, of Foot. Since then, for various reasons, the numbers had fallen considerably. After the cessation of active hostilities the work of disbandment began and before Christmas 1712 thirteen Regiments of Dragoons, twenty-two of Foot and several Regiments of Invalids had been broken. On the signing of the Treaty more were disbanded, making 33,000 men discharged in all. By these means, even though 8,000 were still needed temporarily in garrison in Flanders, the Forces were reduced in 1714 to less than 30,000 men. A small bounty was allowed the reduced men. (Fortescue, ‘History of the British Army’, Vol. I, Chapter XI and Vol. II, pp. 3, 4.)
The figures in the Declared Accounts and in the Yearly Accounts of the Treasury, both of which have been calendared in this series, illustrate the rapidity of demobilization; payments to James Brydges for the Forces Abroad (including subsidies and payments to Foreign Troops) and to John How for the Guards and Garrisons had been in the neighbourhood of 4,000,000l. per annum, but in Michaelmas 1711 to Michaelmas 1712 such payments sank to less than 3,000,000l., in 1712 to 1713 to less than 1,250,000l. (divided between Brydges, Moor and How), and in 1713 to 1714 to 884,451l. 0s. 1¾d. (to Moor and How) of which nearly a quarter was for previous years.
The figures from the Declared Accounts for the Forces Overseas are even more striking as by abstracting the pay of the General Officers in the Low Countries and the Peninsula and the subsistence of the British Regiments there, it will be seen that a yearly expenditure of about 90,000l. a month in 1710 to 1711 sank to monthly averages of 70,000l. in 1711 to 1712; of 45,000l. for the first eight months of 1713; of 20,000l. for the remaining four, and of 17,000l. for the first ten months of 1714.
PARLIAMENT HOUSE OF COMMONS
(‘Journals of the House of Commons’, Vol. XVII, pp. 276 et seq.)
THE QUEEN'S SPEECH
Parliament was prorogued on 6 November 1712 to reassemble 13 January 1712–13: further prorogations, however, followed to February 3, February 17, March 3, March 10, March 17, March 26 and April 9.
Finally on 9 April 1713 the Peace negotiations had reached finality and the Queen was able to announce:
‘I ended the last Session with my hearty Thanks for the solemn Assurances you had given me; by which I have been able to overcome the Difficulties contrived to obstruct the general Peace.
I have deferred opening the Session until now, being very desirous to communicate to you, at your first Meeting, the Success of this important Affair: It is therefore with great Pleasure I tell you, the Treaty is signed, and in a few Days the Ratifications will be exchanged.
The Negotiation has been drawn into so great a length, that all our Allies have had sufficient Opportunity to adjust their several Interests: Though the Publick Charge has been thereby much increased; yet I hope my People will be easy under it, since we have happily obtained the End we proposed.
What I have done for securing the Protestant Succession, and the perfect Friendship there is between me and the House of Hanover, may convince such as wish well to both how vain all Attempts are to divide us….
As great a Progress has been made in reducing the Publick Expence, as the Circumstances of Affairs would admit.
What Force may be necessary for securing our Commerce by Sea, and for Guards and Garrisons, I leave intirely to my Parliament…. I recommend to your Care those brave Men, who have served well by Sea or Land this War, and cannot be employed in time of Peace.
I must desire you to provide the Supplies you shall judge requisite.
The Easing of our foreign Trade…. will deserve your Care: And to think of proper Methods for improving and encouraging our Home Trade and Manufactures, particularly the Fishery; which may be carried on to employ all our spare Hands….
I cannot… but expressly mention my Displeasure at the unparalleled Licentiousness in publishing seditious and scandalous Libels (fn. 1) …. Prosecutions have been ordered…. The impious Practice of Duelling requires some speedy and effectual Remedy.
Now we are entering upon Peace Abroad, let me conjure you all to use your utmost Endeavours to calming Mens Minds at Home….’
The House resolved Nemine contradicente that an Address of Thanks be presented.
(C.J., p. 278.)
ACCOUNTS AND ESTIMATES, ETC.
On 13 April 1713 Mr. Lowndes presented an Account of the Supplies granted for 1712; and of the Ways and Means towards raising the same; and the Deficiency thereof:
An Account shewing how the said Supplies had been appropriated, and what Issues had been made out of the same, until 10 April 1713; and the Remains thereof:
An Account of the South Sea Stock, and Dividends thereupon, and of Monies borrowed on South Sea Stock till 10 April 1713:
And he acquainted the House, that the Account of the Supplies granted for the year 1711 would be ready in a few days. (C.J., p. 282.)
On April 15 a series of Resolutions was passed that a Supply be granted to the Queen and that various Accounts, States and Estimates be presented (C.J., p. 283). On the same day Mr. Brydges presented a ‘State’ as follows:
A State shewing what the ordinary Pay of the foreign Forces in her Majesty's Service in the Low Countries, who did not obey the Orders of Her Majesty's General there; and the Proportion of Subsidies payable to several foreign Princes, amounts to, from the 21st of May 1712; from which Time a Stop hath been put to the Payment thereof, pursuant to Her Majesty's Pleasure, signified by the Right honourable the Lord Bolingbroke; to the 21st of December following, viz..
Memorandum.—The above Sum of £49,945 17s. 1¼d. has been applied towards lessening the Debt, which has gradually grown upon the Army for divers Years past, occasioned by defraying several Services, for which no particular Provision has been made by Parliament.
(C.J., pp. 283, 284.)
On Friday April 17 Mr. Aislabie presented the Ordinary of the Navy for the Year 1713: And,
An Estimate of the Debt of her Majesty's Navy, as it stood on the 30th of September 1712, and the 31st of December 1712: And,
An Account of what Ships are now employed, or in Sea Pay; and of the Number of Seamen borne on board them: And also,
A List of her Majesty's Ships and Vessels which have been laid up, and paid off, since the 25th of December 1710; and of the hired Hospital Ships, and Tenders, paid off in the same time.
The Estimate, etc. will be found in C.J., pp. 286–289 and the List of Ships on pp. 290–292.
|The Estimate of the Debt to 31 December 1712 showed:||£||s.||d.|
|Wear and Tear||222,127||19||2|
|Sick and Wounded, etc.||49,347||6||2|
(The corresponding total for 30 September had been 2,527,119l. 16s. 11d.)
Towards satisfying the said Debt there was remaining in the several Navy Treasurer's hands:
(The corresponding total for 30 September had been 2,543,628l. 19s. 7¼d.)
(C.J., pp. 285–292.)
(C.J., p. 292.)
On April 18 Mr. Lowndes presented to the House, pursuant to their Address to her Majesty, an Account of the Publick Supplies granted for 1711; and for what Uses; and of the Ways and Means towards raising the same; and the Deficiency thereof; and how that Deficiency was since provided for, and apportioned: And,
An Account shewing what Issues had been made out of the said Supplies, till 10th April 1713, and the Remains thereof: (C.J., p. 293.)
Sir William Wyndham presented Accounts of the Forces discharged since 25 December 1711 and of the Number and Disposition of those now in Pay: the Account of Discharges showed:
Ten Regiments of Dragoons of which eight were disbanded 5 August 1712 to 2 December 1712 and two were under Orders to be disbanded; in addition three Regiments had already been discharged 22 December 1711;
Twenty-six Regiments of Foot of which twenty-three were disbanded 4 August 1712 to 14 November 1712, one at Gibraltar in February 1712–13 and two were under orders to be disbanded; in addition to these, seven Regiments in Spain and Portugal had already been reduced in the second half of 1711.
Further reductions in the strength of Regiments in the Guards and Garrisons from 25 August 1712 and from 25 October 1712 were also detailed.
The Forces still in pay showed:
Horse, the First, Second, Third and Fourth Troop of Guards, the First and Second Troop of Grenadier Guards and the Royal Regiment of Guards, all in South Britain; Dragoons, four Regiments in North Britain; Foot, three Regiments of Guards and two other Regiments in South Britain, two Regiments and two Independent Companies in North Britain, one Regiment in Jersey, Guernsey, etc., two in the West Indies; Independent Companies, thirteen at New York, Bermuda, Annapolis Royal and Placentia; Invalids, twelve Companies at Windsor and other places.
Total numbers: 11,773 men in Britain, 725 in Jersey, Guernsey, Scilly and Pendennis, 1,450 in Jamaica and the Leeward Islands, 1,235 at New York, etc.; in all 15,183 men for the Guards and Garrisons.
These figures exclude 1,300 men in Italy furnished by the Duke of Saxe Gotha, some men from disbanded Regiments still at Port Mahon and Gibraltar, and the Forces in Ireland. (C.J., pp. 293–296.)
On 25 April 1713 Mr. How, Paymaster of the Guards and Garrisons, presented an Account ‘to what time the Forces in British Pay, upon the Establishment of Guards and Garrisons, are paid’. This showed most of the Horse and Foot cleared to 22 December 1711 and subsisted to 22 February 1712–13; the garrisons in South Britain, who received no subsistence, were cleared to 21 December 1712. (C.J., pp. 301–303.)
On May 2 Mr. Brydges presented an Estimate of Clearings and Off Reckonings due to 25 March 1713. (C.J., p. 309.)
On May 4 pursuant to a Resolution of May 2 (C.J., p. 309) Sir William Wyndham presented an Estimate of the charge of the Land Forces 22 December 1712 to 23 June 1713: this gave a total of 636,888l. 14s. 10d. as follows:
(C.J., pp. 311–313.)
On May 7, also pursuant to a Resolution of May 2 (C.J., p. 309), General Hill presented an Estimate of the charge of Ordnance for Land Services for the year 1713 amounting to 71,244l. 10s. 6d. (C.J., p. 316.)
On May 11 Sir Thomas Hanmer reported from the Select Committee appointed to consider the Ordinary of the Navy for the Year 1713. For the First Head the Committee had gone back to 1698 when 24,000l. had been voted but the actual sum spent had been 36,203l. 10s. 11d.: in 1702 the Demand made for this Service had only been for 24,485l. 5s. 8d.; this year, however, it amounted to 31,967l. 6s. 8d.; the extra costs were enumerated, including 2,000l. for two Lords Commissioners of the Admiralty, who now numbered seven as against five in 1702, and 1,000l. for the Earl of Wemys as Vice Admiral of Scotland and Judge of the Admiralty Court. In the Charge for the Yards there was an increase of 2,006l. 8s. 10d. of which 593l. 10s. was for Harwich and 1,147l. 10s. for Kinsale, both new Yards since 1702, but these were to be reduced so that the only charge in future would be for a Storekeeper in each place. In the Establishment for the Officers of the Outports there was an increased charge of 2,515l. including 1,150l. for Lisbon, 1,050l. for Port Mahon, and 50l. for Leith, all new items since 1702, but the Officers were being recalled from all these three places. There were also items under the Head of Superannuated Sea Officers and in the List of Pensions and Allowances, totalling 73l. 8s. and 1,280l. respectively to which the Committee took exception: pensions granted before the Queen's Accession and paid without a renewed warrant totalled 2,872l. 17s. 6d. Upon the four remaining Heads, in view of the reduction of numbers, the Committee suggested an abatement of 14,604l. 19s. 1d.
The Committee further examined the need for retention of the extraordinary clerks but business was likely to increase for a year or two rather than to diminish; a saving of some 600l. per an. might be made from Midsummer next. Payments to Lord Orford, Henry Priestman and the Earl of Strafford had also been reviewed and explained by Mr. Walpole; also all extraordinary allowances to any Navy Treasurer since 1697. (C.J., pp. 344–347.)
On May 27 Sir William Wyndham laid before the House an Estimate of Her Majesty's Forces in the Plantations, the Island of Minorca, Gibraltar, and Dunkirk, for the last Six Months of the Year 1713; viz. from the 24th June to the 24th of December following, both inclusive: And, an Estimate of the Troops of Saxe Gotha, which were in her Majesty's Service, with the Charge thereof, from the 22nd of December 1712, to the time of their Dismission: the former showed
(C.J., pp. 387.)
On June 4 Mr. How presented an Estimate of the charge of the Out-pensioners at Chelsea Hospital and proposals for the new Establishment of the Hospital and for reducing the expense of the Outpensioners, etc. (C.J., p. 391.)
On June 10 Sir William Wyndham presented an Estimate of the charges of Half-pay for the year 1713 to the Officers who had served well by land during the late War. This amounted to 87,923l. 18s. 11d. per an. for Officers already disbanded together with 11,104l. 8s. for other Officers to be disbanded for 184 days from 24 June 1713, total 99,028l. 6s. 11d. (C.J., pp. 411–415.)
On June 17 Sir Roger Mostyn presented an Estimate of the arrears due to clear the six Marine Regiments to 25 March 1713 exclusive. This showed a net balance due of 231,364l. 10s. 8¾d. (C.J., p. 428.)
On June 24 Sir William Wyndham presented two Accounts of some extraordinary charges of the late War for which no provision had yet been made by Parliament amounting respectively to 39,300l. 15s. 6¾d. and 117,236l. 14s. 2d. There were several Demands from Contractors outstanding, also claims for additional levy-money, etc.
On the same day Gen. Hill presented a Half-pay Estimate for the Artillery Trains, amounting to 1,016l. 10s. 8½d. (C.J., pp. 438–439.)
On June 26 Sir Roger Mostyn presented an Estimate of the Charge of Half-pay to the Officers of the Corps of Marines, amounting to 4,879l. 6s. (C.J., p. 442.)
On 10 July Sir William Wyndham presented an Estimate of the Forces needed for the Flanders Garrisons 24 June to 24 December 1713:
Six Battalions of Foot, 3,678 Officers and Men costing 35,466l., one Major General and six Staff Officers 1,274l. 4s.; amounting in all to 36,740l. 4s.
Parliament had however voted 5,351l. 11s. 0d. for 1,000 men more than were effective at Dunkirk and this sum would come in aid of the above charge. (C.J., p. 460.)
In addition to the above on June 25 the Chancellor of the Exchequer had presented a signed Message from the Queen relating to Civil List Debts, which to Midsummer 1710 had amounted to 511,762l. (C.J., p. 441). To 24 June 1713 they had risen to 704,020l. (Mr. Lowndes on July 1, C.J., p. 449). An ‘Abstract of Net Money arisen for the Civil List’ was presented on July 6 (C.J., pp. 452–455). It is hoped to give further details on this subject in the next Volume.
In thanking the Queen for her Speech the Commons could ‘never enough express the grateful Sense’ they had of the assurances contained therein; and after what she had done to ease her Subjects ‘of the heavy Burden, which before lay upon them’, and her ‘unparalleled Goodness in demanding nothing’ for the time to come but what they themselves should ‘judge requisite for their own Safety’, the best return they could make would be a ready and dutiful compliance with her Recommendations and they could not fail most cheerfully to set about providing the Supplies necessary. It was accordingly resolved on 10 April 1713 that on Monday April 13 the House would resolve itself into a Committee of Supply of the whole House. (C.J., p. 280.)
Ways and Means
(‘Journals of the House of Commons’, Vol. XVII; ‘Statutes of the Realm’, Vol. IX.)
During the War a 4s. Land Tax had become usual, but the House took the first possible opportunity to halve this rate. On 23 April 1713 Mr. Conyers reported the Resolution of the Committee of the whole House: That two Shillings in the Pound, and no more, be raised in the year 1713, upon all Lands, etc., in… England, Wales and the Town of Berwick upon Tweed; and that a proportionable Cess… be laid upon… Scotland. It was resolved accordingly nemine contradicente and ordered that a Bill be brought in, to be prepared by Mr. Conyers, Mr. Auditor Harley, Mr. Lowndes, Sir William Whitelocke and Mr. Stanhope. The Bill was introduced and read a first time the next day (C.J., p. 300.) It was read a second time on April 25 and ordered to be committed to a Committee of the whole House. The same Commissioners were to be appointed for its execution as for the service of the year 1711. Certain further instructions to the Committee were given on April 27; Amendments were made in Committee on April 28 and considered by the House on April 29; some were accepted but others ‘passed in the Negative‘; the Bill as amended was ordered to be engrossed; it was read the third time and passed nemine contradicente on May 1 (C.J., pp. 303–308). It passed the Lords and received the Royal Assent on May 4 (C.J., p. 314), appearing as 12 Anne c. 1.
The Bill for further continuing the Duty on Malt, Mum, Cyder and Perry from 23 June 1713 to 24 June 1714 was ordered on May 12, read May 13, committed May 14 (C.J., pp. 348, 350, 352); certain amendments were reported and considered on May 21, among the most controversial of which was that to impose Duty of 6d. a bushel on Malt made in Scotland; this was carried 139 to 104; an Amendment to leave out the whole clause which charged Malt made in Scotland with a Duty of 6d. a bushel was then defeated 147 to 115 (C.J., p. 373). The Bill as amended was duly engrossed and read a third time on May 22 (197 to 157) but only after another attempt had been made to protect Scottish Malt (C.J., p. 377). The Bill passed the Lords, June 9, and received the Royal Assent the next day as 12 Anne c. 2 (C.J., pp. 409, 416).
A Bill for circulating a further sum in Exchequer Bills and for payment of arrears on the Civil List became law as 12 Anne c. 11; and another for the encouragement of the making of Sail-cloth in Great Britain as 12 Anne c. 12; a Bill for encouraging the Tobacco Trade was also passed by the House on July 11 (C.J., p. 463) but had to wait until the next Parliament (13 Anne c. 8).
The Act 12 Anne c. 11 not only provided for 1,200,000l. for Public Uses to be raised by Exchequer Bills but also enabled the Queen to raise 500,000l. on the Revenues appointed for the Uses of her Civil Government to be applied for or towards payment of Debts and Arrears owing to her Servants, etc. The Exchequer Bills were to bear Interest at 2d. per cent per diem to the Bearer; and 3l. per cent per annum payable weekly, was to be allowed the Bank of England for circulating such Bills. From 31 July 1713 a yearly sum of 8,000l. over and above the 45,000l. under the Act 9 Anne c. 7 was to be paid the Bank by quarterly instalments. (12 Anne c. 11 ss. 1–28.)
The provisions for paying Arrears of the Civil List started as a separate Bill, ordered June 27 read June 29 and committed the next day to be combined with the Bill for the Circulation of Exchequer Bills (C.J., pp. 443–446). Several extraordinary expenses having occurred since the Act 1 Anne c. 1 and divers arrears of salaries, etc., and of debts to tradesmen remaining unsatisfied, the Queen was empowered by Letters Patent to appoint 35,000l. per an. for 32 years from Michaelmas 1713, to be issued out of the Exchequer, by weekly and quarterly payments, chargeable on the Revenues of the Crown. (12 Anne c. 11 ss. 29–33.)
By s. 34 of the same Act it was provided that the monies lent to the Queen on the Land Tax (12 Anne c. 1 supra) and the Malt Duty (12 Anne c. 2 supra), as well as by the Exchequer Bills under this Act, should be appropriated to the charges of the Ordinary and other services of the Navy, together with Sea Service in the Land Forces to 23 June 1713; to the charges of the Guards and Garrisons 23 June to 25 December 1713; to the charges of the Garrisons in Minorca, at Gibraltar and at Dunkirk; to the Queen's part of the charge of the Saxe Gotha Troops until their dismission; to the charge of the Forces in the Plantations; to the charge of Half-pay to Officers of the disbanded Marine Regiments, and to Land Officers disbanded; to the charge of the Chelsea Hospital Out-pensioners; for extraordinary charges of the War not exceeding 20,572l. 5s. 10d.; for the Ordnance for Land Service; to make good the Deficiency of the Class Lottery, 1711; and for the Salaries, etc., of the Commissioners for stating the Public Accounts and the Debts to the Army.
The Act. 12 Anne c. 12 imposed a further Duty of 1d. per ell on Foreign-made Sails and Sailcloth imported, with effect from 21 July 1713, and granted a bounty of 1d. per ell on British-made Sails and Sail-cloth exported.
The Rejection of the Commercial Treaty with France has been dealt with above.
The right to trade with Africa came before the House; the Royal African Company was claiming a monopoly; petitions were received from merchants (April 2, 22, 23 and 30), that the Trade should be free and open (C.J., pp. 297, 298, 299, 307); a Bill for free Trade there was ordered May 2, introduced May 6 and finally passed June 8, but never became an Act (C.J., pp. 310, 315, 319, 344, 349, 407). The Newfoundland fishery rights round Cape Breton retained by the French came in for severe criticism from one Robert Meeres whose Memorial to the Commissioners of Trade and Plantations was laid before the House on June 18; Meeres attended according to Order and was examined thereon (C.J., p. 429, 430).
The encouragement of the Tobacco Trade and the difficulties of merchants in paying interest on their Bonds on the Bonded Wine Duty were also matters considered.
The Commissioners for stating the Public Accounts were continued by the Act 12 Anne c. 3. Mr. Shippen from the Commissioners reported on April 16 on several abuses discovered in Army and Navy expenditure (C.J., pp. 284, 285). The Reports were bound up with the other Papers of the Session and their substance can be obtained e.g. from ‘Cobbett's Parliamentary History of England’, Vol. VI, pp. 1175–1207.
On 11 June Mr. Auditor Harley presented to the House a statement of how much of the Public Accounts up to Christmas 1710 remained unaccounted for (C.J., pp. 418, 419); of 35,302,107l. 18s. 9d. unaccounted for in former Sessions the following Accounts had been passed: of the Treasurers of the Navy for a year to Christmas 1685, for 1¼ years to Ladyday 1687, for a year to Ladyday 1688, for a year to Christmas 1703, ditto to 31 December 1704, ditto to 31 December 1705, ditto to 31 December 1706; of the Paymasters of the Army, for Chelsea Hospital for seven years to 31 March 1699, and for the Forces in Flanders, Spain and Portugal for a year to Christmas 1706; for the Marines for two years to Christmas 1707; for the Transport Service February 1689–90 to 31 May 1702, for a year to 12 January 1706, for April 1708 to Michaelmas 1709, for a year to Michaelmas 1710, ditto to Michaelmas 1711; for Sick and Wounded Seamen for a year to Christmas 1707, ditto to 30 June 1708; total 12,778,178l. 0s. 5½d.
Other Accounts were held up by minor details, e.g. the Navy Treasurer's Account for 1707, and others were under examination, amounting to 11,846,258l. 9s. 5½ 1/7d. making with the above a total of 24,624,436l. 9s. 111/7d. Of Supplies granted by Parliament since Christmas 1710 1,218,615l. 6s. 7¾d. was already accounted for before the Auditors of the Imprests.
TREASURY YEARLY AND DECLARED ACCOUNTS
The Treasury Accounts of Revenue and Expenditure follow the pattern of former years and will be found calendared on pp. xxxi–cvi.
The Branch Analysis starts with Fonds for meeting Deficiencies and continues with Customs, etc., Excise, etc., Salt Duties, Stamp Duties, other Miscellaneous Duties, Post Office, etc.; then come the revenues from Aids and Taxes, Lottery Contributions and Loans, etc.
This is followed by the Sums voted in Parliament for Public Services and the Grants voted to satisfy these Services.
The sum of 3,020,072l. 11s. 3½d. shown on pp. xvi–xix above is increased to 3,265,049l. 8s. 3½d. by the addition of 244,976l. 17s. 0½d. to be paid pursuant to Acts of Parliament; the result is a deficit of 244,976l. 17s. 0½d.
The General Abstract follows, showing
It will be seen that actual Expenditure exceeded actual Revenue by 593,897l. 2s. 9½d. but these Accounts include payments for former years and are unaffected by the reduced rate of Land Tax, so that it is difficult to correlate them with the Estimates and Votes given above. The General Abstract of the Loan Account follows (p. c) showing repayments exceeding borrowings by 675,188l. 5s. 9½d. The Particular Remains at 1,023,009l. 1s. 9¾d. show a reduction of 1,269,075l. 8s. 5d. as compared with the figure of 2,292,084l. 10s. 4¾d. for the preceding Michaelmas (pp. lxxxiii, lxxxiv).
There follow the usual Extracts viz. the Account of Arrears of Taxes and Unappropriated Moneys and the Civil List Account (pp. ciii–cvi).
The Declared Accounts have also been calendared as in the previous Volume, as fully as conveniently possible, with indications where an omission of any substance has had to be made. The Army Accounts (pp. cix–clxii) have already been mentioned (pp. viii–ix). There has been a real effort to pay off some of the accumulated arrears of Queen's Pensions (pp. ccxxi–ccxxxix). The first Account of the Fifty New Churches Fund appears (pp. ccxl–ccxlii). The Treasury Solicitor's Account (p. cdvi) reflects the violent pamphleteering alluded to in the Queen's Speech (p. x). The Revenue Accounts grow yearly more complicated as existing Duties are renewed and new Duties are enacted.
PETITIONS AGAINST THE COMMERCIAL TREATY WITH FRANCE
(The page references are to ‘Journals of the House of Commons’, Vol. XVII.)
Besides the Petitions the Committee of the House was able to hear certain of the Petitioners, e.g. the Spanish, Italian and Portugal merchants, the Weavers of London (June 10, C.J., p. 416), the Makers of English Brandy and Vinegar in London and Westminster; the Company of Silk Throwers of London and the Company of Gold and Silver Wire Drawers of London (June, 11, C.J., p. 417); the Secretary of the Levant Company attended on June 12 (C.J., p. 419) and presented Minutes of a General Court of the Company 28 May 1713.
Previous Treaties, and other papers were also laid before the House e.g. the Methuen Treaty with Portugal of December 1703 (May 12, C.J., pp. 348, 349) which allowed the import of British Woollen Cloths, etc., into Portugal in return for the Wines of that Country, which were to have a reduction of a third part of the Duty; an answer of the Commissioners for Trade and Plantations to an Order of the House, presenting petitions and memorials received when the Gertruydenberg Treaty was depending and also petitions relating to Trade lately received by the same Commissioners (14 May, C.J., pp. 352, 353); Returns of the Commissioners of Customs (21 May, C.J., pp. 361–367); these showed an Account of the quantities of Brandy imported annually into the Port of London 1674–1696; apart from an odd 8 gallons from Spain, French brandy alone was imported for the years 1675 to 1678 as also in 1688; the totals were, from France 26,058 tuns 75 gallons, from Portugal 10,107 tuns 84 gallons, from Spain 1,492 tuns 220 gallons, from Italy 81 tuns 24 gallons, and from Holland 4,160 tuns 128 gallons; also an Account of Wines imported over the same period, the totals from France 88,525 tuns 226 gallons, from Portugal 88,822 tuns 23 gallons, from Spain 125,662 tuns 137 gallons, from Italy 3,661 tuns 216 gallons, from the Rhineland 24,309 tuns 93 gallons; an Account of Brandies imported into London and the Outports Michaelmas 1696 to Christmas 1712, showing, for 16¼ years, from France 3,466 tuns 38 gallons, from Portugal 311 tuns 2 hogsheads, 2 gallons, from Spain 516 tuns 1 hogshead 40 gallons, from Italy 308 tuns 55 gallons and from the Rhineland 355 tuns, 2 hogsheads 56 gallons; a like Account for Wines, showing from France 16,553 tuns 1 hogshead 39 gallons, from Portugal 118,908 tuns 62 gallons, from Spain 79,797 tuns 2 gallons, from Italy 21,375 tuns 27 gallons and from the Rhineland 9,220 tuns 23 gallons; an Account of Woollen Manufacture shipped from London to France, Christmas 1688 to Christmas 1689; an Account of Woollen Manufacture exported to all Parts, Christmas 1698 to Christmas 1702. A further Report of the Commissioners of Customs was presented on June 4 (C.J., pp. 394–402) giving an Account of Goods shipped from London to France, Michaelmas 1668 to Michaelmas 1669, an Account of Goods imported from France to London 19 October 1668 to 20 October 1669, an Account of the Woollen Manufactures exported to Portugal for four years before 1703. Accounts of Exports to and Imports from France (distinguishing between the Outports and London) Michaelmas 1685 to Michaelmas 1686; a further Scheme of Trade between England and France, Michaelmas 1667 to Michaelmas 1678 (C.J., pp. 423–424) showing Exports, 171,021l. 6s. 8d. Imports 1,136,150l. 4s. exclusive of ‘Women's Toys’ and other luxury goods.
(Other Petitions will be found in ‘House of Lords Manuscripts’, Vol. X (New Series).)
REDUCTION OF THE ARMY
The following Tables are taken from the Yearly Accounts of the Treasury (Treasury Accounts, General, Yearly, T.30 3 and 4).
Michaelmas 1708 to Michaelmas 1709 (‘Calendar of Treasury Books’, Vol. XXIII).
Thus the Expenditure has fallen from about 90,000l. a month in 1710–11 and 70,000l. a month in 1711–12 to about 45,000l. a month for the first eight months 1712–13 and 20,000l. a month for the last four, and finally to 17,000l. a month in 1714 (first ten months).