The Diary of Henry Machyn Citizen and Merchant-Taylor of London (1550-1563). Originally published by Camden Society, London, 1848.
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P. 8. Henry Williams (Note in p. 320). "An epitaph of maister Henrie Williams, written by Thomas Norton (one of the versifiers of the Psalms), is extracted from The Songes and Sonnettes of lord Surrey, by Tottel, 1565, in Dr. Bliss's edition of Wood's Athenæ Oxon. i. 186.
P. 9. The king wearing the order of St. Michael. The robes of Saint Michael worn by king Edward the Sixth were preserved for fifty years after in the royal wardrobe,—Elizabeth, who never parted with any of her own gowns, nor with those of her sister that had come into her possession, retaining these also among her stores. They were thus described in the year 1600: "Robes late king Edwarde the VIth's. Firste, one robe of clothe of silver, lyned with white satten, of th'order of St. Michale, with a brode border of embrodirie, with a wreathe of Venice gold and the scallop shell, and a frenge of the same golde, and a small border aboute that; the grounde beinge blew vellat, embrodered with half-moones of silver; with a whoode and a tippet of crymsen vellat, with a like embroderie, the tippet perished in one place with ratts; and a coate of clothe of silver, with demi-sleeves, with a frenge of Venice golde." Nichols's Progresses, &c. of Queen Eliz.—In the Addit. MS. (Brit. Mus.) 6297, art. 7 describes "How king Edward VI. received the order of St. Michael."
P. 27. Funeral of sir Thomas Jermyn. Sheriff of Norfolk and Suffolk in 33 Hen. VIII. 1541. His brave housekeeping and goodly chapel of singing-men were kept at Rushbrooke hall, near Bury St. Edmund's, where his family had been seated from a very early period. He was the lineal ancestor of Henry Jermyn, created lord Jermyn of Edmundsbury by king Charles I. and earl of St. Alban's by Charles II.
P. 35. Proclamation of queen Jane. In consequence of Grafton having printed this proclamation, he was declared to have forfeited the office of queen's printer; see the patent of John Cawoode's appointment in Rymer's Fœdera, vol. xv. p. 356, and Ames's Typographical Antiquities, by Dibdin, vol. iii. p. 482. The proclamation has been reprinted in the Harleian Miscellany, (Park's edition,) vol. i. p. 405.
P. 37. The royal livery. The passage relating to the princess Elizabeth's entry should conclude thus,—"all in green guarded with white, velvet, satin, taffety, and cloth, according to their qualities." Green and white formed the livery of the Tudors. At the marriage of Arthur prince of Wales the yeomen of the guard were in large jackets of damask, white and green, embroidered before and behind with garlands of vine leaves, and in the middle a red rose. In the great picture at Windsor castle of the embarkation at Dover in 1520, the Harry Grace à Dieu is surrounded with targets, bearing the various royal badges, each placed on a field party per pale white and green. The painting called king Arthur's round table at Winchester castle, supposed to have been repainted in the reign of Henry VII. is divided into compartments of white and green. The "queenes colours" are also alluded to in the following story of a rude jest passed on the new Rood in Saint Paul's:
"Not long after this (in 1554) a merry fellow came into Pauls, and spied the Rood with Mary and John new set up; whereto, among a great sort of people, he made low curtesie, and said: Sir, your Mastership is welcome to towne. I had thought to have talked further with your Mastership, but that ye be here clothed in the Queenes colours. I hope ye be but a summer's bird, in that ye be dressed in white and greene." (Foxe, Actes and Monuments, iii. 114.)
Among the attendants on queen Mary in p. 38, three liveries are mentioned, green and white, red and white, and blue and green. The men in red and white were the servants of the lord treasurer (see p. 12, where several other liveries are described), and the blue and green would be those of the earl of Arundel or some other principal nobleman. Blue and white was perhaps king Philip's livery (p. 79).
In p. 59 we find that in 1554 even the naval uniform of England was white and green, both for officers and mariners. In noted in that page for "wearing" read "were in," which, without altering the sense, completes the grammar.
The lady Elizabeth, however, did not give green and white to her own men. From two other passages (pp. 57, 120) we find her livery was scarlet or fine red, guarded with black velvet; and from the description of her coronation procession in p. 186, it seems that red or "crimson" was retained for her livery when queen.
P. 41. Master Thomas a Bruges. The person drowned is called by Stowe "Master T. Bridges sonne." He was therefore not a son, but a nephew, of the lieutenant of the Tower, sir John Brydges. In Foxe's Actes and Monuments, bishop Ridley relates a conversation which he had with doctor Feckenham and secretary Bourn, when in the Tower, which was commenced thus, "Master Thomas of Bridges said, at his brother master lieutenant's boord, I pray you, master doctors, tell me what a heretike is." (Foxe, vol. iii. p. 42.)
P. 44. Funeral of John lord Dadley. This is thus recorded in the register of St. Margaret's Westminster: "1553, September 18. Sir John Sutton knyght, Lorde Baron of Dudley." And that of his widow (see p. 61, and Note in p. 338) occurs under her maiden name: "1554, April 28. The Lady Cysslye Gray." The latter extraordinary circumstance is probably attributable only to the high rank of the Greys:—she was greataunt to the Lady Jane. His son, "The right honorable sir Edwarde Dudley knighte, Baron of Dudleye, the lord Dudleye," was buried in the same church on the 12th August, 1586; and his great-grandson, "Sir Ferdinando Sutton knight, Baro: Dudley," [but really the son and heir apparent of Edward then lord Dudley,] Nov. 23, 1621. Also in 1600, Mary lady Dudley, widow of the former Edward, and sister to Charles lord Howard of Effingham, lord admiral. She died Aug. 21, 1600, and a monument with her recumbent effigy, and a kneeling effigy of her second husband Richard Mompesson esquire, now remains near the south-east door of the church. See the History of St. Margaret's Church by the Rev. Mackenzie E. C. Walcott, M.A. 1847, 8vo. p. 19.
P. 50. No priest that has a wife shall not minister or say mass. The numbers to whom
this prohibition would apply may be imagined from the many marriages of priests which
occur within a short period in the register of one parish, St. Margaret's Westminster:—
1549. Feb. The fyrste day. Mr Doctor Henry Egylsby, prieste, with Tamasyne Darke.
1551. April. The vjth day. Mr John Reed, priest, with Isbelle Wyldon.
— Oct. The vjth day. Syr William Langborow, prieste, with Helen Olyver.
— Dec. The xxxj day. Raffe Felde, prieste, with Helen Chesterfyld.
1551. April. The xxiijti day. Sir William Harvarde, prieste, with Alyce Kemyshe.
— Dec. The xxvij day. Sir Frauncis Constantyne, priest, with Alyce Warcoppe.
1552. Jan. The xxiijti day. Sir Marmaduce Pullen, priest, with Margaret Pen.
P. 50. Every parish to make an altar, and to have a cross and staff. Among many expenses incurred on the restoration of the Romish worship at St. Margaret's Westminster for rebuilding and adorning the altars, erecting a holy-water stock, making church furniture and vestments, and providing sacred utensils, occur the following entries, having special reference to the order mentioned in the text:
Pp. 63, 139. Corpus Christi day. After the accession of Mary (says our Diarist, p. 63) this festival was kept with goodly processions, and torches garnished in the old fashion, and staff torches burning, and many canopies. All these particulars are confirmed by the parochial accounts of Saint Margaret's Westminster (still in perfect preservation at this and a still earlier period), from which the following extracts are made:
P. 67.King and Queen's style. The letters patent directing the lord chancellor to issue writs announcing the king and queen's style, dated at Winchester 27 July, 1554, are printed in Rymer's Fædera, xv. 404.
Pp. 76, 82, 83. Juego de cannas. This sport, which the Spanish cavaliers brought
with them from their native country, was long a favourite there. When Lord Berners
was ambassador in Spain in 1518, "on midsummer daye in the morninge the king, with
xxiij with him, well apparelled in cootes and clokes of goulde and gouldsmythe work, on
horsback, in the said market-place (at Saragossa), ranne and caste canes after the countreye
maner, whearas the kinge did very well (and was) much praysed; a fresh sight for once
or twise to behold, and afterward nothing. Assoone as the cane is caste, they flye; wherof
the Frenche ambassador sayd, that it was a good game to teche men to flye. My lord
Barners answered, that the Frenchmen learned it well besides Gingate, at the jurney of
Spurres." (Letter from the ambassador in MS. Cotton. Vesp. C. i. 177.) It continued
in practice when Charles prince of Wales visited Spain in 1623, and a pamphlet entitled,
"A relation of the Royal Festivities and Juego de Canas, a turnament of darting with
reedes after the manner of Spaine, made by the king of Spaine at Madrid, the 21st of
August this present yeere 1623," is reprinted in Somers's Tracts and in Nichols's Progresses of King James I. vol. iv.—"The Juego de Cannas," remarks Sir Walter Scott,
"was borrowed from the Moors, and is still practised by Eastern nations, under the
name of El Djerid. It is a sort of rehearsal of the encounter of their light horsemen,
armed with darts, as the Tourney represented the charge of the feudal cavaliers with their
lances. In both cases, the differences between sport and reality only consisted in the
weapons being sharp or pointless."
"So had he seen in fair Castile
The youth in glittering squadrons start,
Sudden the flying jennet wheel,
And hurl the unexpected dart."
P. 79. A Spanish lord buried at Saint Margaret's Westminster. From the records of
that church this is shown to have been "John de Mendoca, knyght." During the time
that the servants of king Philip were about the court at Westminster, several other
Spaniards occur in the same register: their names are here extracted:
1554. Sept. The xvij day. Martyne, a spanyard.
— Oct. The xjth day. Martyne, a spanearde.
—,, The xvijth day. Sr Uther, a launce knyght.
—" The xviijth day. Sr Henry, a launce knyght.
— Dec. The xxiij day. Joh'n de mendoca, a knyght spaynearde.
— March 2. Joh'n de bevaunte [Debevaunco in the churchwardens' accounts].
—" The xth day. Philippe, a spaynyshe childe.
—" The xiijth day. Peter, a spaynearde, slayn wt a horsse.
1555. May. The vjth day. Francisco de espilla.
— Auguste. The xxvij day. Peter, a spaynearde.
— September. The xjth day. Agnes, a spaynearde.
— November. The firste day. Fraunces, a spaynyshe childe.
—" The vjth day. Margaret, uxor Ispanie.
— January. The xvth day. Corby, a portyngal.
1556. November. 6to die. Marie spaniard.
1557. March 28. Cornelius, spanyard.
— May. primo die. Peter Angle, spanyard.
— June. 28 die. Alberte, a spanyerd, off syknesse, of the house [i. e. a servant of the royal household.
There is one Spanish marriage recorded in the register, but without names, merely thus: "1555 Nov. the xth day a Spanyeard," and a similar difficulty was felt in christenings, as "1558, Feb. the ixth day Mariana ispanica," and "March the xxj day Franciscus jspanicus." In Oct. that year occurs "The xxijti day, Philippe Ruyz a spaynearde."
The order observed "Upon Midsummer day, for the election of the Sheriffes of London, &c." will be found in Stowe's Survay, under the head of "Temporall Government." On that day (as still) the sheriffs were elected; but one had been previously "nominated by the Lord Maior according to his prerogative." This was done in the way intimated more than once in these pages, by drinking to him at a feast. A full and curious account of the mode in which this ceremony was performed at the Haberdashers' feast in the year 1583, is given in a letter of Mr. recorder Fleetwood to lord Burghley, printed in Ellis's Orig. Letters, 1st Series, ii. 290.
P. 101. The blazing star which is noticed in this page, and of which Stowe's account has been quoted in p. 348, was calculated by Halley to have been the same comet which had before appeared in the year 1264, and which, having completed its presumed revolution of two hundred and ninety-two years, may be expected to appear again in the present year, 1848. The learned Fabricius described the comet of 1556 as of a size equal to half that of the moon. Its beams were short and flickering, with a motion like that of the flame of a conflagration or of a torch waved by the wind. It alarmed the Emperor Charles the Fifth, who, believing his death at hand, is said to have exclaimed
P. 111. Funeral of (Robert) Heneage esquire. Machyn was wrong in the christian name, giving, as in some other cases, the name of the son to the father. This was Robert Heneage esquire, auditor of the duchy of Lancaster, and surveyor of the queen's woods beyond Trent; and father of sir Thomas Heneage, afterwards chancellor of the duchy of Lancaster, and a privy councillor to queen Elizabeth. Though Stowe does not mention his monument at St. Katharine Creechurch, Collins (in Peerage, tit. Finch earl of Winchelsea) states that effigies in brass of Robert Heneage and his wife, who was Margaret sister to Thomas earl of Rutland, remained in that church, but the inscription was effaced.
P. 113. Funeral of mistress Soda. This singular name, which our Diarist alters to "Sawde," and which elsewhere occurs as Soday, was probably Spanish, the lady's husband having been a servant of queen Katharine. John Soda, the son, was apothecary to queen Mary, to which office he was appointed for life by letters patent dated 4 Jan. 1554, with a yearly fee of forty marks: see this document in Rymer, vol. xv. p. 359. His newyear's gift to the queen in 1556 was six boxes of marmalade and cordial. His daughter was the wife of alderman Greenway (see p. 405).
P. 114. The Queen's return from Croydon. "Item, payde for ryngyng of the belles at the cumyng of the queenes majestie from Croydyn to Westminster the xxjth of September iiijd." This entry, from the accounts of St. Margaret's Westminster, differs two days from our Diarist.
Ibid. Funeral of sir Humphrey Foster. "Sir Humfray Foster knyght departed owt of this transytory worlde on fryday the xviijth daye of September, in the seconde and thyrde yers of our soveraynes kynge Philip and queen Marye, who left to his hole executor Mr. William Foster, son and hayre to the foresayde sir Humphery Foster; which was buryed the xxvth of September, in the parishe of Saint Nicolas besyde Charynge-crosse in the fylde, whose morners were these.
P. 123. Funeral of lady Chaloner. This appears to have been the first wife of sir Thomas Chaloner, a distinguished statesman and author, who lived in his latter years "in a fair house of his own building in Clerkenwell close," built on part of the site of the dissolved nunnery. (See Biographia Britannica, &c.) Her first husband had been sir Thomas Leigh, of Hoxton, who died Nov. 25, 1545; and his poetical epitaph, formerly at Shoreditch, is printed in Ellis's History of that parish, p. 54. The lady has not been mentioned by her second husband's biographers, for sir Thomas afterwards married Ethelreda, daughter of Edward Frodsham, esq. of Elton in Cheshire, and she was the mother of sir Thomas Chaloner the younger, governor to Henry prince of Wales. This is shown by the epitaph of the latter at Chiswick, which states him to have died in 1615, aged 51. He was therefore born in 1564, the year before his father's death. Sir Thomas Chaloner the elder was born in 1515, and dying Oct. 14, 1565, was buried in St. Paul's cathedral. His widow Ethelreda was re-married to Edward Brockett, esq. of Wheathampsted, Herts, second son of sir John Brockett, which Edward lived until 1599. (See his epitaph in Clutterbuck's Herts, vol. i. p. 523.)
Pp. 162, 163. Soldiers sent to Calais. The several parishes of the counties where musters took place were obliged to send their quota. Thus the churchwardens of St. Margaret's Westminster paid "for setting owt of soldyers the vijth day of January as apperethe by a bylle, iiijli. viijs. vijd. ob." "Item, for settyng forthe fyve soldyers to Portismothe the last yere of quene Mary xxxiijs. iiijd."
P. 163. Funeral of lady Powis. Though the interment of this lady (as stated in p. 362) is not recorded in the parish register of Saint Margaret's Westminster, yet the following entries relative to her funeral occur in the churchwardens' accounts:
|Item, of my lady Anne Pois for iiij tapers||ijs.||viijd.|
|Item, at the obsequy of my lady Anne Poys for the belles||iijs.||iiijd.|
|Item, of my lady Anne Pois for the clothe||viijd.|
P. 172. Marriage of alderman John White. This civic senator, whose name has frequently occurred in this volume, was the son of Robert White, of Farnham in Surrey. He was of the Grocers' company, served sheriff in 1556, and lord mayor in 1563. His first marriage has been mentioned in p. 378, in the note on the funeral of his brother the bishop of Winchester. The imperfect passage in p. 172 relates to his second marriage with the widow of alderman Ralph Greenway. She was Katharine, daughter of John Sodaye of London, apothecary to Queen Mary (see p. 403), and was again married to Jasper Allen, and buried at St. Dunstan's in the East, Oct. 9, 1576. In her will, dated the same year, she mentions her brother Richard Sodaye. Sir John White was buried at Aldershot in Hampshire in 1573: see his epitaph, with some extracts from his will, in the Collectanea Topogr. et Genealogica, vol. vii. p. 212. See also his funeral atchievements engraved at the conclusion of the Introduction to the present Volume.
P. 185. Funeral of mistress Matson. Anne, daughter and heir of Richard Sackville, of Chepsted, Surrey, married first to Henry Shelley, of Worminghurst, Sussex, esquire, and had issue; and secondly to Thomas Matson, gent. (Visit. Sussex.) His funeral occurs in p. 208.
P. 206. The Queen's grace stood at her standing in the further park. "Shooting at
deer with a cross-bow (remarks Mr. Hunter in his New Illustrations of Shakespeare) was
a favourite amusement of ladies of rank; and buildings with flat roofs, called stands or
standings, were erected in many parks, as in that of Sheffield, and in that of Pilkington
near Manchester, expressly for the purpose of this diversion." They seem to have been
usually concealed by bushes or trees, so that the deer would not perceive their enemy. In
Shakspere's Love-Labours Lost, at the commencement of the fourth Act, the Princess
repairs to a Stand—
Then, Forester my friend, where is the bush
That we must stand and play the murtherer in?
Forester. Here-by, upon the edge of yonder coppice,
A Stand where you may make the fairest shoot.
Mr. Hunter further remarks that they were often made ornamental, as may be concluded from the following passage in Goldingham's poem called "The Garden Plot,"
where, speaking of a bower, he compares it with one of these stands—
To term it Heaven I think were little sin,
Or Paradise, for so it did appear;
So far it passed the bowers that men do banquet in,
Or standing made to shoot at stately deer.
P. 216. One West, a new doctor. Probably this "railer" at roodlofts was the person commemorated in the following epitaph, who was not actually a doctor: "Here lyeth buried Mr. Reginald West, batchelor in divinity, and late parson of this parish, who deceased the second of October anno Domini 1563, for whose sincere, pure, and godly doctrine, as also his virtuous end, the Lord be praised for evermore." Under the Communion table at St. Margaret Pattens. Stowe.
Pp. 218, 228. Sermons by bishop Jewell. In the edition of bishop Jewell's Works now in the course of publication by the Parker Society, the editor, the Rev. John Ayre, M.A. remarks that the challenge which originated the bishop's important controversy with Dr. Cole was first given in his sermon at Paul's Cross, Nov. 26, 1559—the occasion noticed by Machyn in p. 218. "The sermon, with the challenge amplified, was preached at the court, March 17, 1560 [as mentioned in p. 228]; and repeated at Paul's Cross March 31, being the second sunday before Easter." This last date is from the contemporary title-page of the sermon itself: and therefore is not to be doubted. Our Diarist, however (p. 229) says that Crowley preached at Paul's Cross on that day.
P. 236. Funeral of mistress Grafton,—"the wife of master Grafton the chief master of the hospital, and of Bridewell." This was Richard Grafton the printer, who is known from his books to have resided at Christ's hospital, and from this passage it seems to have been in an official capacity. There are other items in the present volume which may be added to what Dr. Dibdin terms "the comparatively full account" of Grafton, in his edition of the Typographical Antiquities, vol. iii. He was evidently a man active in public business. He occurs twice as warden of the Grocers' company (pp. 90, 108), as a master of Bridewell (pp. 205), and as an overseer for the repairs of Saint Paul's cathedral (p. 262). He was also elected to Parliament for the city of London in 1554 and 1556, and in 1562 for Coventry.
P. 287. The Skinners attend the Merchant-taylors' feast. In the 1st Rich. III. a dispute for precedency between the Skinners and Merchant-taylors was determined by agreement that either should take precedence in alternate years, and that the master and wardens of each should dine with the other company on their respective feasts of Corpus Christi and the Nativity of St. John the Baptist. See the ordinance effecting this arrangement in Herbert's Twelve City Companies, vol. ii. p. 319; and see remarks by the present writer in Archæologia, vol. xxx. p. 500.
P. 292. Saint Anthony's school. This notice of Saint Anthony's school, so flourishing in 1562 as to have a hundred scholars, is remarkable, inasmuch as it seems to have shared the fate of the religious foundations. Stowe says in his Survay, "This schoole was commended in the reign of Henry the sixth, and sithense commended above others, but now decayed, and come to nothing by taking that from it which thereunto belonged," and he ascribes its "spoile" to one Johnson, the schoolmaster, who was "made prebend of Windsor." (Edmund Johnson, installed canon of Windsor 1560. Le Neve.)
P. 22. Funeral of mistress Cowper, wife of the sheriff of London. John Cowper, fishmonger, sheriff 1552, buried at St. Magnus. Arms, Azure, a saltire engrailed between four trefoils slipped or, on a chief of the second three dolphins embowed of the first. (List by Wm. Smith, Rouge-dragon.) "John Cooper, fishmonger, alderman, who was put by his turne of maioralty, [died] 1584." (Stowe.)
Ibid. Funeral of mistress Basilia Cowper, late wife of master Huntley haberdasher, and after wife of master Towllys, alderman and sheriff. This lady's first husband, Thomas Huntley, haberdasher, was sheriff 1540. His arms, Argent, on a chevron between three buck's heads erased sable three hunting-horns of the first. Her second husband was John Towles, sheriff 1554; buried at St. Michael's in Cornhill 1548. Arms, Party per pale and chevron ermine and sable, four cinquefoils counterchanged. (List by Wm. Smith, Rouge-dragon.) Stowe in his Survay calls him Tolus, and relates a story of a bequest he made to St. Michael's parish, which was "not performed but concealed." The name, it may be remarked, was derived from one of the churches dedicated to St. Olave; John atte Olave's would become John Toolys, and from the same abbreviation we have still Tooley Street in Southwark. The lady's third husband was probably John Cowper who occurs in the list of freemen of the mystery of the Fyshemongers in 1537 (Herbert's Twelve City Companies, ii. 7,) and who may have been father of the alderman mentioned in the preceding note.
P. 58. Funeral of lady Ascough. Sir Christopher Ascough, draper, who was the son of John Ascough of Edmonton in Middlesex, had been sheriff in 1525–6, lord mayor 1533–4, and was buried at St. John the Evangelist's in Watling-street. Arms, Gules, on a fesse argent, between three ass's heads couped or, as many estoiles azure. (List by Wm. Smith, Rouge-dragon.)
P. 76. Funeral of sir Hugh Rich, K.B. Having married Anne, daughter and sole heir of sir John Wentworth, of Gosfield in Essex, his body was buried in that church. His widow married secondly Henry lord Maltravers, only son of the earl of Arundel; he died at Brussels, June 30, 1556. She married thirdly William Deane esquire, her servant, nephew to Alexander Nowell, dean of Saint Paul's. Having had no issue, she died Dec. 5, 1580, and was buried with her first husband at Gosfield.
P. 90. Master Lee chosen sheriff. Son of Roger Leigh of Wellington in Shropshire, and apprentice of sir Rowland Hill, whose niece, Alice Barker, he married. He became "Sir Thomas Leigh, maior, the first yeare of Q. Elizabeth, 1559. He dwelled in the Old Jury, his house joyning on the north of Mercers Chapell, where he was buried. Arms, Gules, on a cross engrailed argent between four unicorn's heads erased or, five hurts each charged with an ermine spot. His sonnes have since altred the armes to, Gules, a cross engrailed and in dexter chief a lozenge argent." (List by Wm. Smith, Rouge-dragon.) Sir Thomas Leigh died Nov. 17, 1571. His epitaph at the Mercers' Chapel will be found in Stowe's Survay and in Dugdale's Baronage, vol. ii. p. 464. By his second son William he was ancestor of the Lords Leigh of Stoneleigh, and by his third son William, grandfather of Francis Leigh, earl of Chichester.
P. 218. Captain Grimston arraigned for the loss of Calais. This was sir Edward Grimston, who had been appointed comptroller of Calais, Aug. 28, 1552 (King Edward's Diary.) See the pedigree of Grimston in Clutterbuck's Hertfordshire, i. 95.
P. 241. This year (1560) were all the Roodlofts taken down in London. Those parishes which had been backward in removing this relic of idolatry were now compelled to do so by authority. "Memorandum. At a vestry holden the 27th day of December in Anno 1560, there was showed unto the parishioners a letter sent from the lord of Canterbury's grace, directed to master alderman Draper, sheriff of London, and to the churchwardens with the rest of the parish, concerning the translating and pulling down of the rood-loft; whereupon it was agreed by the whole vestry, that the rood-loft should be taken down and translated by the discretion of the churchwardens. In witness whereof we the said parishioners have set-to our names the day and year above written." (Account of the church of St. Dunstan's in the East, by the Rev. T. B. Murray.)
So at St. Margaret's, Westminster, where the Rood itself had been removed in 1559 (see p. 399,) the Roodloft was left to the following year. It had been built at great expense in 1519, and its "new re-forming" was also a considerable charge to the parishioners:—