Cardiff Records: Volume 2. Originally published by Cardiff Records Committee, Cardiff, 1900.
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CHAPTER II. The Lords of Cardiff.
ROBERT FITZ HAMON — 1093—1107.
SUBDUED Glamorgan in the reign of William Rufus. He received the "Honour" of Gloucester to enable him to undertake the conquest.
Wounded at the Battle of Tinchbrai, 1106.
d. March 1107, and was buried at Tewkesbury.
m. Sybel, dau. of Roger de Montgomery, Earl of Arundel.
Left four daughters, Cicely, Abbess of Shaftesbury; Hawise, Abbess of Wilton; Amice, said to have married the Earl of Bretagne; and Mabel, who became sole heir of the Honour of Gloucester and Lordship of Glamorgan.
From the death of Fitz-Hamon the lordship was in the hands of the King (Henry I.) until about 1118, but no custodian is known.
ROBERT CONSUL — 1118 (or earlier)—1147.
Robert, Consul, or Earl, of Gloucester was a natural son of King Henry I.
m. Mabel, dau. of Fitz-Hamon.
He is known to have borne the title of Earl of Gloucester in 1119.
d. October 1147, at Bristol.
Mabel, his Countess, d. 1157.
After the death of the Earl, Mr. Clark says, she "seems to have acted with authority in Glamorgan."
Their children were—(1) William; (2) Roger, Bishop of Worcester; (3) Hamo; (4) Probably Richard, said to have been Bishop of Bayeux; (5) Maud, m. Ralph Gernons, Earl of Chester.
WILLIAM, EARL OF GLOUCESTER — 1147—1183.
m. Hawise, dau. of Robert Bossu, Earl of Leicester.
d. 23 November 1183.
His Countess died 24 April 1197.
Their children were—(1) Robert, born and died at Cardiff, buried at Keynsham; (2) Mabel; (3) Amice; (4) Isabel.
Robert having died young, the three sisters became co-heirs.
The lordship fell into the custody of the Crown, and Richard I., in 1189, seems to have determined the wardship in favour of Isabel, who m. John, Earl of Mortaine, afterwards King.
During the wardship Maurice de Berkeley and Hamo de Valoynes were custodians.
Mr. Clark, in the Land of Morgan, says that Dugdale, following Walsingham, states that Earl William had adopted John as his heir.
The other daughters of Earl William were married—Mabel, to Almaric de Montfort, Earl of Evreux, and left issue a son Almaric, who died 1213, and who is sometimes described as Earl of Gloucester, but never as Lord of Glamorgan; and Amice, to Richard de Clare. From this marriage the de Clare lords were descended.
JOHN, EARL OF MORTAINE (afterwards King) — 1189–1214.
m., in 1189 (Annals of Tewkesbury), Isabel, dau. of William, Earl of Gloucester, and obtained the Lordship of Glamorgan.
He divorced her in 1200 (Annals of Tewkesbury), but seems to have acted as Lord wrongfully till 1214, when, Isabel having married Geoffrey de Mandeville, Earl of Essex, John gave up the lordship to him. (Writ, Cartae I., p. 67.) During the usurpation of John, William de Braose and Falkes de Breauté were successively custodians.
GEOFFREY DE MANDEVILLE, EARL OF ESSEX AND GLOUCESTER, and his COUNTESS, ISABEL— 1214 — 1217.
Geoffrey died childless before June 1216, and the Countess before October 1217.
Isabel seems to have acted as Lady of Glamorgan.
A charter was granted by her "consensu et assensu domini mei Galfridi de Maundevilla," and others during her widowhood.
After the death of Geoffrey she married Hubert de Burgh; and 13 August 1217 her lands were committed to him, but he does not appear to have acted as Lord. This is probably due to the fact that the Countess died so shortly after.
GILBERT DE CLARE (1) — 1217—1230.
Son of Amice, dau. of William, Earl of Gloucester.
Succeeded 1217, on the death of the Countess Isabel (Annals of Margam), though his mother, Amice, was living. She survived him, not dying till 1236, and granted a charter by which (inter alia) she confirmed certain grants of her "son and heir," the Earl.
He m. Isabel, dau. of the Earl Mareschal.
He died at Penros, in Brittany, 25 October 1230.
His Countess, Isabel, m. 30 March 1231, Richard, Earl of Cornwall, and died 17 January 1239—1240.
The children of Gilbert de Clare and Isabel his Countess were—(1) Richard; (2) William; (3) Gilbert; (4) Amice; (5) Agnes; (6) Isabel.
RICHARD DE CLARE — 1230–1262.
Was an infant at his father's death, and became a ward of King Henry III.
His estates were in the hands of various custodians during his infancy: Hubert de Burgh, Henry de Turberville, Peter de Rivaux, Ranulph and Toran de Herle, Richard Syward, and Gilbert, Earl Mareschal.
Richard attained 21 on the 4th August 1243, and had possession of his lands on the 29th of that month.
He is said to have m. 1st, Margaret, dau. of Hubert de Burgh.
She d. 1237.
Earl Richard m. 2nd (1237—9), Maud de Lacy, dau. of the Earl of Lincoln.
He died July 1262; buried at Tewkesbury.
His Countess survived till about 1289.
Their children were—(1) Gilbert; (2) Thomas; (3) Bugo; (4) Isabel; (5) Margaret; (6) Rohesia; (7) Eglantine.
GILBERT DE CLARE (2) "The Red" — 1262—1295.
Son of Richard, born 2 September 1243. (Annals of Tewkesbury).
Being a minor, the wardship was in the King's hands. Humphrey de Bohun, Earl of Hereford, and Walter de Sully were successively custodians.
The Earl, not yet of age, appears to have had possession of his lands in 1263.
He m. 1st, Alice de la Marche, or d'Angouleme, who was divorced (apparently in 1283); 2nd, in 1290, Joan, dau. of King Edward I.
By his first wife he had a daughter, Isabel, who m. Maurice, Lord Berkeley.
He died 7 December 1295, and was buried at Tewkesbury.
His widow, the Countess Joan, survived and married Ralph de Monthermer in 1296. She died March 1307.
By Joan, Earl Gilbert had—(1) Gilbert; (2) Eleanor; (3) Elizabeth; (4) Margaret.
The Earl built Caerphilly and Morlais Castles and Castell Coch.
RALPH DE MONTHERMER and JOAN, his COUNTESS — 1297—8—1307.
Ralph de Monthermer m. the Princess Joan, widow of Gilbert de Clare (2), and would, according to the course usually followed in such cases, have become in her right Lord of Glamorgan; inasmuch as she and her first husband, Earl Gilbert de Clare, had been jointly enfeoffed, with remainder to his heirs.
However, the King (Edward I.,) at first seized his daughter's lands on account of her marriage with Monthermer without his consent. He was shortly reconciled, and Monthermer was summoned to Parliament as Earl of Gloucester and Hertford, and became Lord of Glamorgan, no doubt in right of his wife; though some authorities treat him as only administering the estates on behalf of his stepson, the young Earl Gilbert.
That he was Lord in right of his wife is confirmed by the fact that his interest in the estates ceased in 1307, on her death. He afterwards sat in Parliament as Lord Monthermer.
GILBERT DE CLARE (3) — 1307—1314.
Born May 1291, and therefore only 4 years old at his father's death.
Succeeded his mother on her death in 1307, and is stated in Sandford's Kings of England to have been then of age and to have had possession of his estates. The statement as to his age is undoubtedly erroneous, though it appears that he in fact had possession of his estates in November 1307.
Earl Gilbert m. Maud, dau. of John, son of Richard de Burgh, Earl of Ulster; and had one son, John, who died in infancy, in his father's lifetime.
The Earl was killed at Bannockburn, 1314 (buried at Tewkesbury), and with him ended the male line of the de Clares, who had held the Lordship of Glamorgan for nearly 100 years.
After his death Bartholomew de Badlesmere, Roger Turberville, and John Giffard de Brimmesfeld were custodians.
The estates devolved upon his three sisters:—
Eleanor, or Alianora, m. in 1312 Hugh le Despenser, and secondly William, Lord Zouche of Mortimer.
Margaret m. Piers Gaveston, and secondly Hugh D'Audley the younger.
Elizabeth m. John, son and heir of John de Burgh, Earl of Ulster, and secondly Theobald Verdon, and thirdly Roger D'Amory.
A partition took place in or before 1317, and the Lordship of Glamorgan fell to Eleanor. The writ to the Escheator to give possession to Hugh le Despenser is dated 1317.
HUGH LE DESPENSER (1) and ELEANOR, his wife — 1317—1326.
Hugh le Despenser, in right of his wife, Eleanor, Lord of Glamorgan, was executed at Hereford November 1326.
He left two sons, Hugh and Edward.
WILLIAM LA ZOUCHE and ELEANOR, his wife — 1329?—1338?
William la Zouche m. Eleanor, after the death of Hugh le Despenser, and became Lord of Glamorgan in her right.
In the interval between the execution of Hugh le Despenser and the accession of William la Zouche, Roger D'Amory, la Zouche himself, and others, were custodians.
William la Zouche is named as Lord in a Charter of 1329. (Cartae IV., p. 132.)
Eleanor died 1338.
HUGH LE DESPENSER (2) — 1338?—1349.
Son of Hugh le Despenser (1), succeeded his mother, and d. without issue 8 February 1349.
EDWARD LE DESPENSER — 1349—1375.
Son of Edward, brother of Hugh (2), succeeded his uncle.
According to the I.P.M. of Hugh, Edward was 12 years old at his uncle's death, and therefore a ward for a time. The names of John Golafre, Simon Basset, Roger de Berkeley, Bartholomew de Burghersh and Guy de Brian are mentioned as custodians.
m. Elizabeth Burghersh, and died 11 November 1375 at Cardiff, leaving a son, Thomas. He was buried at Tewkesbury.
THOMAS LE DESPENSER — 1375—1400.
Born 22 September 1373, and therefore long a ward; during part of which period Richard, Duke of York, seems to have had the lordship.
m. Constance, dau. of Edmund of Langley, Duke of York, and had two children, Richard and Isabel.
He was beheaded at Bristol, January 1400, for a conspiracy against Henry IV.
RICHARD LE DESPENSER.
Mentioned by Mr. Clark (Cartae IV., 653) as Lord "de jure non de facto;" died while under age, and was succeeded by his sister Isabel, then a minor.
RICHARD BEAUCHAMP, EARL OF WORCESTER, and ISABEL, his wife — 1411?—1422.
Isabel la Despenser, born St. Ann's day 1400 (Dugdale); married, 1411, Richard Beauchamp, 4th Earl of Warwick (Dugdale).
The Earl died (from a wound received in France) in March 1422.
ISABEL, COUNTESS OF WORCESTER — 1422—1423.
Isabel during her widowhood was Lady of Glamorgan, and granted charters, describing herself as "Domina la Despenser Glamorgancie et Morgancie."
RICHARD BEAUCHAMP, EARL OF WARWICK, and Isabel, his wife — 1423—1439.
After the death of her first husband, the Earl of Worcester, Isabel, on the 26th November 1423, married Richard Beauchamp, Earl of Warwick, who became in her right Lord of Glamorgan.
A document in Dugdale's Monasticon refers to him as "filius patris Ricardi quarti Comitis Wigorniae," and the marriage as taking place "habita dispensatione Papali."
d. at Rouen 30 April 1439. Isabel, his widow, d. December 1439.
They had two children—(1) Henry, Earl (afterwards Duke) of Warwick; (2) Ann, m. Richard Nevill, Earl of Warwick.
HENRY BEAUCHAMP, DUKE OF WARWICK — 1439—1445.
He was aged 15 at his mother's death, and therefore a ward for a time. Mr. Clark gives Richard, Duke of Gloucester, as custodian.
d. 1445, leaving a daughter, Ann, who d. an infant, 1449.
There was an Inquisition on her death, which describes her as "Anna filia et heres Henrici Ducis Warr' defuncti."
RICHARD NEVILL, EARL OF SALISBURY AND WARWICK, and ANN, his wife — 1449—1471.
Ann, dau. of Richard Beauchamp, Earl of Warwick, and Isabel, his wife, became heir of the Lordship of Glamorgan on the death of her niece, the infant daughter of the Duke of Warwick.
She m. Richard Nevill, Earl of Salisbury and Warwick (the "Kingmaker"), who became Lord in her right.
He was killed at the Battle of Barnet, 14 April 1471.
He left two daughters—Isabel, m. George, Duke of Clarence, and Ann, m. Richard, Duke of Gloucester, brothers of King Edward IV., and the latter afterwards King Richard III.
The widow of the Earl of Warwick also survived him.
GEORGE, DUKE OF CLARENCE, and ISABEL, his wife — 1471—1477.
On the death of the Earl of Warwick the right to the Lordship of Glamorgan remained in Ann, his widow; but a Statute, 14 Edw. IV., enacted that "George Duke of Clarence and Isabel his wife, Richard Duke of Gloucester and Anne his wife, the daughters and heirs of Richard Earl of Warwick, and daughters and heirs apparent of Anne Countess of Warwick, late wife to the said Earl, shall have as in right of their said wives all commons, lordships, castles, towns, manors, lands, tenements, liberties, franchises, possessions and enheriments which were or be belonging to the said Anne Countess of Warwick . . . . . To hold to the said Dukes, their wives and the heirs of their said wives . . . . . . as if the said Anne Countess of Warwick were naturally dead . . . . . and that the said Dukes and their said wives may make partition of the said premises and every part thereof." (Rolls of Parliament VI., 100A.)
17 Edw. IV. A petition of Richard, Duke of Gloucester, for establishing a College, recites the last Act, and that a partition had been made. (Rolls of Parliament VI., 172A.)
It would appear that before the Act of 14 Edw. IV. George, Duke of Clarence, became in fact Lord of Glamorgan; and in a document of 11 October 1471, addressed to Sheriffs, &c., (Cartae IV., p. 384), he styles himself "Georgius dux Clarencie et dominus Glamorgancie et Morgancie."
The Duke of Clarence was put to death 11 March 1477, his wife having died shortly before.
He left two children, Edward, created Earl of Warwick by Edward IV. and beheaded 21st November 1499, and Margaret, afterwards Countess of Salisbury, beheaded 27 May 1541.
The Lordship of Glamorgan passed to Richard, Duke of Gloucester.
RICHARD, DUKE OF GLOUCESTER (Richard III.), and Ann, his wife — 1477—1485.
Richard held the lordship after the death of the Duke of Clarence, in right of his wife, who joined with him in granting charters.
Ann d. 16 March 1484, having had one son, who died about the same time.
King Richard was killed at Bosworth 22 August 1485.
KING HENRY VII. — 1485—1509—(except during the time of Jasper Tudor, Duke of Bedford).
King Henry is above treated as Lord from 1485. It does not appear that Ann, Countess of Warwick, widow of the Kingmaker, obtained actual possession; though for a short time she appears, from what follows, to have been Lady of Glamorgan de jure.
2 March 1 Hen. VII. (1486) the King granted (inter alia) "the castles, lordships and manors of Glamorgan and Morgannok" to Jasper, Duke of Bedford. (Patent Rolls, 1 Hen. VII). The title was perhaps regarded as incomplete; for in the Parliament of 3 Hen. VII. Ann, Countess of Warwick, petitioned for the repeal of the Act of Edw. IV., in favour of the Dukes of Clarence and Gloucester, which was done accordingly. (Parliament Rolls VI., No. 391b.)
The effect of this would be to vest the right to the lordship in the Countess.
Very shortly after, by deed dated 13 December 3 Hen. VII. (1487), Ann, Countess of Warwick, granted to the King (inter alia), the Lordship of "Glamorgan Morganok," in tail male. (Close Rolls, 3 Hen. VII., No. 11.)
On 21 March 3 Hen. VII. (1488), the King made another grant of the lordship to Jasper, Duke of Bedford.
King Henry VII. died 21 April 1509.
JASPER TUDOR, DUKE OF BEDFORD — 1486–1495.
Under the grants before mentioned, this Duke was Lord from 1486 until his death, 21 December 1495.
He died without issue, and the lordship reverted to the King.
A mandate of King Henry VII. to the Sheriffs of London and Middlesex, dated 15 November 14 Hen. VII. (1498), among the Close Rolls, recites that by Act of Parliament of 11 Hen. VII. (October 1495) it was enacted that the possessions which Jasper, Duke of Bedford, had by grant of Henry VII. should go, after the death of the Duke, to Henry, Duke of York, the King's second son, afterwards Henry VIII.
Under the above circumstances it might perhaps be strictly correct to treat Prince Henry as Lord from 1495.
But this has not been done, because the Prince was under age and the King continued to act as Lord until his death.
KING HENRY VIII. — 1509–1547.
Succeeded on the death of Henry VII.
He styled himself, in grants relating to Glamorgan, "Rex Anglie et Francie et Dominus Hibernie ac Dominus Glamorgancie et Morgancie."
d. 28 January 1547.
KING EDWARD VI. — 1547–1550.
Succeeded to the lordship on the death of King Henry VIII., and granted Cardiff Castle and most of his manors &c;. in Glamorgan to Sir William Herbert. (See below.)
SIR WILLIAM HERBERT, afterwards 1st Earl of Pembroke, K.G. — 1550–1570.
7 May 4 Edw. VI. (1550) the King granted the Lordship of Cardiff to Sir William Herbert, to whom, by this and a previous grant of 10 July 1547, nearly all his manors in Glamorgan (though not the Lordship of Glamorgan itself), were granted by this King.
Sir William was created Baron Herbert of Cardiff 10 October 1551, and Earl of Pembroke on the following day.
The Earl of Pembroke m. 1st, Ann, dau. of Thomas, Lord Parr of Kendal (sister of Queen Catherine Parr), and had issue Henry, 2nd Earl.
d. March 1570.
HENRY, 2nd EARL OF PEMBROKE, K.G. — 1570–1601.
m. 1st, Catherine, dau. of George Talbot, Earl of Shrewsbury; 2nd, Mary, dau. of Sir Henry Sidney.
Issue—(1) William, 3rd Earl; (2) Philip, 4th Earl.
d. 19 January 1601.
WILLIAM, 3rd EARL OF PEMBROKE, K.G. — 1601–1630.
m. Mary, dau. of Gilbert, Earl of Shrewsbury.
Issue—Henry, who died in infancy.
d. 10 April 1630, and was succeeded by his brother Philip.
PHILIP, 4th EARL OF PEMBROKE and 1st of Montgomery, K.G. — 1630–1650.
Created Earl of Montgomery 1605, succeeding to the Earldom of Pembroke on the death of his brother in 1630.
m. 1st, Susan, dau. of Edward, Earl of Oxford; 2nd, Ann, dau. of George Clifford, Earl of Cumberland, and widow of the Earl Dorset.
Issue—(1) James; (2) Henry; (3) Charles; (4) Philip, 5th Earl; (5) William; (6) James; (7) John; (8) Ann; (9) Catherine; (10) Maria. The three elder sons died in the lifetime of their father, without issue.
d. 23 January 1650.
PHILIP, 5th EARL OF PEMBROKE and 2nd of MONTGOMERY — 1650—1669.
m. 1st, Penelope, daughter and heir of Robert Naunton; 2nd, Catherine, dau. of William Villiers of Brooksby.
Issue—(1) William, 6th Earl; (2), Philip, 7th Earl; (3) Thomas, 8th Earl; (4) Susan; (5) Maria; (6) Catherine; (7) Rebecca; (8) Ann.
WILLIAM, 6th EARL OF PEMBROKE and 3rd of MONTGOMERY — 1669—1674.
d. unmarried 8 July 1674.
Succeeded by his brother Philip.
PHILIP, 7th EARL OF PEMBROKE and 4th of MONTGOMERY — 1674—1683.
m. Henriette de Quérouaille (who d. 1728, having married as her second husband the Marquis de Thois).
Issue—Lady Charlotte Herbert, his only child, who succeeded to the Glamorganshire estates, the entail of which the Earl had barred upon his marriage. The English estates held in tail male went, with the Earldom of Pembroke, to his brother Thomas.
d. 8 September 1683.
LADY CHARLOTTE HERBERT — 1683–1733.
m. 1st, John, Lord Jeffreys of Wem; 2nd, Thomas, Lord Viscount Windsor (d. 1738).
Issue—(1) Herbert; (2) Elizabeth; (3) Catherine; (4) Ursula; (5) Charlotte.
Succeeded by her son Herbert, Viscount Windsor.
HERBERT, VISCOUNT WINDSOR — 1733–1758.
m. Alice Clavering (d. 1775).
Issue—(1) Charlotte Jane, m. the first Marquess of Bute; (2) Alice Elizabeth, m. Viscount Beauchamp, eldest son of Lord Hertford, and d. 1772, having had issue a daughter, who died in infancy. Lady Beauchamp's share of the estate came to her sister.
ALICE, VISCOUNTESS WINDSOR — 1758–1775.
Held the Lordship of Cardiff &c;. from the death of Herbert, Viscount Windsor, till her death in 1775.
JOHN, 1st MARQUESS OF BUTE, and CHARLOTTE JANE (Windsor), his wife — 1775–1800.
Charlotte Jane Windsor m. (12 November 1766) John, eldest son of the 3rd Earl of Bute. He was created Baron Cardiff 1776. In 1794, on the death of his mother, he succeeded to her barony of Mount Stuart (she having been created a peeress in her own right), and in 1796 was created Marquess of Bute.
Issue—(1) John, Lord Mount Stuart, b. 25 September 1767, d. 22 January 1794, having m. (12 October 1792) Elizabeth Penelope Crichton, only dau. and heir of Patrick, 5th Earl of Dumfries.
Issue—(1) John, second Marquess of Bute; (2) Lord Patrick James Herbert Crichton Stuart.
Charlotte Jane, Marchioness of Bute, died 28 January 1800.
JOHN, 1st MARQUESS OF BUTE, and his grandson, JOHN, afterwards 2nd MARQUESS — 1800–1814.
The 1st Marquess of Bute and his grandson, the 2nd Marquess, b. 10 August 1793 (who at first bore the courtesy title of Earl of Windsor, but became Earl of Dumfries on the death of his maternal grandfather in 1803) were Lords until 1814, when the 1st Marquess died. They were tenants in common, the Marquess being entitled to the original share of Charlotte Jane, Marchioness of Bute, and his grandson to the moiety which had belonged to her sister Alice Elizabeth, Lady Beauchamp.
JOHN, 2nd MARQUESS OF BUTE, K.T. — 1814–1848.
m. 1st, 29 July 1818, Lady Maria North, dau. of the Earl of Guildford (d. 11 September 1841); 2nd, 10 April 1843, Lady Sophia Frederica Christina Hastings, dau. of the Marquess of Hastings (d. 28 December 1859).
Issue, by 2nd—John Patrick, third Marquess of Bute.
The Marquess d. 18 March 1848.
JOHN PATRICK, 3rd MARQUESS OF BUTE, K.T. — 1848.
b. 12 September 1847.
m. 16 April 1872, the Hon. Gwendoline Mary Anne Fitzalan Howard, dau. of Lord Howard of Glossop.
Issue—(1) Lady Margaret Crichton Stuart, b. 24 December 1875; (2) John, Earl of Dumfries, b. 20 June 1881; (3) Lord Ninian Edward Crichton Stuart, b. 15 May 1883; (4) Lord Colum Edmund Crichton Stuart, b. 3 April 1886.