Cardiff Records: Volume 4. Originally published by Cardiff Records Committee, Cardiff, 1903.
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Cardiff Library. Phillips MS.
Breuiat w[i]th notes Conteyninge all the Lordshippes and Mannors within the Countie of Glamorgan," &c. "collectid & gatherid for the private vse of the gentn now atendinge vpon the Right Honrable Henry Earle of Penbroke my good Lo: and Master. Anno Dni: 1596."
Dedicated "To the worshipfulle Thomas Morgan (fn. 1) Esquior Stewarde in house to the Right Honrable Henry Earle of Penbroke health and happines," by Rice Lewis.
Justine Lo: of Glamorgan was
father to Cradocke
father to Meredyth
father to Howell
father to Lleyki
Mother to Howell
father to Howell vaughan
father to ll'n vaughan
father to Dauid gam, who because he was a little crooked man was
called Dauid gam. [Note in margin:] Owen glindur pulled owt on of
his eyes & thereof called Gam. (fn. 2)
father to Gladis
mother to William Earle of Pembroke
father to Richard Herbert Esquior
father to William Earle of Penbroke
ffather to Henry nowe Earle of Pembroke that hath Cardif the
whole Towne with all the Rights priviledges and lib'ties
with three milles (viz.) ij water grist milles, and on
tuckinge mille Turned by a p'te of the River of Taffe
w[hi]ch runeth vnder the walles of his Honors Castle and
from the North p'te of the Towne to the South p'te. Where there is a faire Key and a safe harborowe for Shippinge. The Towne is ruled by a Maior to be nominated by his Honor and ij bayeliffs yearely chosed of the sadest and gravest Alldermen of the said Towne. Yt hath ij p'ishe churches and one chappell (viz.) St Maryes and St Johnes and the chappell of St Maryes, which standeth in Roth iij quarters of a mile out of the towne towardes the Northeast. Yt hath ij marketts weekly, satordaye & wensDaie and ij anuall fayres, viz. the first on St Peeters Daye, and the other on or Ladyes daye here comonly called or ladyes daye in harvost. Her Ma[jes]tie is Patron of the Vicaredge of all the iij churches and the valuac'on is xvijli xjd. The River of Taffe springeth in the Northerne hills that p'te Glam'gan sheere from Brecknocke sheere, called Manach Deny as leland saith. Albeit as I take it the very head springeth out of a hill called bwlch y van in Brecknocke sheere and therehence runeth to chappell Nanty and receaveth in a Rylett from the west called Taffe vechan, and thence they runne together to Merthir Tydvill, vntill they meete the Kenon x miles before they meete clawthe constable, and after they meete cledwed and the ij Ronthnes, and then without any more Increase they runne vnder the redd castle to Whitchurch llandaphe cardif, and so into the sea at Penarth pointe.
Rothe wherein (fn. 3) standeth his Ho: (fn. 4) Castle of Cardif vnited as it weare to the said Towne yet never the lesse out of the lib'ties of the same Lp: (fn. 5) was a Royal L: (fn. 6) before that ij p'cells there of were geven to the churche viz. the one to the Abbey of Teuxbury, and the other p'te to the Abbey of Kensam. Albeit it hath many free tenants that hould in knight service with demeasne lands and coppy hould for iij lives.
Spittle butteth to the Towne of Cardif and was purchased by William late Earle of Pembroke of William Bawdrippe Esquior Yt hath free tenants leases and coppy houlds for iij lives, there is noe church for they belonge to the churches of llandaphe and the afore said chappell of Roth, and the Deane of Gloucester for the tyme beinge hath the tythinge sheafe of both L'ips, nowe holden by Anthony Maunxell Esquior for many Yeares yet to come.
Here you maye note the said castle of Cardif was the cheefe dwellinge house of fittz Hamon, Yet it seemeth that the L'ps of Roth and Spittle was p'cell of the Inheritance of Yvor petitte lo: of St genith longe after the conquest of fitz Hamon In as lardge maner as the said Earle nowe holdeth the same (viz.) from Castle Gurlasse or the confines of Brecknocke sheere w[hi]ch conteyneth xviij miles even to lowe water marke a mile belowe Cardif.
Leikwith standeth vpon the West p'te of the River of Ely within one mile of Cardif westwarde and hath free tenaunts leases coppy houlds, and customary lands and tenaunts to them and theire heires for ever. [Blank] is patron and the valuatione is vli.
Cayre butteth to the west p'te of Leckqueth and is distant from Cardif Westwarde ij miles, the tenants doe theire suite of coort at michellston' together with the tenaunts thereof they are free tenaunts and coppy houlders.
Pentirgh butteth to thester p'te of Trewerne and hath like tenaunts [free and customary] and is Indifferent between the markett of Cardif and llantrissaint, and is distant from Cardif North northwest iij miles. The Deane and Chapter of llandaphe ar Patrons and the valuac'on is [blank]
Radir butteth to the South p'te of Pentirgh and hath free tenaunts customary tenaunts and leases. Cardif is the m'kett towne and is distant thence Northwest ij miles. [Blank] is patron and the valuac'on is viijli js ob.
The flatt Holmes stande opposite to the said [larnott] church w[hi]ch (fn. 7) is taken to be in the lib'ties of the Towne of Cardif, (fn. 8) and it conteyneth lxj acre of errable and pasture lande and noe more, for I was prsent when Mr Thomas wiseman esquior measured the same by the comaundemt of my Lo: and Mr
And as these Lo: before named are all in the lowe cuntreyes, so are the best p'te in that contrey, and all as finable landes as any other and so eu'y man knoweth. And you maye note that his honor is prsently poss'ed of all such landes as any lo: of Glam'gan ever had * * * whereby you note p'ceave and knowe his Ho: to be the greatest lo: that ever owed landes in Glam'gan eyther before or after Justins tyme And therefore I hartely wish, so that thesame might be without any offence to any that his Ho: had as greate Rights priviledges and lib'ties as his noble prodecessors haue had there. (fn. 9) * * *
St Heineth subtus or lowe St heineth wherein standeth the redd castle, the cheefe house and dwellinge of Yvor petites and his p'decessors lo: of thesaid L'ip and of the L'ip of Kybur both before fitz Hamon's tyme and longe after * * *
This castle standeth in the side of a hill neere to the est side of the River of Taffe iij miles to the Northward of Cardif, and with in one mile and a halfe of the castle of carphilly, and xij miles to the Northwarde of Karphilly is Gurlasse Castle in the very confines betweene this county and Brecknocke shere all these in the Lo: of St geneth supra and subtus and carphilly w[hi]ch conteyneth the whole hundred of St geneth aforesaid are his Lo: and hath free tenaunts and leases and in the hundred are v churches.
William Thomas knight
ffather to William Earle of Penbroke
ffather to William Earle of Huntingeton
ffather to Elizabeth that maried Charles Somersett Ar:
Mother to Henry Earle of Worcester
ffather to William Earle of Worcester
ffather to Edwarde nowe Earle of Worcester.
Sr William Thomas knight
father to William Earle of Penbroke
ffather to Richard Herbert knight
ffather to Sr George Herbert knight
ffather to Mathew Herbert esquior
ffather to Sr William Herbert knight that hath Roth Tewcisbury so called after the Lo: of Glam'gan had geeven that p'te of the mannor of Roth to the Abbey of Tewisbury w[hi]ch was after the supprssion purchased by Sr George Herbert knight And there this knight that nowis hath builded a sumptuous house yet called the ffriers. Yt hath no church for it standeth in the p'ishe of St Maryes in Cardif.
Landoche Juxta Cardif cam to this gent. by Inheritance from his greate graunde mother who was doughter and sole heire to Sr Mathew Cradocke k: Yt hath free tenaunts demeanes and coppy houlds, and it is distant westwards from Cardif theire m'ket towne one mile. The Lorde is Patron and the valuac'on is iiijli xviijs. ixd.
Lanederne hath free tenaunts leases and coppy houldes in this L'ip standeth dringback Mr Edward Kemes esquiors cheefe house called in the Brutishe (fn. 10) tounge Kevenmabley.
[4th in descent from him is] Edmunde Mathew Esquior that hath Radyr wherein standeth theire cheefe Dwellinge house, that hath a lardge p'ke of fallowe deere, belonginge to yt hard by the house, with demeasnes and coppie hould landes for iij lives. The Lord is Patron and the valuac'on is [blank.]
William Mathew esquior hath Landaphe wherein standeth his cheefe dwellinge house but as I take it yt is holden in Soccage of the Buishoppe of Landaphe for the tyme beinge. Yt hath lardge demeasne w[hi]ch butteth to the River of Taffe, from the house alongest the said River allmost Cardif bridge.
Placesturton Joyneth to his demeasne of Landaphe, and butteth to the west p'te of Cardif bridge, and hath demeasne free tenaunts and coppy hould for iij lives but hath no church for it standeth in the p'ishe of Landaphe as the house doeth.
Edward Lewis esquior that maried a doughter of Thomas Morgan of Tredigir esquior that hath Roth kensam a p'cell of the mannor of Roth geven by the Lo: of Glamorgan to the Abbey of Kensham, And after the suprssion purchased by Edwarde Lewis this gent. graundfather. Yt hath demeasne and coppy houlds by Indenture for iij lives and Joyneth to thest p'te of Cardif beinge the markett and p'ishe church.
William Bawdrippe esquior father to Thomas Bawdrippe that
maried a doughter of Sr John Ragland knight, ffather to William
Bawdrip knight that maried a do: of M'ga' Gamedg esqr
ffather to Thomas that maried a doughter of xp[ist]ofer Mathew Esquior
ffather to William that maried a doughter of Sr Geo. Mathew knight
ffather to Thomas that maried a doughter of Richard gwin esquior
ffather to William that hath Adenfield nowe called West Penmarke
The Splott wherein this gent. hath builded a faire house neere Cardif and doeth nowe make the same his cheefe dwellingehouse but there as I take it he hath noe Lo: but holdeth thesame in Soccage vnder the Buishope of Landaphe for the tyme beinge.
St ffagans wherein there is builded a very faire house, and hath there vnto lardge demeasnes and coppie hould landes. Yt is iij miles northwest from Cardif their m'kett towne. [Blank] is patron & the valuacion is xiiijli xs. vd. Howe Mr Herbert hath these ij L'ps. [the other is llysvroneth] or in what Right he doeth enioye them thereof enquire.
Old Title Deeds of the Corporation.
Sciant presentes et futuri q'd ego Johe's Wastell de Cardyff in Com' Glamorgan' gen' pro c'tis causis et considerac'o'ib's me sp'ialit'r moventib's. dedi concessi et hac p'nti charta mea confirmaui, Nich'o Wastell fratri meo totu' illud messuag' sive burgag' meu' cum uno gardin' ac om'ib's alijs p'tinen' iacen' et existen' apud Cardiff infra p'ochia b'te marie, inter quendam burgag' Pe'ri Lewes Ar' ex p'te boreali, quendam burgag' d'ne Regine ex p'te australi, murū Ville de Cardyff ex p'te orientali, et vicum p'd'c'e ville ex p'te occidental'. necnon unam Acram t're iacen' apud Southrew inter terr' charoli ffrowde ex p'te boreali et terr' Marmaduci Mathew ex p'tib's oriental' et austral', et altā viā ex p'te occidental'; ac etiam quartā p'tem uni's acre p'd'c'o Messuag' p'tinen' iacen' int' terr' J'h'is Tanner ex p'te austral', et terr' Joh'is Gascoyne ex p'te boreal', terr' Will'i Herbt ex p'te oriental', et altā viam ex p'te occidental'. Habend' et tenend' p'missa p'd'c'a cum om'ib's et singulis suis p'tinen' quibuscunq' prefato Nich'o Wastell, hered' et Assign' suis imp'p'm de capit'li d'no feod' illius p' servicia inde prius debita et de iure consuet', ad propr' opus et usum ip'ius Nich'i hered' et Assign' suorū imp'pet'm Et ego vero prefatus Johe's et hered' mei p'dict' Messuag' siue burgag' cum om'ib's terr' et p'tinen' prd'c'is prfato Nich'o Wastell hered' et Assign' suis contra om'es gentes warrantizabim's et imp'p'm defendems p' prsentes In cuis rei Testimoniū huic p'nti charte mee sigillū meū apposui. Dat' primo die Octobris Anno regni d'n'e n're Elizabethe dei gra' Anglie ffrancie et hibernie Regine fidei defensoris &c Tricesimo nono.
Know all men present and to come that I, John Wastell of Cardyff in the county of Glamorgan, gentleman, for certain causes and considerations me specially moving, have given, granted and by this my present charter have confirmed unto Nicholas Wastell, my brother, All that my messuage or burgage, with one garden and all the other appurtenances, lying and being at Cardiff, within the parish of Saint Mary, between a certain burgage of Piers Lewes, esquire, on the north, a certain burgage of our lady the Queen on the south, the wall of the Town of Cardiff on the east, and the street of the aforesaid Town on the west. As also one acre of land lying at Southrew, between land of Charles Frowde on the north, and land of Marmaduke Mathew on the east and south, and the highway on the west. And also the fourth part of one acre belonging to the aforesaid messuage, lying between land of John Tanner on the south, and land of John Gascoyne on the north, land of William Herbert on the east, and the highway on the west. To Have and to hold the premises aforesaid, with all and singular their appurtenances whatsoever, unto the aforesaid Nicholas Wastell, his heirs and assigns for ever, of the chief lord of that fee, by the services therefor previously due and of right accustomed, to the proper use and behoof of him the said Nicholas, his heirs and assigns for ever. And now I, the aforesaid John, and my heirs will warrant and for ever will defend against all men by these presents the aforesaid messuage or burgage, with all its lands and appurtenances aforesaid, unto the aforesaid Nicholas Wastell, his heirs and assigns. In Witness whereof unto this my present charter I have set my seal. Given on the first day of October in the thirtyninth year of the reign of our lady Elizabeth, by the grace of God of England, France and Ireland Queen, Defender of the Faith, and so forth.
TO ALL MEN to whom this present writting shall come knowe yea that we Elizabeth Hengod of Cardife in the County of Glamorgan wydowe and John Hengod of Cardife aforesaid cordwaynr do by these prsents for and in considerat'on of a great some of money to them payde give graunt bargaine and sell to John Collyns of Cardiffe aforesaid cordwayner on messuage and a bake howse on courtelage and a garden therewth comonly used occupied or demysed Scituate Lyeing and being in Saint Jones streete within the towne of Cardiffe aforesaid now in the tenure or occupation of Christopher Hengod or his assignes or Rynald hughe meredythe [Executed on] the two and twentieth day of July in the yeares of the Raigne of our Sou'aigne Lord James by the grace of god Kinge of England Scotland fraunce and Ireland defendor of the faith &c. That is to saye of England fraunce and Ireland the fourth and of Scotland the nyne and thirtith.
INDENTURE made the Seauenth daie of Nouember in the yeares of the raigne of oure soveraigne Lorde James by the grace of God of England Scotland ffraunce and Ireland Kinge Defender of the faieth &c videlicet of England ffraunce and Ireland the fowertineth and of Scotland the fiftieth Betweene Marie Henburie of Cardiff in the countie of Glam[m]gan widowe of the one p'tie And Nicholas Wastell of the same in the said countie gent of the other p'tie Witnesseth that the said Marie Henburie [Bargain, sale, enfeoffment and confirmation to Nicholas Wastell of] All that one Burgage or dwelling howse with a cou'tiladge and gardein thereunto adioyninge w[i]th thapp'ten[a]ncs. Scituat, lieinge & beinge w[i]th in the p'ishe of St Maries in Cardiff afforesaid in the said coun' of Glam[m]gan in a streett there called St Maries streett neere to the well there, Betweene the lands nowe or late of Stephen ffrowde alderm? on the easte p'te, the landes nowe in the handes of Dewnes Thomas widowe on the Southe p'te the landes nowe or late in the handes of William Phillpott on the northe p'te and the street there called St Maries streete afforesaide on the weste p'te, And allsoe all those landes overflowne by the Tides of Seaverne sea existinge, lieinge and beinge neere to the weste Moores of Cardiff in the said coun' together w[i]th the fisheinge place or hinge in and uppon the same landes comonlie called Anny Butchors hynge, All w[hi]ch receited pm[m]isses came and discended to the said Marie Henbury from Res Wastell her late father deceased [Signed with the mark of Marie Henburie, sealed and delivered in the presence of "Henry Mathew late of Canton and nowe of Cardif," and of James Morgan and Arnold Keery, both of Landaff. Witnessed also by Arthur Lloyd and William Yeate.]
FEOFFMENT dated 7 March 1617; John Collines of Cardiff Alderman, to James Gale of Cardiff Alderman; of "One Messuage or dwelling howse, one Bake howse, and a courtlage thereunto adioyninge with thapp'ten'ces, comonly called the Armory howse, lieing and being in St Johnes street within the towne of Cardiff aforesaid in the said countie neere the parishe churche of St Johnes there, betwine the lands of Sr Edward Lewis knight now or late in the hands of Thomas Morgan cordyner on the west parte the lands of William Herbert esquire on the northe p'te, and the said streete there called St Johnes street on the easte and southe parts And alsoe one Garden with thapp'ten'ces lieing and being behinde the hayes, neere the towne wale of Cardiff aforesaid betwine the lands of the said James Gale, the lands of John Roberts, the lands in the hands of Harry Williams fisher, and a litle way there leadinge from Barrie lane towards the said Garden on all or some p'ts and sides thereof." Signed by John Collines and "Sealed and delivered w[i]th liurey and seisen executed upon the landes and tenements w[i]thin specified by the w[i]thin named John Collyns the tenth daye of Marche 1617 A° RR Jacobi Anglie &c. decimo quinto & Scotie lj'° in the presence of Henrie Hoare, Nicholas Hawkins, John Edwards, John Myllon, David × Lloyd, William W B Barker, Thomas T D David."
[This deed has the seal missing. The initial words "This Indenture" are ornamented with elegant drawings of leaves, in the Jacobean style; and, what is most remarkable, within the first letter appears the monogram I.H.S. and crosslet within a circle of rays—an emblem, at that date, of Popery in general and the Jesuits in particular.]
BARGAIN and Sale by Christopher Wells, of Cardiffe, cordwainer, to Cradock Wells, esquire, "now Senior Bayliffe of the said Towne of Cardiff [Reciting that] the said Cradock Wells and Arthur Yeomans, Esquire, Bayliffs of the said Towne of Cardiffe, the Aldermen of the said towne and Jonathan Greenfield & Phillip Coward, Common Atturneys of the said Towne, in & by one Indenture of Lease vnder the Com[m]on Seale of the sd Towne, beareing date 30 March last past, with the consent of the Burgesses of the said Towne did demise, grante and to farme lett & sett vnto the sd Christopher Wells All that Shoppe containeing Eight Windowes, called the Shambles, Lyeing & being under the Inner Hall of the said Towne of Cardiffe, Betweene the Staires leadeing up to the sd Hall on the South p'te, the two Shopps in the Occupac'on of David Howell & Anne Greene widd' on the North parte, and the Streates there on the East & West sides; And alsoe those two Gardens lyeing in Waste Lane, Abutting to the great Garden now in the hands of the sd Cradock Wells on the Weste p'te, the Streate on the Easte p'te, and the House & Garden of Anne Williams widd' lyeing betweene and adjoyneing to the North & South end of the sd two Gardens. Togeather with two plotts of Waste ground, the one adjoyneing to the East Gate on the South parte, the ffriers Wall on the North parte, the Towne Wall on the Weste p'te, and the Streate there on the East parte thereof; The other Plott lyeing w[i]ththout the North Gate, from the Waste lands appointed for the Inhabitants of the sd Towne to lay downe their dirt & dounghills, twenty four yeards in Length & in bredth from the high way to the Moteside there; In as large & ample man[n]er as all the prmisses aforesd then were built or inclosed [&c] w[i]th all and singular thapp'tenn'ces, Scittuated in the sd Towne & prcinctes thereof & belonging to the said Towne. "To Have and to Hold &c unto the said Christopher Wells, his executors &c, for 99 years, at the rent expressed in the said Indenture of Lease. It is Witnessed that the said Christopher Wells doth assign the premises unto the said Cradock Wells, for the remainder of the said term, &c.
Cardiff Museum. [c.1620]
THE Statute for the ordinance for Wales w[hi]ch is the cheefe guide for abolisheing and taking awaye of many Welsh customes and payemts vsid in Wales and erecteth new payments vpon Wales speketh nothing for the establishing or erecting of this payment of Impost and yett we maye not intend that the Lawe makers were Ignorant or did not foresee the non paymt of this Impost in Wales for that there is matters of much lesse momment tretid and remembred there. The paymt of subsidyes (w[hi]ch neur was in Wales before) is there newly raysed and the paymt of xvensw[hi]ch all England payed omitted.
There is also a custome callid the redemption of sessions w[hi]ch Wales only (but England never) paid, remitted and another custome callid mises w[hi]ch Wales only yeldeth and England payeth not, continuid vpon the Inhabitantes of Wales.
This custom of Impost haue formerly ben leasid by the late Queene Elizabeth to Robert earle of lecester and after him to Ambrose erle of warwycke his brother and thirdly to Robert Late earle of essex ech of wch great Noblemen and favorites of the tyme haue atempted suytes against diu'se m'chants of Wales who haue appered and vpon their apparance haue dischardged them selues and ben freed from paymt thereof w[hi]ch doubtlesse if lawe wold haue ben on their side had not lost yt, so that hetherto the poore contrey eu'r seethens yt hath ben callid Wales hath ben freed from this paymt though many poore men much trublyd therefore.
The cheefest reson that hath—gid . . . . . . f Wales, as hath ben said for the same to saue [struck out]—the paymt thereof, is the paymt of mises in Wales w[hi]ch England payeth not w[hi]ch is a great some of money certes and not alte . . . . e payablie at the charge of the king or prince at his first cominge and the order at ye cessing of the same hath ben vsed, that when the comission cometh fourth of the exchequer the comissioners sweare a Jury w[i]thin certen Lymyttes who make their presentments in writinge there of to the comission's in nature of a grante. but yett the some is anciently knowen what some each Lordshippe payeth, w[hi]ch bills of presentmt I haue seene after the death of Henry the viij and king Edward and many are (fn. 11) yett extant w[hi]ch bills and grante of mises ar made condicionall that they maye haue their Ancient customs allowyd, emonge w[hi]ch they take this custom of non payeinge Impost and to be free from xvens to be the cheefest.
Impost as mr Canon saieth was first raised by waye of Imposicion in Queene Marryes tyme quere de hoc if yt be so very like seeinge yt hath not ben eu'r seethens paid in Wales that then presently yt was deffendid and yt might be well w[i]thstoode that in respect of the mises w[hi]ch eu'y sheire in Wales paieth to the kinge in respect to all their Ancient customes allowid them that this at that tyme was also for borne in lue thereof as yt comonly is now reported of all men for the customes w[hi]ch theie demaund are not Agendo but in exemptione as appereth by so many as ys specifyed in the bills of graunting the mises as to haue halfe a yeres rent free, blank bookes and toles and all other customes so that they challendg by their customes to be freeed from payeing that other do paye and this custome may well hold in new Imposic'ons to clayme not to paye any new Imposic'ons but w[hi]ch of Anciente tyme they haue vsed. and yt most be to be freeed from dueties to the king for yt the mises is paied to the king.
Mr Water Philpine was also bond to Answere this matter in Michaellmas [Sessions de anno Jacobi] Reg's iij° at w[hi]ch tyme he had from me & vnder my [hand copies] of the bills of p'sentmt wherein ys men'conid yt they grante the myses condic'onally to haue their customes allowyd them and vpon shewing that he was dischardged by the Lord tresurer and kings solicitor from payeing any Impost.
Yt were goode to Laie Downe in the bills of p'sentmt wordes to Include this freedome from Impost as to saye condicionally to haue their Ancient customes allowid as to be rent free half ayeere blank bookes and also to be exempt and free from all new Imposic'ons as Impost of wynes and such other like never paied before.
Cardiff Free Library. Phillips MSS. 26464.
Castrū (fn. 12) et villa de Cardiffe capt Baronie. Castrū
de llanblethian et villa de Cowbridg. Castrum et Villa de Neath.
Roth manerium. Lekwith maneriū. St Georges maneriū. Michellston. Neewcastle. Lan maryes. Boverton. Llantwyd. Lanblithan. Cloine. Trewerne. Pentyrch. Radir. Whitchurch. Coston. Seynghenyth. Miskin. Tir yarlh. Neath maneriū. Avan Wallia. All severall manors & parcell and members of Glamorgan & Lp. of Cardiffe.
ffun y moon maneriu[m]. Penmark maneriū. Lancadel. Coom kedy. Barry. Castle towne. St Denotts. Lanfe. Merthyr mawr. Lanvaes. Syllye. Orcharde. Landoche. Cantleston. Llanedern. Laleston. Pile. Horgro. Aberkynfigg. Neewcastle. Coytie. Coytychurch. Coort Colman. Lanharye. Cowleston. St Maries. Landoghe. Eglosbrewys. Talagarn. Caerwigen. Lystalybont. St Brides. St Hillarye. Lantrithid. Mercrosse. Pitcot. fflemmynston. Osmund ashe. Llanvihangell. Tithegston. Legh castle. Moulton. Lidmester. Brigan. St Nicholas. Bowleston. Landow. lantrithyd. Lyswrney. Sunt seperalia Maneria tent' de Castro de Cardiff vt caput Glamorgan. (fn. 13)
Civil War Memoranda. 1644–8.
THE first Governor of Cardiff for the King, during the war between Charles I. and his Parliament, was Sir Anthony Maunsell (or Mansell) of Margham. He was killed in the battle of Newbury. To him succeeded:
William Mayow of Saint Fagan's, who was succeeded by:
Sir Nicholas Kemys, bart., afterwards slain at Chepstow Castle.
When General Gerrard was appointed Governor of South Wales for the King, in the spring of 1644, Kemys laid down his command of Cardiff, and Gerrard appointed Sir Thomas Tyrrell Governor of that town.
After the fatal battle of Naseby the King withdrew into South Wales, and was at Cardiff in the month of July 1645. Of his proceedings there and in the neighbourhood I can give you the following diary:—
Thursday July 16th 1645. The King came from Ragland, (fn. 14) accompanied by 2 Troops of Horse and by the Duke of Richmond, the Earls of Lindsey, Lichfield and Carnwath, Lords Digby and Bellasis. On their way they dined at Tredegar, Sir William Morgan's, (fn. 15) and arrived that night at Cardiff to Supper.
On Thursday July 29th the King came again to Cardiff from Ruperra, Sir Philip Morgan's. On the same day he went to the rendezvous of the Countrymen and Inhabitants of Glamorganshire, at Kevenon. In Sir Edward Walker's Historical Discourses, and in Clarendon's History of the Rebellion, may be seen the particulars and result of the Conferences that then took place. The King remained at Cardiff seven days.
It was probably owing to something connected with the unpopularity of Gerrard and his adherents, and because, moreover, the men of Glamorganshire stipulated to have a gentleman of that county to fill the post of Governor of Cardiff, that Charles at his departure displaced Tyrell and appointed in his room Sir Richard Bassett, knight, of the Beaupre. The following is a copy of his Commission:—
"Charles &c. To Our trusty &c. Greeting. Whereas
"Wee have thought fitt, for the better defence and security
"of Our Towne of Cardiff in ye County of Glamorgan, to
"place and continue therein a Garrison with such Forces
"as may at all times be able to defend the same and the
"Country adjacent from the Trayterous attempts & pro
"ceedings of any forces now or hereafter in actuall
"Rebellion against Us, or bearing Armes without Our
"Authority, as likewise agt the Invasion of the Scotts,
"who are near the County with a powerful Army; Wee,
"therefore, trusting in your fidelity, diligence & great
"experience in Military Affaires, Doe by these prsents
"name, ordeyne, constitute & appoynt you to bee Governor
"and Com[m]ander in Chiefe of all such Forces as already are
"or hereafter shall be brought into the said Towne for the
"defence thereof; Willing & Comanding all Officers &
"Souldiers of the same you to accept, receive and observev "as their Governor & Comander in Chiefe, & to obey such
"Orders and directions as you shall from tyme to tyme
"give them for Our service; As also the Mayor and Inhabi"tants of the said Towne, ye Sheriffe of Our said County,
"all Bayliffes, Constables & other Our Officers, Ministers
"& loveing subiects, to bee obedient, helping & assisting to
"you in anything that may concerne Our service & the
"good & security of that Towne & Garrison therein. And
"in case any siedge, assault or attempt shall be made
"against the said Town or Garrison therein, We do hereby
"require and authorise you w[i]th all the power you can make
"to resist & oppose such attempt, and to kill and slay all
"such as shall rebelliously & Trayterously disturb the
"Peace & security of that Our Towne & Garrison therein;
"& you to defend, keep & prserve the same for Our use.
"And further you are from tyme to tyme to obey such
"orders & directions as you may or shall receive from Our
"Selfe Our &c. Pr: Cha: Our &c. P: Rupert and the Ld
"Asteley, Lt G. Com[m]ander in Chiefe, And in all things to
"governe your selfe as unto your duty & place of Governor
"of ye said Towne & Garrison therein doth of right
"apperteyne & belong. Given at Cardiffe 6 August 1645.
"Sr Rich: Bassett for Cardiffe Town & Castle." (fn. 16)
It appears from the date of this Commission that it was not issued till the day after the King's departure, which undoubtedly took place on the 5th of August. He never made his appearance at Cardiff again. (fn. 17)
Sir Richard Bassett continued in his post of Governor little more than a month, and was then dispossessed by the Parliament, and Richard Pritchard, esq. (or perhaps Edward Pritchard, esq., of Lancayo) came in his stead. The latter probably continued in this office till the war was ended. Many particulars of what occurred at Cardiff and in the neighbourhood, till after the battle of Saint Fagan's, are given in the following extracts from the Parliamentary paper, The Weekly Diurnall:—
Thursday, Septr 25. We had this day more singular good newes from Wales. It was, that the Glamorganshire men, who had declared themselves unanimously for the Parliament, have taken the Castle of Cardiffe, a place of singular concernment as any in Wales. The Governor, Sir Richard Bassett, marched thence with 200 men, and left in the Castle 16 piece of ordnance, betweene three and four hundred Armes, ten Barrells of powder and other ammunition, and provisions.
Monday, November 17. Letters were read in the house of the prosperous proceedings of our forces in Wales, that the Glamorganshire forces joyning with a party of Major Generall Laughorne's, to assist the well affected in Brecknockshire, have in severall bickerings defeated 2000 of the Enemyes, and keep Gen. Stradling from any recruits. That the Governour of Cardiffe hath likewise defeated another party raised by Master John Herbert, the great Array man, and that in most parts of Wales the Welch generally fall off from the King and declare themselves for the Parliament. As also that Ragland Castle, now blocked up, ('tis hoped) will be reduced shortly.
An Order was made that Bushy Mansfield (fn. 18) Esqre should have the command of the forces in Glamorganshire, and the Committee of both Kingdoms were to grant him a Commission accordingly.
Tuesday, February 17, 1645–6. We heard of a revolt of some part of South Wales, in Glamorganshire, occasioned by the perfidiousnesse of Colonel Kerne, appointed by the Parliament High Sheriffe of that County, and that they had taken Swansey and laid siege to Cardiffe; but Major Generall Skipton hath sent some provisions to Cardiffe, whereby we doubt not they will be able to hould out; and there are 500 horse from Gloucester, another party from Bristoll, besides 1500 horse & foot from Major Generall Laughorne, gone to their reliefe.
Monday, Feby. 23rd From Oxford thus:—The King, Duke of York, Rupert and Maurice are yet there, but preparing to remove. All their horse and foot are drawn out to Woodstocke, where they keepe their head Quarters, intending ('tis said) for Worcester, or rather for Wales, to joyne with the revolting party at Cardiffe.
Tuesday, Feby. 24. This day out of Wales wee had Intelligence of a notable defeate given to the Enemys forces, and Kerne the perfidious high Sheriffe of Glamorganshire, that had taken Cardiffe town and besieged our Forces in the Castle. The particulars are fully related by this ensuing Letter from an eminent Commander in Bristoll &c:—
I now came from the Governor, Major Generall Skippon. Whilst I was with him, in came a man (with six Gentlemen of Glamorganshire that fled hither) with a letter, which intimates thus much, that Cardiffe is retaken, for it was taken by the Enemy and Clubmen (since my last), and many other strange passages are in the letter. The Governour, Colonell Pritchard, and Colonell Leyton, who have been some time of the plimouth regi ment, betooke themselves to the Castle, with their Forces, and kept that. The Vice Admiral on Munday last made a sight of the Castle and shot six pieces to let them know in that time they should have reliefe; which was performed by Major Generall Laughorne, Sir Trevor Williams (fn. 19) and Colonell Morgan. The Messenger saith that they had a very bloody fight, but assures the Governour that we routed Sir Charles Kemish of Ragland and all his, and that there are not 140 of them left upon ralley, nor those likely to get to Ragland, for Colonell Morgan is fallen betweene them and home. We expect the particulars every houre, but the waters are very high here and at Oast (fn. 20) (the passage). Since this Messenger, whilst I was with the Governour, in came Captain Bowen, one of the Captaines of the Governours regiment, belonging to the new modell taken three weeks since (and a Lieutenant) by Ragland. They demand Captain Kettleby for the one and Mr. Herbert for the other. There is one Morgan, a Jesuit, prisoner also, who was sent from Cardiffe before the revolt. I hope that the Welsh that have acted in it will pay for their treachery. Sir, I am,
Friday, Feby. 27. There came this day letters to the Committee of both Kingdoms and to the House of Commons, from Major Generall Laughorne, in confirmation of the great defeat given to the revolting enemy at Cardiffe in Wales, the particulars of which you have already but not so fully. There were 200 killed and 800 taken prisoners, great stores of Armes and all their Bag and Baggage, and that which makes the successe more eminent is, that the enemies designe of recruiting in Wales, will be hereby frustrate; and the Kings horse from Oxford that were intended to joyn with that party are now nonplust, and the like we hope of frustrating the designe of the Irish Landing; and after the reading of the said Letter The House Ordered That Thursday the 12th of March instant having been appointed a day of thanksgiving throughout London and Westminster, for the victory of Torington, thankes should be likewise returned for this great Victory also.
Monday, March 2. The confirmation of the gallant successe of Major Generall Laughorne against the Enemy at Cardiffe you have had already and we will add only this: according to Major Generall Laughorne's letter there were killed of the Enemies about 250, 800 taken prisoners, whereof 2 Lieutenant Colonells, 2 Majors, 10 Captaines, 10 Lieutenantes, divers Ensignes and other inferior Officers.
When the Parliament were reducing their Garrisons and dismantling a great number of fortified places, 100 Foot were ordered to be continued at Cardiff, and the Governor of the Town and Castle to be continued. (Perfect Diurnall, March 1–25.)
Wednesday, May 10. From South Wales thus:—"The Welch marched towards Cardiffe; but Col. Horton possessed himself of Landaff, Eilie (fn. 21) and St Fagans, all within three miles of Cardiff, and kept all the bridges and passes; five Troupes were sent from the English to Scoute, who gave alarme in the Welsh Army and beate up some of the Quarters. An engagement is hourly expected. The next day, both Armies faced each other within a Mile, the Welch neere Cotterell, Miles Button's house on the hill, the guards within a quarter of a Mile of each other."
Thursday, May 11. This day came the Welcome newes from Col Horton of routing the Welsh forces with Major General Laugharne and Col Powell neare Cardiffe. The particulars were certified to the house of Commons by Major Bethell, and also in a Letter from Col. Horton. The relation is briefly thus:—
Monday last, May 8, at nine o'clock, the Welsh were discovered marching to an hill within halfe a mile from St Fagans. Col Horton discovered them and drew to another hill within half a mile of them. Col. Butler drew out 500 horse to fall upon the English reare. Lieut. Godfrey, lieut. to Major Bethell, and Captain Mercer, with a party of horse, disputed at a passe with them and worsted them. Horse and foot relieved the Welsh forlorne, and horse the English. The Welsh were routed before the foote got up; then parties fought, and after the whole bodies. The Welsh, commanded by Major Generall Laughorne, were totally routed; said to be neere 8,000 and above halfe armed, the rest Club men. The English were betweene two and 3,000 horse and foot.
Major Generall Laughorne wounded, who with Col. Powell is fled. Taken prisoners: Major Gen. John Stradling, also Laughorne's Quarter-Master General, Commissary Generall, Col. Harris, Capt Button, Capt Matthewes, and twenty six Captaines more, 150 Officers and 3000 Soldiers, many Colours and armes, and are still pursuing, and not ten in a company known to be any where, but such as fled to Garrisons.
After many tedious, hungry and wet marches over the steep and craggy mountaines, it pleased God that we were engaged with the Enemy (who accounted them selves eight thousand horse and Foot) upon Monday morning, the eighth of this instant, between St Fagan's and Peterstown; where, after a sharpe dispute for neare two hours, it pleased the Lord mightily to appeare for us in giving the enemy a totall rout, the perticulars thereof I shall within short time at large present you with. There are many slaine of the Enemy upon the place, and in the pursuit for seven miles. We cannot yet heare of one of our Officers slaine, and but few of the Soldiers, but we lost many horses. I guess the prisoners that are taken to be three thousand. We have taken all their Foot, Armes and ammunition, which is good store. Major Gen. Stradling is taken, with many Officers and Gentle men, and many colours. It pleased God wonderfully to strengthen and raise up the Spirits of our Officers and Soldiers. Our word was 'God is our strength,' and truly we found him so to be; and desire the sole glory may be given to him, and ourselves looked upon as weak instruments in his hands, and amongst whom as I am, so I desire to be accounted, who am, Sir, Your most humble and faithfull servant, Tho. Horton. In the field. May 8, 1648. I have sent Major Bethel and Captaine Mercer to give the Honourable Houses a more full account of this daye's mercy."
To Major Bethel 150£., Captain Mercer 100£., for bringing this good news. Wednesday to be a Day of Thanksgiving for this great Victory for London, Westminster and the Liberties thereof. Wednesday three weeks for the whole Kingdom. The Lands formerly given to Major Gen. Laughorn, and 100£. per ann. of such delinquents as were in this fight, to be sold and the proceeds given to Col. Horton, his Officers and Soldiers, for this great service.
Friday, May 12. Commission of Oyer and Terminer to be issued for the Trial of the Rioters in Wales. Mr Elbonhead and Mr Parker to be sent down to manage the business against them. His Excellency the Lord Generall to send for the Officers and Chief prisoners, and try them by a Council of War according to the articles of War, that so Justice may be executed upon them for prevention of the like in future.
"The Lieutenant Generall with his owne and Colonel Thornlaughs' regiments of horse, Colonel Pride's and Colonel Dean's of foot, are marching for Pembrokeshire and will to-morrow night have his head quarters at Cardiff." (This was when Oliver Cromwell was marching against Poyer.)
Wednesday, May 24. From South Wales, May 22, came an Expresse, that the Officers taken in the last defeat there are put aboard Vice Admiral Crowther, to be tried at the head Quarters: Major Gen. Stradling, Major Phillips, Cap. Tho. Matthews, Cap. Wil. Button, Mr Miles Matthews, Lieut. Col. Hopkin Potkins, (fn. 22) Lieut. Col. Tho. Morgan, Col. Arthur Harris, Cap. Edward Walker, Cap. Richard Craddock, Lieut. Col. Thomas. At a Councell of War foure were condemned, and after shot to Death; one hanged, seven condemned not yet executed.
Cardiff Free Library. Phillips MSS. 21183.
The first page and a quarter is taken up with an abridgment of the Catholic report of the executions, as afterwards printed in Bishop Challoner's "Memoirs of Missionary Priests." Then comes the following:—
OBSERVE, how Industrious this restless Traiterous Party is, to keep up their Damnable Cause; Not one of their Villanous Priests shall pass the Gallows, but he shall have a Speech Forged for him, fill'd with the best and most Taking words that can be Invented, and this Printed to proclaim him a Saint as well as a Martyr: Though in truth he liv'd a Cheat and a Ruffian, and died a Traitor and an Atheist. The Priest has done them Knight Service, what Swarms of Pamphlets do they daily throw abroad, and who almost Endeavours either to Suppress or Answer them, when their Compendium of the Tryals came abroad abusing the Kings Evidence in the Grossest manner imaginable, and Endeavouring to Poison the People with a Disbelief of the Plot. (fn. 23) Thereby most insolently giving the Lie to his Sacred Majesty and the Wisdom of our Parliaments, and Vilifying not only our Courts of Judicature, but also two Reverend Fathers of our Church, (fn. 24) where was then that Doughty Man of the Dead-doing Quill with his Terrible Canon, He that boasts That where-ever his Genius tell him that his Pen may be any way useful to the Publick, he can no longer forbear; Was not here a fair Opportunity to Exercise his Talents, to Chastize this Uncircumcized Philistian, sure here if ever his Pen might have been useful to Publick, yet for all this, though in part Provoked by a Reflection in the Preface to the said Compendium, yet still, he stirred not a Finger, who since has been Wretchedly Busy in Scribbling Dialogues and Back-stroke Complements against Presbyterians, and Dr. Oats; But alas! The Gentleman was then perhaps at his Old Profession of the Merry Crowd, or the Studying the Mystery of Monkey-making, which he has since so Laudably Practised.
2. Note, That the subtle Contriver would fain Insinuate Tortures or Harsh Usage, by that Foolish Lie That "the Smith was above an hour in taking off Evans's Irons;" As if it were unusual to keep Traitors for their safe Custody in Fetters, but tell us pray how you use poor Protestants, when they [sic] have caught them in their Barbarous Inquisition?
4. The dying Father begins his Harangue with a Lie; That "their Sentence of Condemnation shews that they died for no other Crime, but for being Priests;" (fn. 25) for they were Condemned for being Traytors; and that most justly, for being the Kings natural born Subjects, they had gone beyond the Seas in defiance to his Laws, and there sworn Allegiance to a Foreign Enemy; and again, in Contempt of Law, were returned, and did dayly justifie, and by Preaching and Practise maintain the Authority and Jurisdiction of such Foreign Usurpers within his Majesties Dominions, which is in effect an Invading of his Kingdoms and Sovereignty, and Deposing and Overthrowing of his Crown and Dignity. And who can doubt whether doing all this be Treason? yet still these Villains make an Outcry that they die for their Religion.
5. The truth is, we may justly say, that not only Popish Priests, but every Papist in England (that is the King's Natural-born Subject) is a Traytor; for owning himself to be of the Church of Rome, he must hold that the Pope has right to some spiritual Jurisdiction within our Kings Dominions; which to affirm, is to take away part of his Imperial Crown; and as 'tis against all Truth, so by the Laws of this Realm it is Treason. Yet this is the party which boasts so much of their Loyalty, when in truth, they are every one of them in their Principles Dogmatical Traytors; nor will they ever fail to put the same into Act and Practice longer than only whilst they want strength and opportunity.
6. He hopes "No body will doubt of what he says." But the Scripture tells us, The Hope of the Hypocrite shall perish. We are too well acquainted with their dying Lies, to believe them. We remember Father Ireland, who took it upon his Death, that he was never in London between the 5th. of August, and the 14th. of Septemb. which is proved a notorious Lie, not only by Mr Jennison and others, but also under his own hand, in his Pocket-Book since found.
7. He says, "He does not know that ever he had any Enemies in his Life." Sure this Father was the Phenix of the Age! Not so much as one Enemy Man, and yet a Captain! Surely, surely, he had learned to be an Enemy, if not to have one; for undoubtedly his threatning treacherously to Pistol Mr Arnold, (fn. 26) was no sign of Friendship.
8. Whereas he says, "The Gallows is the best Pulpit that can be had to Preach in:" I readily agree with him, that it is for such Divines as himself. For what his Divinity was, appears by the next words; He is for "purchasing Everlasting Life with an Halter," his own small pain he reckons a sufficient price for it, and so never speaks a word of the merits or satisfaction of Jesus Christ.
9. When he desires the people to "pray for him," he is very Civil in promising to return the Complement and pray for them again, when he should have blundered through Purgatory: This looks like an ambitious Rogues trick, to bespeak beforehand the veneration and prayers of his silly tribe: that they may put him in mind of his promise, and to the end he (forsooth) may pray again for them.
10. We do not hear one word of an Ave Maria here; What, had these Fellows forgot their good Lady, that used to engrose almost all their Lip-Devotions? what should the meaning [sic] that neither her help nor any other Saints is invok'd? He tell you, we may justly believe this pretty small Speech was hatch'd here by some idle Father in Town, and publish'd only to amuse the world; and because they thought it would go down better with Protestants, and move them more to compassion and better esteem for Popery if they found no such vain Addresses in it; therefore they were left out: for these subtil Sophisters contrive every thing for the best advantage of their Cause.
Which yet notwithstanding all their Craft and Diligence, their private Stratagems, and base Treacheries, and barbarous Cruelties, God most assuredly will blast and confound all those that are Actors in, or Connivers at, and Abettors of the traiterous Hellish Design of re-establishing Popery in these Nations: And therefore let not Protestants despond, but unanimously and cheerfully in their several stations, by all lawful ways oppose their Machinations; nor let any Magistrate be afraid to do his Duty by putting the Laws vigorously in execution against these pernicious Vermin; dread not their treacherous Daggers, nor their suborn'd Witnesses, nor their potent Friends; for without the special permission of your God, they shall never be able to touch one hair of your Head; or suppose they should be allowed to effect some Bvtchery, can any man do more nobly than pro Aris & Foris, [sic] for his Religion and his Countrey, and whenever these inhumane Ruffians thus draw their Daggers, do they not always stab their own Cause in a vital part Those Magistrates that in this critical Juncture shall gallantly appear to destroy this Hydra of Popery, and to secure the Protestant Religion and the Government from subversion, shall be blessed by Heaven, and applauded on Earth to succeeding generations; but those that shall by Villany or Cowardice go about to betray the Life of their King, and our Religion and Properties into the hands of Bloody Papists, divine Vengeance shall overtake them, and their Names shall be cloathed with everlasting Infamy, and the Curse of Slavery shall descend upon their Posterity.
Whereas his highness the Prince of Orange by his letter to us directed (by the advice of the lords spirituall and temporall and the knights Cittizens and Burgesses heretofore Members of the Commons house of Parliament during the Reigne of King Charles the second residing in and about London together with the Aldermen and divers of the Common Counsell of the sd Citty) for the election and Chooseing a Member of Parliament for this Town and the out Burroughes in this County to meet to sitt att Westminster the two and twentieth day of this instant January We therefore the Mayor and Bayliffes of Cardiffe aforesd willing and intending to proceed in such elecc'on according to the ancient Lawes and Customes for electing of Burgess of Parliament for the Townes and Burroughes of this County and in pursuance of the Statute made in the five and thirtith yeare of the reigne of our late soureigne lord king Henry the eighth and the eleventh Chapter signifie unto you and eury of you that we intend to proceed in and to the election of such Burgess on tuesday the fifteenth day of this instant January att the Guildhall of this Town of Cardiffe by nine of the Clocke in the morning of the same day, Hereby requiring you as we are by the sd letter directed three dayes att least before the time of the said election to publish the same in your said Burrough and admonishing you and eury of you to come and appeare att the time and place aforesaid then and there to give yr elections for the electing of such Burgess, Given under our hands and Common seale of the sd Town the seventh day of January, In the yeare of our Lord 1688/9.
|Burguss de||To the Worship full Mayor and Bayliffes of the Town and Burrough of Cardiffe.|
In most submissive and humble obedience to his highness the Prince of Orange letter and in pursuance of yr Mandate We the Portref, Aldermen and Burgesses of the sd Burrough of Neath mett att the Guildhall of the sd Burrough on the eleventh day of this instant January, When and where by our mutuall assent and consent we did for our parte willingly elect and made Choice of Thomas Mansell of Margam esqr to be Burgess and a Member of the ensuinge Parliament to be held att Westminster on the two and twentith of this instant. In Wittness whereof we have hereunto subscribed and sett our hands the eleventh day of January in the year of our lord god 1688.
Thomas Bassett port:
Rob: Morris alderm:
Leyson Hopkin alder:
Henry Howell alder:
Evan John d'd.
Whereas it has been Invidiously Represented in Order to Determine Persons to oppose my Interest in the Ensueing Election, That I am an Enemy to the Religious and Civil Rights of my Country-men. I Assure all Gentlemen that have Votes in this County and Particularly the Protestant Dissenters, That if I have the Honour to Represent this County I shall always have a Tender Regard to those Just Privilidges they at Present Enjoy, with Relation to their Enjoyment of the Worship of God According to the Dictates of their Own Consciences; Privilidges which Reason and the Christian Religion ascertain to them and which I think no Good Man will be against; As to our Civil Rights as Brittons, The Civil Liberties of Our Country ought to be Sacred to us and in this View a Popish Pretender and an Established Protestant Church is a Contradiction that Can never be Reconciled Therefore I Hope Gentlemen after this Plain Declaration I shall have the favour of your Votes and Interest and I Hope you will Not be Imposed upon by any Specious Pretences to Oppose one who is
ADD. MSS. 5828. f. 48b.
A MISTAKE is made by Willis in calling the effigy under the gable a king, and that over the west door Saint Dubricius. They are really Our Lord and Saint Teilo, respectively. (fn. 27)
Add. MSS. 5829. f. 13b.
The Seal of the Chapter of Llandaff, to a deed of Margam Abbey in 1234, is: A church with four [later two] towers, and a cross upon each tower; legend: "Sigillum Capituli Landavensis." Reverse: The Holy Lamb: "Secretum Landavensis Ecclesie."
In Dei nomine Amen. Ego Edmundus permissione divina Landavensis Episcopus languens in extremis condo Testamentum meum quatenus de iure permittitur in hunc modum. Imprimis lego animam meam Deo eiusque gloriose Virgini [Matri] Marie et omnibus sanctis corpusque meum sepeliendum in ecclesia cathedrali Landavensi . . . .Item lego residuum bonorum meorum non legatorum executoribus meis ad distribuendum pro anima mea prout eis melius videbitur expedire. . . . ."
Will of Bishop Bromfield:— In the name of God amen. I Edmund, by the divine permission Bishop of Llandaff, being at the point of death, do make my Will so far as by the law is permitted, in this manner. Firstly I bequeath my soul unto God and to His glorious mother the Virgin Mary and to all the saints, and my body to be buried in the cathedral church of Llandaff—Also I bequeath the rest of my goods not bequeathed unto my executors, to be distributed for my soul, as to them shall be seen most expedient. . . . . . "
Ego Joh'es Marshall &c Ep'us Landavensis &c Imprimis lego anima' mea' Deo B. Marie Virg' SS. Apostolis Petro & Paulo Sanctis Thelau Dubritio & Odocheo corpusque meum sepeliendu' in p'te boriali infra gradus summi altaris chori p'd'c'e eccl'ie Item lego xxli fabrice campanilis sive eccl'ie Landav. Meum Pontificalem ac annulum Pastoralem . . . . . "
I John Marshall &c, Bishop of Llandaff &c. Firstly I bequeath my soul unto God, the Blessed Virgin Mary, the holy Apostles Peter and Paul, and Saints Teilo, Dyfrig, and Docheu (fn. 28), and my body to be buried on the north side within the steps of the high altar of the choir of the aforesaid church. (fn. 29) Also I bequeath 20l to the fabric of the belfry or church of Llandaff. My pontifical (ring) and pastoral ring. (fn. 30)
Bishop Athegua having resigned his see, Robert Holgate was installed 1537. In 1553 he was deprived, ob conjugium et heresia, and in 1556 was imprisoned in the Tower. Strype [seems to infer he was imprisoned on his deprivation, for he] says he was released 1554.
Holgate was a Cambridge man. Anthony Harmer said: "I fear Holgate, by his imprudent carriage and worse actions, has brought a scandal on the Reformation," and that one Norman claimed Holgate's wife to be his. Holgate held a Canonry of York, temp. H. 8., and was afterwards Archbishop of that See; Harmer says he alienated near twenty manors belonging to it.
There was a tradition at Llandaff, that when Bishop Kitchin died, his servants concealed the fact, and forged grants to one another of the cathedral lands that were left. A case in point was the grant of Dyffryn to Martin Button, the Bishop's Secretary. Kitchin alienated Llandaff Place in the Strand.
"Within this City of Llandaff, not far from the old ruined Palace, stands the House (fn. 31) of David Matthew Esqe, now called the Court, but formerly Bryn y gynen (Hill of Strife or Contention) said to be built by David Matthew Iefan ap Griffith Iestin. N.B.: I, B.W., (fn. 32) conceive this to be the said David Matthew who lived Temp. Edw. 4 & founded the Chantry here."
"The Ruin of this Bishoprick is to be attributed to Bp Blethin, as well as to BP Kitchin. Who, to provide for his Children, sold & alienated the Lands to that Degree, that he is reported to have done it as much, if not more Injury, than Bp Kitchin aforesaid."
Bishop Beaw had been a soldier. He "was made Bishop by the Endeavours of the infamous Earl of Rochester. . . . . . . He came rarely into his Diocese; the Church let go to Ruin in his Time, & Choir Service put down."
Polydore Virgil, Canon of Hereford, is said not only to have made havoc among the MSS. of that cathedral, but also to have destroyed the most ancient records in the Treasury of Llandaff, in the reign of Henry VIII.
There is no precedence among the Prebendaries, save seniority.
The Prebendary of Llangwm has a house in St Mary Street, Llandaff. The Prebendary of St. Cross has also still a house at Llandaff. All the other Prebend houses there are lost.
Henry Hickman was Precentor of Llandaff, 1534–5.
The Prebendary of St. Andrew has a farm called Cannes Farm
in Llandaff parish.
Humphrey de Bohun, Earl of Hereford, grandfather of the then present Earl, granted to God and Saint Teilo and to the Bishop and Chapter of Llandaf the vill of Dewstow in Netherwent, in free alms; provided that out of the issues thereof two chaplains should be maintained to celebrate divine service for ever in the church at Llandaf, for the repose of the souls of the Earl's ancestors and for the good estate of Master Henry de Lankarvan and others; any residue to be bestowed upon the poor once a year in Llandaf cathedral.
Arch. Cantuar. 1295. ad Papam. (fn. 33)
"Sanctissimo Patri in Christo Domino Bonifacio Summo Pontifici. Sanctissimus pater beatus Celestinus Papa vltimus eminentie vestre predecessor . . . . mihi . . . . mandavit ut dicte Ecclesie Landavensi ea vice providerim. Quare . . . . providi de magistro Johanne de Monumeta presbytero. . . . Magistro in Artibus et in Theologia Doctor . . . . et literarum scientia eminente, qui una cum lingua anglicana in qua natus extiterat, etiam linguam wallicam in qua morabatur diutius satis novit . . . ."
To the most Holy Father in Christ, the lord Boniface, Supreme Pontiff. The most holy father, blessed Celestine, the late Pope, your Eminence's predecessor, commanded me to provide for this time to the said church at Llandaff. Wherefore I have provided Master John of Monmouth, priest, Master of Arts and Doctor of Theology, and eminent in the science of letters, who, together with the English tongue in which he was born, has a sufficient knowledge of Welsh, in the midst of which he lived for a considerable time.
"There is within the said Parish of Landaff one Service called David Matthews Service, whereunto belongeth certain lands & tenements given to the'ntent to have a priest to celebrate Masse in the church there, & to teach xx children; to be removeable at the will & pleasure of the heirs of the said David Matthew." The value thereof £5. 15. 10. (fn. 34) (The last stipendiary priest of this chantry seems to have been John Syngar.)
1534. Pensio solut' pro a'i'a Joh'is Marshall episcopi vjli. (fn. 35)
1760. Thomas Davies writes to Willis from Llandaff:—"Last Fryday as our Sexton was tolling the first Time for Evening Prayer, our great Bell cracked; soe that now we have no whole Bell (but a little one); the Loss hereof is much lamented by the Neighbourhood, because it was a Bell of a fine Note, & was heard at a great Distance. I can't tell what our Neighbour Commodore Matthews may doe in Time; but at present he does not favour our Endeavours for repairing this Church, where soe many of his Ancestors lye buried. Both Gentlemen and Clergy of the Diocese are very cold in the Matter, because the small Prebends in this Church are all or most of them given to Strangers and Foreigners, who have noe true Affection for the Place. And in the Hands of such this Church, & its Revenues have been for soe many years, that 'twas become a Heap of Ruins by their Neglect, in takeing away all the Revenues, & leaveing little for the Ffabrick: & we see too much of that ravenous & greedy Temper amongst some of the present Members; tho' the Children & Family of some of their Predecessors, now very poor, are standing Monuments of what little Service the Misap plication of the Church Revenues were to them; for 'tis a general Observation in this Neighbourhood, that the Posterity of most of the Prebendaries of this Church are in low or unhappy Circumstances &c, which is looked on as a Judgment for their Sacriledge. And I doubt not Things will always continue in this State here, till we have either a Royal or Metropolitical Visitation, to sett Things to Rights &c.; for the Clergy in these Days, especially those of this Place, seem to me to pursue the Things of this World with more Eagerness, & a greater Intenseness than the Laity, & will give up Nothing that they can keep, tho' they know & are satisfied, that it belongs & was appropriated to other Uses than what 'tis now applyed to. . . . .I have layd out for a Cardiffe Trader's Farthing, but can't as yet meet with any. If I find one it shall be sent you."
"Being at Mr Horace Walpole's at Strawberry Hill in the Parish of Twickenham in Middlesex, on a Visit, he shewed me a curious old gold Ring, July 8, 1769, enameled with Leaves on it, & had a large & dull Amethyst, which had lost its Colour in a great Measure, in the Shape of an Heart. He told me that it was given to him by the Hon: and rev: Dr Frederic Keppel, Bp of Exeter, to whom it had been presented by Dr John Ewer, then Bp of Landaff, who told him at the same Time, that it had been formerly the Ring of the 2d Bp of Landaff. But as St Teleiau was the 2d Bp in 512, it is hardly probable that this Ring should have belonged to him. Indeed Gold & precious Stones will last for Ever; but Enamel & Fashion have Dates, & would rather refer it to a more middle Era. I was not informed from whence Bp Ewer fixed his Authority for so early a Date. If it was found in a Tomb of the Church, I much question whether any so ancient is to be met with." (fn. 36)
[A pen-and-ink drawing of the ring is appended to the original MS., and shews an egg-shaped or heart-shaped convex stone held in a narrow setting by claw-shaped fastenings. The ring itself is slender, and the ends next to the setting widen out into an ornament resembling two leaves, end to end, on each side, terminating on each side with a cap, which is joined to the back of the setting, at its outer edge.]
Fonmon Muniments. 
First. To meet every Tuesday at four of the clock in the evening at the house of the Person chose by Lot to treat for that day, and to wait upon that person to the place appointed in the Country for our reception, there to drink Tea and Coffee, when that is over to choose a President for the next day by Lot, and when chose to name the place where she intends entertaining the company at next.
4th All money arising from either of the above accounts to be left in the hands of the Treasurer 'till each Subscriber has treated, then to be disposed of with the consent & approbation of the Subscribers or the majority of them in whatever charity shall be thought most deserving.
6th We do nominate & appoint Mrs Woods Treasurer to this Society, she to enter in this book a regular account of what forfeits & Entrance money she receives from any of the underwritten members, and to be accountable for the same to them when called upon.
1. A. Wood, June 3 at Gludy.
6. John Bullock, at Miss Williams.
1. A. Lloyd, at Miss Lloyds.
1. M. Wynter, at Frontwillim.
H. Williams, at Mr Onslow.
1. M. Tanner, at her sisters.
1. C. Davies.
M. Williams, at her sisters.
1. A. Williams, in her own house.
1. M. Wilkins, at her Fathers.
2. M. Ball.
2. Thos Williams, at his own house.
3. M. Scourfield.
Jno. Phillips, at his house.
1. J. Jeffreys, at the Pryory.
1. Mrs Bullock.
Bristol. 1828. J. & M. Pride's Sloop, the Amity, a constant trader, David Rogers, master, Clears out on Saturday. Takes in goods for Cardiff, Merthyr-Tidvil, Lantrissant, Cowbridge, and all Places adjacent. For freight or passage apply to the Master on board, or to T. Phillips, St John's Porter-House, Quay-Head. [Engraving of a ship.]