Cardiff Records: Volume 3. Originally published by Cardiff Records Committee, Cardiff, 1901.
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Margam Abbey Muniments.
No. 1096. in printed catalogue.
Matters sufficiente to be alledged for the disprovinge of the castle and towne of Cardief, and the lordships of Myskyn, Glynrothney, Sengunithe, Boviarton, Llanblethian, Rythin, Talvan, Kenfigge, Tyreyarlthe, Avon and Nethe, or any of them to be Lordshippes merchers, And to prove them before the Purchasses therof made by therle of Penbroke to be members only of the lordshipe mercher of Glamorgan and Morgannocke and inferior lordshipes to the same, And under the jurisdiction of that courte.
Markes wher by a lordship mercher is
In primis A lordship mercher is a lordship Reall of it self being no mennbre of any other lordship nor holden of any other lordship, But mere free within it self inferior to none, And using and enjoyinge within the same before the alterac'on of the lawes in Wales, Jura Regalia, And all other princely iurisdiccions as princes of Germany do use at this presente in their domynions, for in that like sorte and maner, did all lordes in Wales use their Jurisdicions in their severall domynions and lordships, Wales at that time not being subiecte to England, And therfore Imediatly after the conquest of this Realme, it was permitted by the kinge, to every man of this Realme, to invade the Welshemen, And whatsoever landes they coulde wynne of them to enioye the same to them their heires and assignes forever, as free and in as ample maner and with as large privileges and liberties as the Welshmen before owners therof did enioye in the same, their alligeaunce only to the kinge required for the same.
1. By foorce wherof Roger Mon[n]tgomery then Erle of Arundell and Shrewesburye was the first that did attempte the same and wane the lordship at this presente called Mountgomery after his name.
2. And Hughe Earle of Chester wanne the lordship of Flint.
3. And the lord Fitz alein wanne the lordship of Clune.
4. And Roberte Fitz hamon wanne in the iiijth yeare of the Raigne of William Rufus wane the lordship of Glamorgan and Morgannocke aforsaid, one Justine then lord therof.
5. And after that Roger de Bolesmo and Ernulf his brother sonnes to the aforenamed Roger Mountgomerye wanne the lordship of Penbroke.
6. And Henry Beaumonte Earle of Warrewik wane the lordship of Gower.
7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. And so Bohun Earle of Hereforde, Lacy Erle of Lincolne, Mortimer Erle of Merche, the lord Beowts, Bewdeley, and Lunderes did the like.
Howe the name of a lordship mercher began.
The name of a lordship mercher sprange firste, because that such lordships as were first wonne, oute of the Welsh mens landes lay next to the marches of England And at lengthe all Wales being conquered by kinge Edward the firste and other noble men of this Realme, twoo principalities of north Wales and Sothewales came into the kinges pocession and the other lordships merchers his noble men did enioye as is aforsaied.
1. Item it is sertaine that in euerie lordship
2. mercher ther was a castle and therin a speciall
3. halle or courte howse for the keping of the
4. lordes courtes therin for all maner of
5. Plees aswell Reall as personall and Plees of the crowne and a comyne gayle for the prisoners of that lordship and a escheker for the receipte of the Revenues of that lordship and for kepinge of the recordes of the same, and the said escheker was also the lordes chauncery, wheras his chaunceler or steward did use to sitte, and here and determyne all matters of consience betwene partie and partie within the same lordship and also in the same escheker remayned alwaies the lordes seale of armes, aswell for the sealinge of all kinde of writtes and proces, as for the sealinge of all leasses, charters, and pardones, graunted to any person within the same lordeshippe.
6. Moreover if any erroneous iudgmente were geven in the courte of any lordship mercher ther was no superyour, higher courte wher in the same mighte be redressed, but the partie greved was driven to tarry for his remedie in that case, untill the comyng of the lordes comissioners of oyer and determyner in that lordship before whom he mighte bringe his writte of Error and have it redressed, if they saw cause whie, and if they did redresse it then shoulde the Sueters that gave that same false iudgmente be amercied for the geavinge of it. And in the lordship of Glamorgan and Morgannocke and in euerie of the said membres the amerciamente was no les then a hundred markes.
7. Item when soever any lorde mercher woulde have his greate Sessions, of oyer and determyner kepte, wherby he mente to have of his Tenantes a tallage alias myses, he woulde firste directe his writte unto the shirief of the same lordship marcher, if it had any shirief, and if it had non, then to the chief Baylie there, to make generall Sommons, throughe oute the said lordship and his membres for the apperaunce of all men Betwene the age of xven yeares and lx, inhabitinge within the same, before the lordes comissioners in the castle of the same lordship at a certaine daye therin limitted, And then the lord wolde directe his comission for the same to suche persons as pleased him to appointe comissioners for the same, the which writte and comission shoulde be sealed with the lordes seale of armes, remayninge in the chauncery of the said lordship, before which comissioners by force of the said generall sommons, the said inhabitantes did alwaies appere at the said castell, And never in any other place oute of the said lordshipe And when the inhabitantes had condiscended upon the paymente of the said Tallage, alias myses, for the redempcion of the said Sessions, they would then Rate it, And appointe collectours for the levyenge therof, the which collectours were never compelled to go farther to pay the same then to thescheker of the same lordship to the lordes receaver there, for the which Tallage alias myses, the said inhabitantes had alwaies white bokes graunted unto them, that is to wite, remission and pardon of all amerciamentes, ffines, fforfectures, of recognisaunces, felonies, and other offenses, and all debtes due to the lorde before that tyme.
8. Item if one lord had ij lordeships marchers or more althoughe one comission woulde searve for them all, so that the name of euerie lordshipe were particulerlie expressed in the same, yet it behoved a severall writte of generall somons, to be directed to everie lordship by it self and severall Sessions, if the said oyer and determyner shoulde be kepte in everie of them, for the inhabitantes of the one lordship coulde not be enforced to come to the Sessions kepte in the other lordshippe, althoughe it joyned harde thereto nor to any place elswhere, oute of their owne Lordshippe.
Thestablishmente of the courtes and lawes
in the said lordshippe of Glamorgan and
Morganuck uppon the conqueste of the same.
Hit is to be remembred that when Robarte fitz hamon had wonne the said lordship of Glamorgan and Morgan' oute of the Welsh mens handes as is aforsaid, and sawe the same to be so greate a quantitie of grounde, that is to wite, xxvjtie miles in leingthe and xxijtie in Breadthe and contaynynge within the same well nighe a hundred parishes well inhabited, and the inhabitantes therof all free holders, excepte a fewe in nombre, considered that it was to muche trouble to bringe them all in to one place, for the admynistrac'on of Justice and for the tryall of their matters in contraversie And therfore he devided the same in xiij partes, wherof one parte beinge the chief parte of the said lordshipp, and the moste frutefull, and beste inhabited he appointed to be the bodye of the lordshipp, as the Pryncipall parte thereof and called it the shiere fee, wherein he builded the castell of Cardief, and in the same castell he had a escheker, chauncerye, a gaill, and a large howse comonly called the shire hall, in the which hall all maner of Plees were holden before the shirrief of the said lordshipp every Monday monethlye, for all the inhabitauntes of that parcell or parte called the shire fee, all the rest of the said lordship he devided into xij partes callinge them membres of the said lordshipp, of the which the said x lordshippes were x partes and the lordeshipe of Coytye, being Mr Gameges Auncyente inheritaunce, and the lordship of Talvan purchased by John Basset, dothe make out the xij partes and membres thereof, in everye of the which membres there was a courte kepte monethely for all maner of Plees before the said Steward of the membres, the which courtes were alwaies kept in this order folowinge:—
1. Ffirste the countie courte, which was for the shire fee, being the body of the said lordship, was alwaies kepte one Monday monethly as is beforesaied.
2. And the nexte morowe after beinge the Twisdaye, the Chauncellor or his depute sate alwaies in the said chauncery, for hearinge and determynynge of matters of consience, happeninge as well betwene the inhabitauntes of the said membres as betwene the inhabitauntes of the said shiere fee, or body of the lordshippe.
3. The nexte day beinge Wenisday, courte was kept at Lantwite for the lordshippe or membre of Bovyartone.
4. 5. 6. The Thursday, courtes were kepte at Cowbridge for the lordshipps or membres of Ruthin, Talvan, and Lanblethian.
7. 8. The Friday, the courte of the lordships or membres of Tyreyarlth and Kenfigge, was kepte at Kenfige.
9. The Saturday, the courte of the lordship or membre of Avon, was kepte at Aberavan.
10. The Monday, folowinge the courte of the lordship or membre of Nethe was kepte at Nethe.
11. 12. The Twisday, the courtes of the lordships or membres of Myskyn and Glynrotheney was kepte at Lantrysante.
13. And the Thursday, nexte after the courte of the lordshipp or membre of Senhennythe was kepte at Kaerfilly.
14. The Thursday, then nexte folowinge moste comonly was kepte the courte of the lordship or membre of Coytie, but that at the pleasure of Mr Gamage lorde and owner of the same.
And when the courtes of the said xij lordships or membres were adiourned, they were not adjourned to any daie sertaine, nor upon any newe Sommons or warninge, but were alwaies adiourned thus, the courte of the lordshipp or membre of Bovyarton, to the nexte Wenesdaye after the countie or shire courte of the said lordship of Glamorgan and Morgannoke, when so ever that shoulde be, And so likewise all the reste of the xij lordships or membres did adiourne their courtes to be kepte the same severall dayes next after the said countie or shire courte, that they were accustomed to be kepte in the same severall lordeshipes or membres, wherby it dothe appere that the order for the keapinge of the courtes of all the said xij lordships or members, depended wholy upon the course or keapinge of the countie or shiere courte of the said lordship of Glamorgan and Morgannoke, as their Superior courte.
1. Item neither of the same xij lordships or membres had never any Escheker but the officers accomptante of every of them (Coytie excepted) did alwaies resorte to the said escheker of the lordship of Glamorgan and Morgannoke, Aswell for the makinge of their yearely accomptes, as also to paye the revenues of the same.
2. Item the recordes of the courtes of the said xij lordships or membres, and of every of them were yearelie after the feaste of St. Michaell tharchangell broughte into the said escheker of the lordship of Glamorgan and Morgannocke there to be kepte.
3. Item the said xij lordships or membres of any of them had never any chauncery other then the said chauncery of the lordship of Glamorgan and Morgannoke to the which chauncery the inhabitantes of everie of the said xij lordship or membre were driven to resorte for their Remedie in all matters of consience in debate.
4. Item neither of the said xij lordships or membres had ever any seale of the lordes remaynynge amongest them, But all kinde of writtes and processes served in the said lordships or members of any of them were alwaies sealed with the said chauncery seale of the lordship of Glamorgan and Morgannoke and so were all leasses, charters, and pardons graunted to any of the inhabitauntes of the same lykwise.
5. Item the stile of all suche writtes processes leasses charters and pardones wente thus: Henry by the grace of God etc. lord of Glamorgan and Morgannoke, and not by the particuller name of any of the said membres.
6. Item none of the said membres (Coytie only excepted) had any particuler steward but the steward of the membres of Glamorgan and Morgannoke, was by that name Steward in every of them.
7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. Item the chauncellor, receyvour, chief foster, auditour, enprover, atturney and clerke of the countie by the names of chauncellour, receivour, chief foster, awditour, enprover, atturney, and clerke of the countie of Glamorgan and Morgannoke, were chaunceller, receivour, chief foster, auditour, enprover, atturney, and clerk of the countie in every of the said membres (Coytie excepted) aswell as in the said shire fee of Glamorgan and Morgannoke as by their lettres patentes of that offices it may plainly appere.
13. 14. [No particular writs were directed to the lordships for general summons to the Commissioners of Oyer and Determiner, but merely to the Sheriff of Glamorgan and Morganwg.]
15. Item it is to be noted that ther was never any particuler comyssion of oyer and determiner directed for the levyenge of the said Tallage alias myses in any of the said xij lordships or membres as there shoulde have byne if they had bene lordshipes marchers, but comyssion wente oute alwaies for the said lordship of Glamorgan and Morgannoke withe his membres withoute thexpressinge the name of any of the said xij lordships or membres.
16. Item the place of the apperance of the inhabitantes of the same xij lordships and every of them before the said comissioners was alwaies in the castle of the said lordship of Glamorgan and Morgannoke, Quyte oute of their owne liberties.
17. Item when the said Tallage or myses was agreed upon before the said comissioners by all the inhabitantes of the said lordship of Glamorgan and Morgan[n]ok, and the said membres, the some wherof in the whole came to a thousand marckes, the inhabitantes of every of the said xij lordships or membres, did yearely by the space of v. yeares, which was their usuall daies of paymente of the same, bringe their porcions upon them rated, as contributaries to the said groce some of M. markes into thescheker of Glamorgan and Morganok aforsaid, and paid it to the lordes Receivour there, cleane oute of their owne lordships and liberties, contrary to the privileges of lordships marchers and the Some due upon every of the said members, towardes the paymente of the said M. markes was sertainly knowen.
18. [There was no castle at Boviarton, Rythin nor Glynrotheney; nor any court-house nor gaol at the two lastnamed places.]
19. Item wheras every of the said lordshipes had the Tryall of liffe and landes, it is thoughte by some men that the same argweth them to be lordships marchers, that is not so, for the said Robarte fitzhamon upon the conqueste of the said lordship marcher of Glamorgan and Morgannoke, did considre as it is before said that it was to much to bringe all the inhabitantes for the triall thereof, to his countie courte of Glamorgan and Morgannocke, the which was kepte but one daye, in a moneth, and therfore he did permite every of the sayed lordships or membres, to have the triall of landes and lief within them selves, And so likewise he did graunte to the lordes of courte Barones, the triall and execuc'on of felons taken with the maner within their lordships So that they did it that sealf daye before the Sonne goinge downe, yet did he reserve to his said countie courte of Glamorgan and Morgannoke, the Reversall of all erroneous and false iudgmentes Geven aswell in any of the said membres, as in every of the courte Barrons of the shire fee, as unto their superiour courte, The amerciamente wherof in every of the said membres, it was no les then a hundred markes, and in every of the said courte Barons, xls as it to be proved by fayre Recordes, Although the said Earle, by the purchase of the castle of Cardief, hathe gotten into his handes all the originalls thereof that remayned in thescheker there, and also he hath not lefte one scrolle in the castell of warwike, wher as some did remayne, nor with any Auditour touchinge the same, wherby he goeth aboute to prove every of the said membres to be lordships marchers, denying that there is any suche lordship called by the name of Glamorgan and Morgannoke, thinckinge that ther is no man that hathe any thinge to shewe to the contrary.
21. Item the said lorde of Glamorgan and Morgannoke did reserve the triall of thes iij writtes, that is to wite, assissa of novell disseison, darein presentemente and Juris verum, to him sealf and to his said shirrief of Glamorgan and Morgannoke.
22. [Gamage of Coytie and Basset of Talvan have never claimed to be lords marchers.]
23. Item it appereth that the said xij membres had the Tryall of landes and liffe but by the appointemente and permission only of the lord of Glamorgan and Morgannoke, for Sir Gilbert de Clare, the laste of that (fn. 1) [line that was] lo[rd] thereoff, did res[erve] into his handes the triall of landes and liffe from Sir Gilbert . . . . . then lorde of Coytie, And frome Morgan then lord of Avan upon a smale occacion, for [that they] as he alledged did succoure within their lordships one that comytted felonie in the . . . . . .
[24. A]ll which matters well wayed and considered do manifestely prove that the said castell and towne of Cardief and the said xij membres, nor any of them were ever lordships marchers, but were before the purchase of the same made by the said Erle membres and parcells only of the lordship marcher of Glamorgan and Morgannoke as is before saied.
25. And serteine it is that the purchasser ther of canot make them lordships marchers being never non before, for then the said lordship marcher of Glamorgan and Morgannoke with this said xij membres, and castle and towne of Cardief, beinge never before but one intier lordship Marcher shoulde therby become xiiij severall lordships marchers, which were very absurde and strange and contrarie to all righte and reason, And so for the causes before rehersed, the said Erle oughte not to have no myses upon the Tenantes and inhabitantes within his said x lordships, castell and towne of Cardif, nor enioye in any of the said x lordships castle or towne the privileges or liberties of a lordship marcher, as he yet dothe to the greate Iniurye of his said tenantes and resiantes, and to the greate detrymente to the Quenes majesties in hir casualties there, by takinge to his proper vse the moytie of all comen mayne price and recognisaunces of the peace forfeited by any of his Tenantes, but ought only to have and enioy in the same the liberties of a lete and landowner and none other.
Matters provinge the Castell and towne of
Cardief, and the x members purchased by
thearle of Penbroke to be no lordeshippe
An informac'on exhibited on the Quenes majestes behalf to the Right honorable the lorde Tresorer of England, the lorde chief Baron and the rest of the Quenes highnes lerned counsell by Edward Stradlyng and Anthony Manxell Esquyers ageinst the Erle of Penbroke and the lorde Herbert of Cardyf his sonne.
1. Item wher as the seyd Erle and lorde do clayme to be lorde marchers in the Countie of Glamorgan by reson of certein lordships in the said Countie graunted unto the said Erle by kyng Edward the vjth and by the Quenes grace that now is. that is to wyte, the lordships of Sengheinyth, Rythyn, Lanblethian, Boviarton, Kenffege, Tir Yarll, Avan and Neth now in the handes of the said Erle, And the lordships of Myskyn and Glynrothney and the Castell and Towne of Cardyf, late in the handes of the said Erle, and now in the possession of the said lorde Herbert. and by colour ther of they do not only receve the one moytye of all fynes, amerciamentes and recognisaunces of the peace forffeited by any of their tenantes or inhabitantes with in every of the said lordships to the Quenes majestes grete detryment in hyr casualties ther, but do more over use and exercise in every of the said lordeships dyvers liberties and ffrancheses more then are comprysed in their lettres patentes or grauntes concernyng the same, but also do hyndre and lett that the Quenes majeste can not be aunswered of her myses due to hir highnes by the death of the late Quene hyr syster upon the tenantes and inhabitantes of hyr lordshyp marcher of Glamorgan and Morgannok and presented unto hyr hyghnes long sethens by the othes of dyvers honest and substanciall Gentlemen by vertue of hyr highnes commission dyrected for the same, and certyffyed in to the Courte of Escheker, for the pleyne declaracion of the trewth therin your Lordships shall understand that neither of the saide lordships or maners be or were ever lordships marchers, but were all before the grantes made ther of to the said Erle, membres of the Quenes lordship Ryall of Glamorgan and Morgannok aforesaid, (except the Castell and Towne of Cardyf which was no member, but was parcell of the said lordship Ryall of Glamorgan and Morgannok.) wher by it apeareth evydently that thei ought not have the moyty of fynes, amerciamentes and Recognisaunces forffeted, graunted by actes of parlyament annis 27. and 34. and 35. of King Henry the viijth to lordes marchers.
2. Item as concernyng myses the which the said Erle and lorde do clayme to have of their tennauntes at their fyrst entry by vertue of the said actes, and by coloure ther of the said Erle lettyth the levyeng of the Quenes majestes mises in hyr said lordeship Ryall of Glamorgan and Morgannok claymeng the same to be due unto hym by color that he hath the said Castell of Cardyf parcell of the same lordship graunted unto hym, So it is that yf their said lordships or any of them were lordships marchers, as in dede thei be not yet the said actes do not provyde for them tochyng the same, but for them only that were then lordes marchers, and not for them that shold be after that lordes marchers. And so the said Erle and lorde have no good coloure in the voorld either to lett or intercept the Quenes highnes to enjoy hir said myses, or to have any myses at all of their owne tenauntes at their fyrst entryes.
3. Item wher as the said Erle and lorde do clayme to have in every of the said lordships the goodes and cattalles of felons de se, deodandes, Tresore trove, inffangtheffe and outfangtheffe, they have no suche thynges graunted unto them as by their lettres patentes of the same redy to be shewed it doth pleinly apeare.
4. Item more over thei have no felons goodes graunted unto them in the above named lordships of Myskyn and Glynrothney, nor in the Hand of Barry, nor any kynde of lybertie or franchesse with in the said Iland, but the bare soyle ther of only as by the lettres patentes of the same lyke wyse redy to be shewyd it doth evydently apeare.
5. Item wher as the said Erle do clayme and doth enjoy a certein ferm callyd Rusham by the name of the maner of Rusham, and also the Iland of Holmes by Cardyf comynly callyd the fflat holmes, they be not comprehendyd in his graunte, and therfore he doth the Quenes majeste Iniurye ther in. for thei do belong unto hyr grace as parcell of hyr above namyd lordship Ryall of Glamorgan and Morgannok.
Versus Pembroke et Herbert.
To prove that the lordship that Jasper duke of Bedford had in the countie of Glamorgan is callyd the lordship of Glamorgan and Morgannok. and that the Castell and Towne of Cardyf is no lordship of it self and therfore can haue no membres belonging to it, but was parcell of the said lordship of Glamorgan and Morgannok.
1. In primis all bookes ot accomptes of the same syns the iiijth yere of kyng William Rufus that it was conquered by Robert fitz hamon unto the iiijth yere of kynge Edward the vjth do pleinly declare it to be so callyd. And the Castle and Towne of Cardyf are conprehendyd under the tytle ther of as parcell of the same, and not as a lordship of it self, and the Baylyfes of Cardyf dyd accoumpt yerely for the Revenews ther of as mynysters of the said lordship of Glamorgan and Morgannok wherfore the said Castell and Towne of Cardyf can have no membrers belongeng therto.
2. Item the lordships that the Erle of Penbroke claymeth to be membres ther of comynly calleyd Courte Barons are in nombre xxxvj. knyghtes fees and an half, wher of the gentlemen now owners therof and there auncestres and those whose estates they haue, haue ben in possession ever syns the conquest ther of aforesayd, and held it alwayes of the lordes of the lordship of Glamorgan and Morgannok and now shold holde it of the quenes majeste who is by just title lady and owner of the same, wherof the said Erle hath dyspossessed hyr hyghnes.
3. Item in all grauntes of landes, offices and charters made by the Clares, Spensers, Souchez, and Beachamps som[m]e tyme lordes of the same redy to be shewyd, and also in all writes and processez sued ther in their tymes thei named themselfes lordes of Glamorgan and Morgannok, and the prynces lykewise after it cam into there handes, ye, though it were of an office of that castell of Cardyf, as constable porter and Gardener.
4. Item ther can be no recorde shewed that the said Castell and Towne of Cardyf was ever a distinct lordship of it self, (fn. 2) but parcell allways of the said lordship of Glamorgan and Morgannok. But the said Erle having the said Castell and Towne of Cardyf, with dyvers membres and parcels geven vnto hym by kyng Edward the vjth and getyng in to his handes as well from the awdytors all mynystrers and recevors accoumptes tochyng the said lordship of Glamorgan and Morgannok, as also out of the rolls, the bookes wherin the enrollment of all patentes and leasses, and the survey of the whole said lordshyp were conteyned. By meane wher of the Quenes majestes officers havyng no recordes to shew for the proffe of hir highnes right and title to hyr said lordship of Glamorgan and Morgannok, the said Erle by color and for as moche as the sayd Castell of Cardyf was the chieff dwellyng howsse, of the lordes of Glamorgan and Morgannok and their Countie courtes kept ther, goeth aboute by all meanes to perswade the Quenes lerned consell that ther is no suche lordship of Glamorgan and Morgannok, but that it is and ought to be callyd the lordship of Cardyf, wherby he wolde have the myses, warde sylver and mariage of the said knyghtes fees and felons goodes, deodandes wayffes and strayars within the same to the manifest dishenheryteng of the Quenes highnes, and to the grete Iniurie of hir obedyent and faithfull subiectes owners therof, and to bryng the same the rather to passe he had ther of late a jury of his tenauntes by the favore of the sheref who hath maryed his nece that presented most unjustly the said xxxvjti knyghtes fees to be membres of his sayd Castell of Cardyf.
5. Item wher as som[m]e peradventure wyll mervell that ther shold be a lordship of that name of Glamorgan and Morgannok, and no Castell or Towne of that name, (fn. 3) To that it may be sayd that ther is a nombre lyke as well in England as in Wales, wher of the said Erle hymself hath v. lordships in the Countie of Glamorgan, videlicet, Myskyn, Glynrothney, Senghennyth, Rathyn, and the Erle of Worcestre hath Gower and dyvers other the lyke, that have nether Castell nor Towne of that name, lykewise in England you have Cornwall, the courtes and Recordes wher of were kept at Lostithion. (fn. 4) also you have Holderness, Kent, Surrey, Southsex, Essex and many mo the lyke.
The cause why that this lordship of Glamorgan and Morgannok hath this ij names is this, the olde and the fyrst name ther of was Morgannok, and in processe of tyme it be com that one Morgan was lorde ther of, and then begon the other name of it Glamorgan, the which is as moche to say in Walsh, as Morgans contrey, for Glad in Walsh signifyeth a contrey, and so it was callyd in Walsh Morgannok [sic] the contrey of Morgan. (fn. 5)
That Glamorgan and Morgannok is
a lordship and Cardyf no lordship.
Certayne other noetes tansuer the former obiecc'on that ther was no suche lordeship of Glamorgan and Morganoge wherby ther is a sufficient proeffe that ther was and yet is suche a lordeship.
Roethe and Lanederne:— A fyne knoueledged in comitatu Glamorgan et Morganog tent' apud Cardieffe die lune xvjto Marcij anno regni Regis Henrici sexti decimo octavo, and is betwyn William Herbert esquier querent and John ap G'llym ap David and Elizabethe his wyyeffe deforciants of iijc acres etc. in Roethe and Llanederne.
Cardyeff:—An assise brought by Thomas the son[n]e of Jevane the son[n]e of Trehayrne against Rychard the sone of Oenn[n] the sonn[n]e of Rice and Johane his wyeffe de libero tenemento suo in Cardiff the Precipe wherof was awarded in the name of Richard Comes Warwick et dominus de le Spencer Glamorgancie et Morgancie anno Henrici Sexti xxviijto and upon the addressinge of the orignall wrytt for thexecuc'on therof to Thomas Boteler baylie of the said lordeship, the said bayly made over his mandat to the baylies of the liberties of the towene of Kardief to se the said writt executed and to haue the said mandat at the next Com[itatus.]
Landoghe and Saint Mary Churche:—[Nothing of this need be extracted here.]
Tythegistoe, noerthe Cornely, Weastorchard, xij messuagia in Coyti and nvecastell hundred:—The like apperithe by a Precipe in the name of Jasper Dueke of Bedfordd, erle of Penbroke and lorde of Glamorgan and Morganog at the suete of John[n] Stradling, etc against Richard Turbyll, etc. for the manors of Tythegestowe and northecornely, the fowerthe parte of weast orchart and of xij messuages in Coyties lande and nvecastell hundred. And a fyne upon the same in anno Henrici Septimi quarto. (fn. 6)
Coyttie:—[No need to extract this.]
Tanswer obieccions (yf any suche be alleiged) that ther is no lordeship of Glamorgan and Morganoge but a Countie called Glamorgan and Morganoge.
It is proved that in every Precipe the lorde of Glamorgan did name hym selfe dominus Glamorgan' et Morgancie (fn. 7) wiche he colde not doe unles Glamorgan and Morganoge were a lordeship yf whyche were not so than was all erronius that passed under the same name.
Item in every Precipe the lorde commaundithe his baylly in somer (as the accion lyithe) to sommon the tennauntes by good suerties that they be ad proximum comitatum nostrum Glamorgancie et Morgancie die lune, etc., coram vicecomite [nostro] Glamorgancie et Morgancie, (fn. 8) And in somer to sease the lande by the cattaill upon the same and that the same land and cattaill sint in pace usque in proximum comitatum nostrum Glamorgan' et Morgancie apud Cardieff tenendum etc. (fn. 9)
The like word Comitatus is to be found in all wryttes, fynes, and recoveries, And in all entries of the cowertes.
By all whiche it apperythe that this worde Comitatus can not in thiese places be constred for the countrey of Glamorgan but for the cowert, and carriethe with it the same force and construccion[n] in thiese entries, as Curia domini Regis (fn. 10) doethe in the comon place, and as this worde magna Sessio (fn. 11) doethe befoer the Justyces of Assise in any shyer in Wales.
This word Comitatus in all wryttes, entries fynes and pleas is no rare worde in Wales, for that aswell in all cowertes of lordeshipps marchers nowe in the handes of the quenes majestie, as Penbroke, Haverford west brecknok and others Gower, and Strugull alias Chepstowe the possessyons of W. erle of Worcester, Uske and Newport the possessyons of the erle of Penbroke the entries of all whiche by the name of comitatus doethe tende to suche ende as Curia doethe in all other cowertes.
To aunswer the obieccion that ther is no lordeship of Glamorgan nor no place certayne to be named as parte of the same.
Frankeconfyelde in manerio de Bovyarton:—It is proved in a Recorde of three severall Counties holden for Glamorgan and Morgannok at Cardyeffe anno xxviij°Henrici Sexti coram Willelmo Stradling armigero locumtenente Thome Nevell militis vicecomitis Glamorgancie et Morgancie (fn. 12) that a capias was awarded for the kylling and murtheringe of William ap Hoell ap Thomas and others at a place called ffrankeconfield betwyxt Llantwyd and Cowebrydge in the fee afforsaid and in thend the said persons were owetlawed for the same by which that place certain appereth to be parcell of the sayde lordship.
Rothe. in the lordship:—It is also proved by the recordes of the said yere a capias was awarded for thapprehenc'on of one David ap G'lym llander for that he stale x bidentes apud Rothe infra feodum dicti com: de bonis Thome ap levan ap David. (fn. 13)
Kybbor:—Item it is proved by the recorde of the said yere that a capias was awarded against one Leyson ap Hoell ap Myryke Mellyn etc. for that they dyd steale in kybbor three kyene of the goodes of Thomas Nyccholl.
Kardyeffe. burgus:—Item it is proved by the recorde of July in the said yere that one Morris Tipton of Landaffe fledd ouet of the contrey for that he wolde not aunswer to the lorde for that he the xth day of Marche at Cardyeff within the fee of the said Countie did steale iij. yardes of kersy.
Lanmaes:—[A similar case.]
Lancarvan etc:—Item it is proved by the recorde of the said yere that like processe was awarded against a malefactor of Llancarvan being within the fee of the said Com:, And likewyese of dyvers others in other particuler places within the fee of the said Com:
To prove that thoes lordeships which my 1. of Penbroke dothe clayme nowe to be lordships merchars of them selfes, were but members of the 1. of Glamorgan and Morgannog, and in the cowertes holden for the said 1. had the chieffiest plees for lyeffe and land determyned.
Glynrotheney a member. . . . . . .
Lanblethyan a member. [Similar records.]
Fyne for the body and members:—It is also proved by the record of the said yere that in the said yere one Johen ap Jevan ap Phellip Lloyd made his generall fyne for all transgressyons aswell comytted within the body of the said lordeship as also within the members of the same.
Myskyn a member:—Item it apperyth by the record of the said yere that one G'llym ap David ap Gryffith ap Dauid vaghan of Myskyn made the like fyne for xli
No. 1102. [Abstract.]
Writ was issued out of the Exchequer to the Sheriff of Glamorgan to ascertain what Crown rights were withheld by William, Earl of Pembroke.
Inquisition as to the Earl of Pembroke's possessions in Glamorgan. Commission directed to William Herberte of Coganpill, Esquire, Sheriff of the said County. Jurors:—
Richard Thomas Griffith Goug, gentleman.
William Gebon of Llanharry, gentleman.
Griffith John ap Lewes, gentleman.
David Gruff. Harry, gentleman.
Morgan Jan, gentleman.
Hoell Morgan of Llanvanno, gentleman.
Thomas Hoell Lle'n ap Hoell, gentleman.
Ivan vaghe ap John, yeoman.
Dd. Morgan Lle'n apowell, yeoman.
Hoell Thomas Mountaine, yeoman.
Lle'n ap Jevan, yeoman.
Thomas ap Ivan Jeyne ap Jeuan, yeoman.
Who say that William, Earl of Pembroke, holds the following possessions. (The situation and extent of the several parcels, as here inserted, were ascertained by a subsequent Inquisition.)
Myskin lordship and manor extending to the parishes of Pentirche, Radyr, Sainct ffagans, Bretton super Elley and Peterston super Elley in the county of Glamorgan, by the ancient metes and bounds there used and known.
Miskin fforest extending and consisting within the parishes of Aberdare, Llanmeltid Vairedree, Peterston upon Aven and Llanwuno and the lordship of Miskin aforesaid.
Clun lordship and manor extending to part of the parishes of Llanyltid Vairdree, Llanwuno, Llantrissent, Pentirch, St ffagans and Peterston upon Elley.
Glinrothney lordship and manor extending within the parishes of Aberdare, Ystradtevodock, Llanwuno and Llantrissent.
Llanvays lordship and manor extending to the whole parish of Llanways and to the parishes of Eglousbrewis and Llanmihangell.
Pentirghe lordship and manor lying in the parish of Pentirche only.
Llantrissent burgh and the franchises of the same town at Llantrissent aforesaid.
Ruthin lordship and manor extending to the parishes of Llanulltid, St Mary Hill and Llanharran.
Llanblethian lordship and manor extending to the parishes of Llanblethian, St Hillary, Pendylon and Ystradowen.
Talavan fforest divided as follows:—
New Forest extending within the parishes of Llansannor, Llanharry and Ystradowen.
Old Forest extending to the parishes of Ystradowen and Llanharry.
Garth Mailock extending within the parish of Llanharran.
Garth Griffric within the parishes of Pendilon and Welsh St Dynnotts.
Forest Bery extending in the parish of St Mary Hill.
Coed Codew extending in the parish of Pendoylloine.
Boviarton with Llantwett lordship and manor lying within the parish of Llantwit.
Avon burgh lordship and manor lying within the town and parish of Abreavan.
Avan Wallia lying within the parishes of Glincorauge, Inis Avan and Bagland and extending to the parish of Llanniltid by Neath.
Tyre Yarlth extending through the parishes of Llangoyno and Bettws.
Kenfige lordship and manor lying within the parish of Kenfige.
Lower Sengehenythe lordship and manor extending and consisting between the parishes of Llanvabon, Egloussilan and Ruddry and also extending to the parish of Whitchurch, and to parts of the parishes of Michelston Wenllock, Maghen and Bedwes.
Higher Sengheneth lordship and manor extending within the parishes of Merther Tydwell and Kelligar.
Whitchurche lordship and manor.
Karfillie manor lying and extending in the parish of Egloussilan.
Rader lordship and manor extending in the parish of Rader.
Lekwith lordship and manor extending in the parish of Lekwith.
Rothe lordship and manor lying and extending in the parish of Rothe.
Newton Nottage lordship and manor lying and extending in the parish of Newton.
Griffithes More being a certain parcel of land lying in the parish of Rothe.
Cowbridge lordship and manor lying in the parish of Llanblethian, the vill of Cowbridge and the franchises of the same vill.
Cardiffe lordship lying within the vill of Cardiffe.
Cardiffe burgh containing the whole vill of Cardiffe and the franchises of the same vill.
Cardiffe castle lying in the parish of St Maries (fn. 14) of Cardiffe in the county aforesaid and called the castle of Cardiffe.
Members of the Castle of Cardiffe are:—
Dennys Powys, half the manor of; namely George Herbert, knight.
Mighelston in le pitt, manor of.
Ychelloley, half the manor of.
Edynys ffee, manor of.
Castell towne manor.
Llandoghe by Cowbridge, manor.
St Dynnots manor.
The manors of William Basset, esquire.
The manors of George Avan, gentleman.
Mether Mawer manor.
The manors of George Herbert, knight, and Waulkin Logor, gentleman.
Newton Nottage manor.
South Corneley manor.
North Corneley manor.
St Hillary and Bewper, manor of.
Leche Castell, manor of.
The manor of William Mathew.
The manor of William and Walter Vaughan, esquires, of Peterston.
St ffagans manor.
The manors of Miles Buttone, esquire, and Rece Miricke, gent., of St Nicholas.
Lystallabont manor— as all the aforesaid manors lie severally by themselves in the parishes of Wenvo, St Andrewes, Michelston in le pitte, Ychelloley, Penmarke, Llancarvan, Llysworney, St Tathans, Gilston, fflemingston, Llandoghe by Cowbridg, Llanmihangell, St Donotts, Marcrosse, Llandowe, Penllyne, Mether Mawer, Newton, Keinfige and Pile, Coitchurche, St Hillari, Pendilon, Llancarvan, St Llithan, Llantrithed, Peterston upon Eley, Llanblethian, St ffagans, St Nicholas, Rowlston, Llandaphe, Whitchurch, Llanyssen and Lysswane in the county aforesaid, by their several metes and bounds there from of old used and known.
Colmeston lordship and manor lying in the parish of Coston and extending to the parish of Pennarth.
Berry island lying by Barry in the parish of Sully.
Rusham, being parcel of the manor of Lekwithe and lying in the parish of Llandaffe.
The Homes, being a certain island in the Severn called the fflatteholmes and lying by Cardiffe in the county aforesaid, well known.
Neathe burgh containing the vill of Neathe and the franchises of the same vill.
St Georges lordship and manor lying in the parish of St Georges and extending to parts of the parishes of Bradyton upon Elley, St ffagans, St Nicholas, Wenvo and Llancarvan.
Wenvo manor lying in the parish of Wenvo.
Walterston manor lying and extending in the parishes of Llancarvan and St Nicholas.
St Nicholas manor lying and extending in the parishes of St Nicholas, St Georges and Llancarvan.
Michelston manor lying in the parish of Mychelston upon Elley and extending to part of the parish of St ffagans.
Keye manor lying and extending in the parishes of Key and Landaffe.
Rayley Llantwid manor lying in the parish of Llantwitt.
Neathe manor lying in the parish of Llangattinge and extending to the parishes of Britton fferry and Llantwit by Neathe.
Neathe Citra manor lying and extending in the parishes of Llantwitt by Neathe and Britton fferry.
Neath Ultra manor lying in the parishes of Llangattock and Killebebill.
Britton manor lying in the parish of Britton fferry in the county aforesaid by its metes and bounds there used and known.
The said Earl, from 17 November 1559, hath used to have and hold a Court Leet View of Frankpledge, together with suit of the inhabitants within the lordships, manors, towns and places aforesaid; as also the assise and assay of bread, wine, beer and other victuals; the scrutiny of weights and measures, and the amendment and correction of the same; waifs and strays; treasure trove; goods and chattels of felons and fugitives convict and outlaws; posts and deodands; infangthief and outfangthief, and all manner of fines and amerciaments, before the Steward of the Court aforesaid; but by what title, right or warrant, the aforesaid Jurors are wholly ignorant.
Writ to distrain the said Earl until he shall answer by what right he claims those possessions.
The said William, Earl of Pembroke, by Thomas Browne, his attorney, answers that his title to the above possessions is as follows:—
That Jasper, Duke of Bedford, uncle of King Henry VII., was seised of the said possessions in fee tail male by the grant of the said King; that from time immemorial the lords marchers of the same enjoyed them all and singular; that the said possessions, on the death of the said Duke without issue male, reverted to King Henry VII., and at his death descended to the late King Henry VIII. That an Act of Parliament of the 27th year of his reign ordained that whereas the said lords marchers were used to put their tenants under common pledge and security for appearing, and had forfeiture thereof, the same custom or right should thenceforth cease; and that every lay and temporal person then being a lord marcher should have a moiety of every forfeiture, common pledge and recognisance for the peace or appearance forfeited by any of their tenants, and should themselves pay the same moiety by the hand of the Sheriff of the county, if the said Sheriff could levy the same; and the said Sheriff should account unto the King for the other moiety in the Exchequer in which they should be accountable. And lastly that each such lord marcher should have all such mices and profits of their tenants as they used to have at their first entry upon their lands in times then past; and should hold within the precincts of their lordships or lawday waifs and strays &c. &c., in exacting post for felony or murder, and also wreck of the sea, wharfage, and the custom of foreigners, which they had in times then past, and as if granted by charter of King Henry VIII. That on the death of the said King, the aforesaid possessions descended to the late King Edward VI.; who accordingly became seised of the said castle, lordships, manors, burgh, island, lands and tenements in his demesne as of fee, and of the said liberties, franchises and privileges as of fee and right. The Earl then cites the Crown grant of 1547, of Barry Island to himself, and the Crown grant to him of Cardiff Castle and the rest of the said lordships and manors, dated in 1551, "as in the same letters patent in the memorials of this Exchequer for the second and third years of the late King Philip and Queen Mary, to wit, among the records of the term of Saint Michael enrolled in the Roll on behalf of the Remembrancer of the Treasury, among other things is more fully contained."
Writ to the Sheriff to ascertain the situation and extent of the Earl's possessions.
1568. Inquisition accordingly:—
Glamorgan. Inquisition indented, taken at Cardiffe in the County of Glamorgan 20 April 1568, before William Mathew, esquire, Sheriff of Glamorgan, by the oath of
William Gebon, gentleman.
Walter William, gentleman.
David Griffith Harry, gentleman.
John Griffith Goghe, gentleman.
John Robarte ap Ieuan, alderman.
Griffen John ap Lewis, gentleman.
Thomas Thomas ap John, gentleman.
Griffen Graunte, gentleman.
Thomas Hoell Lluelen ap Hoell, gentleman.
Howell ap Morgan of Saincte Georges, gentleman.
Howell ap Morgan of Llanwynnow.
Ieuan Sr Richard Thomas.
Llewelen ap Howell.
Thomas Dio ap Richard Llewelen ap Ieuan, of St Nicholas.
John ap John, alias Dee, of St Georges.
The Jury locate the several possessions as set out in the first paper, and add that the same are now in the hands of William, Earl of Pembroc', except the castle and burgh of Cardiffe, the lordships of Myskin and Glinrothney, the manors of Pentirche, Clune and Lekwith, the islands of Berry and the Homes, with the forest of Myskin; whereof the said Earl made an estate unto Henry, Lord Herberte of Cardiffe, his son and heir, in the 9th year of Queen Elizabeth (1577.)