Cardiff Records: Volume 5. Originally published by Cardiff Records Committee, Cardiff, 1905.
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NAILOR'S SHOP. An ancient messuage in Smith Street (1817-1843.) It formed part of the block known as the Middle Row to Crockherbtown, and seems to have been originally one of the smiths' shops which gave its name to Smith Street.
NANT-GWAEDLYD (bloody brook.) A stream which rises in the Cefn range of hills, flows in a south-easterly direction through Whitchurch and is, apparently, lost in the Glamorganshire Canal at Mynachdy. It is said, with some probability, to derive its name from the great battle fought between the Welsh and the Anglo-Normans on Cardiff Heath c. 1090.
NANT-MAWR (great brook.) A stream which, rising in the Cefn range, flows to the south-east and, joining with the Wedal near Fairoak, flows past Roath church and discharges into the river Rhymny near the right bank of the latter's estuary.
NANT-YR-ARIAN (the brook of silver, or money.) A house on the south-western spur of the Garth, in the parish of Pentyrch. The property and country residence of Mr. J. L. Wheatley, Town Clerk of Cardiff.
NEWPORT ROAD. The principal eastern outlet from Cardiff, running through the parish of Roath, and across the river Rhymny to Newport, Monmouthshire. It is practically identical with the corresponding portion of the Via Julia (q.v.) (fn. 1)
NORTH STREET. The principal outlet northwards from the centre of the town. It runs between Cardiff Castle on the west and Cathays Park on the east, but becomes the North Road on leaving the canal, at the site of the North Gate. The term "Street" is but rarely applied to this thoroughfare, though it occurs in the old Rate Books (1825.) It is the direct road to Merthyr-Tydfil.
OLD BAKEHOUSE, The, or the Cross Bakehouse. In Saint Mary Street, near the Gaol and opposite the Workhouse (1833, 1871.) In terms of the present day this site is adjoining the entrance to the Market, and opposite the Town Hall.
ORCHARD STREET. Led from the South Gate north-westward to the North Gate, along the outer bank of the Town Ditch. Its site was taken by the Glamorganshire Canal Company in 1803, when the moat was converted into a canal. It is named in a Minister's Account of 1492.
OUR LADY'S SERVICE. This name is given to a garden near Saint John's church, in a Minister's Account of 1542. It was so called because its rent went to maintain a daily celebration of the Mass and Office of the Blessed Virgin Mary in the parish church.
PEDAIR-ERW-TWC (the tuck four-acres.) A tenement in the manor of Roath-Keynsham, named in the Survey of 1703. It consisted of a messuage and land between Roath and Llanishen, on the west side of the Nant-mawr, and belonged to Pengam. The house has been demolished.
PENARTH (the end of the Garth.) A bold headland forming the southern termination of the Leckwith hills and projecting into the Bristol Channel, three miles west of Cardiff. Also a village (now a populous seaside town,) manor and parish on the headland.
PENGAM (accentuated on the first syllable, with the ng sounded as in "singer.") An old farmstead on the Severn shore, in the parish of Roath, a mile and a half east from Cardiff. It is apparently identical with the ancient Griffithsmoor (1694.)
PENHILL. A freehold tenement consisting of a large messuage and lands in the manor of Llandaff and hamlet of Canton. The house stands just within the borough of Cardiff, on the corner of Llandaff Road and Pensisli Lane. The name "Penhyll" occurs in 1535.
"PENRETH." Some place which cannot now be identified, within the diocese of Llandaff, to which John Bird was appointed as suffragan to the Bishop of Llandaff in 1534, by the title "Bishop of Penreth." Perhaps Penarth, but more probably Penrhŷs in the Rhondda Valley.
PENSISLI, "Pencisley" (Cecily's hill.) A farm in the chapelry of Ely, on the northern boundary of Cardiff borough. In 1543 it belonged to Mathew of Llandaff, and was divided into Upper and Lower "Pencysle." In 1612 it was found to be "concealed land," i.e., to have been granted to the Church before the Reformation and illegally claimed as their freehold by its present holders. It was thereupon demised to Oliver Robotham.
PENTYRCH (? the headland of the boars.) A manor and parish seven miles north-west from Cardiff, on the southern side of the Garth. It is the nearest thoroughly Welsh-speaking parish to Cardiff. (fn. 2) This is equated by several place-names in England; such as Pentrich in Derbyshire, and Penkridge in Staffordshire.
PEN-Y-LAN (the end of the height.) A gentle eminence to the north-east of Cardiff, lying in the parish of Roath. It is the south-eastern spur of the Cefn-coed. The name is applied particularly to a house and land, near the summit, belonging to Mr. Fedele Primavesi. Also "Penylond," four acres in the lordship of Cogan (1492.)
PEN-YR-HEOL (the end of the lane.) Land in the parish of Llanedern and manor of Roath-Keynsham (1702, 1731.) The farmhouse lies north of the village of Rumney, on the west side of the road to Newport.
PEN-Y-WAUN (the end of the meadow.) A piece of land at the bottom of the lane (Pen-y-waun Road) which leads up the hill from Roath Park to the main entrance to the Cemetery. It is mentioned as a farm in Roath parish, by the Heath Enclosure Award of 1809. North of it stood Cyndda-bach, an old thatched cottage, which was blown down one stormy night in 1895.
PETTY CALLIS, Pety Callys, Petty Callice (Petit Calais, Little Calais.) An acre of land in the parish of Llandaff, belonging to the Chapter of Llandaff (1604.) From a document of 1624, it appears to lie immediately south of Llandaff mill-pond.
PHILOG, Ffilog. A brook and a hamlet in the chapelry of Whitchurch, near Gwaun-tre-Oda (1811.) The name is applied particularly to an old thatched house on the north side of the highroad to Whitchurch, where a lane branches off eastwards to the Heath.
PLAS-NEWYDD (the new mansion.) A large house, constructed in the 18th century and surrounded by elms. Some time after its erection it was termed Roath Lodge, but on its being subsequently castellated or crenellated the name was altered to Roath Castle—whence the name Castle Road. The building is now best known by its original name Plas-newydd. From the family of Mr. Edward Priest Richards this property passed by marriage to The Mackintosh of Mackintosh, its present owner, who has built many streets of small dwellinghouses on the land surrounding the mansion. Plas-newydd stands some distance south of Albany Road and east of Castle Road. (fn. 3)
PLAS-TURTON (Turton's mansion. (fn. 4) ) An ancient mansion, afterwards a farmhouse, which was the capital messuage of an inferior manor bearing that name, in the hamlet of Canton, on the right or west bank of the river Taff (1596.) The farmhouse stood on the west side of Cathedral Road, and was demolished 1895. Plasturton Avenue perpetuates the name. One or two of the documents of the 16th century call it "Place Tiverton." In 1587 it was described as the "manor or lordship of Glaspull alias Tiverton," and in the following century as "Placestourton otherwise Glasspoole."
PLWCA-HALOG (the foul or defiled pleck.) A field on the northern boundary of the borough of Cardiff and the Little Heath, where now Castle and Crwys Roads meet Richmond and Albany Roads—at the corner of the second and third. Here was the ancient place of execution. There was another field of the same name at Whitchurch in 1605.
PLWCA LANE, or Heol-y-plwca was the original name of Castle Road, changed to the latter in 1874. It means "the road to the pleck." This pleck was in a deed of 1811 described as "All that close of 7 acres called Plwca, parcel of the lands of Roath Court."
PONT-CANNA, Pont Cana (Saint Cana's (fn. 5) bridge.) The northern part of the hamlet of Canton (1702.) The bridge from which it takes its name was probably the little rude stone one which here crossed the Whitehouse Brook. Both bridge and brook disappeared in 1896, with the old Pontcanna Cottages hard by, when the northern portion of Cathedral Road was completed.
PONT-LLEICI, "Pont-lickey" (The bridge of Saint Lleici or Lucy.) A small stone bridge by which the Cefn-coed Road crossed the Nant-mawr, in the parish of Roath. The same name was given to a thatched cottage close by (1705.) The cottage has been demolished, the course of the brook altered, the road widened, and the bridge replaced by a level structure of iron (1895-1900.) The very name of the place is almost forgotten. Even the Ordnance Chart has it quite wrong, calling it "Pont-y-llechau" (the bridge of flat stones)—a name which it never at any time bore. Lleici was a female saint of the early Church in South Wales. "Pontlickey Bridge" occurs in documents of 1861, and "Pontlecky Bridge" in 1864.
PONT-Y-CELYN (the bridge of the holly-trees); also called the Celyn bridge. A brick structure by which the old footpath is carried east and west across the Nant-mawr, near the Celyn farm. (fn. 6)
PORTFIELD, The. A piece of meadow land "at the forks" in the lordship of Roath, occupied in 1492 by the Gatekeeper of Cardiff Castle. The accounting Minister at that date did not profess to know where this land lay, but appears to have supposed it and Wardrobe Leas to be identical with Portmanmoor.
PORTMANMOOR. A strip of marshy land along the Severn shore in the parish of Roath, just outside the town of Cardiff, between Adamsdown and the sea. It was the perquisite of the Portman, or Gatekeeper of the Castle, which office seems to have become hereditary in a family thence called by the surname Le Port, or Porter. The earliest whose name occurs, Adam le Port, may be identical with the Adam Kyngot mentioned in the municipal charter of 1331. According to an Inquisition of 1440, Portmanmoor was a part of Adamsdown. The name is preserved in Portmanmoor Road, a fine new thoroughfare leading from Roath to the shore.
PORTWAY, The. The mediaeval name for the Roman road which skirts the shore of South Wales and unites the ancient boroughs; particularly from Cardiff westward through Cowbridge, Kenfig and Aberavon, to Neath. In the vernacular this road was called Y Bwrtwe, by turning the English word into a feminine Welsh noun. It occurs as late as 1763.
POST HOUSE, The Old. Was in Smith Street, and had the said street on the north, Duke Street on the west, the lane called Running Camp on the south, and the house of the Rev. William Llewelyn on the east (1731, 1778, 1804.) In 1820 it still bore the above name; but in 1849 the north portion of it was the General Nott public-house. This was the westernmost house of the middle row in Smith Street.
PWLL-CANAU, "Pulthcanau" (Saint Cana's Pool.) A point on the river Taff referred to as an eastern limit of the liberties of Cardiff, in the municipal charter of 1340. It was, no doubt, somewhere near Pont-Canna, in the hamlet of Canton. (fn. 7)
PWLL-COCH (the red pool.) A pool in the river Ely, and a hamlet on the left bank. So called since the battle of Saint Fagan's, 1648, when the river ran red with the blood of the slain Welsh Royalists. Ty Pwll Coch is an inn on the Cowbridge Road at this point.
PWLL-MAWR (great pool.) A place on the Severn shore, at the estuary of the river Rhymny, in the parish of Rumney, where there was a drain, called "Pulmore gowt" in a Minister's Account of 1301. In a charter of 1218 it is referred to as "the Great Pill," and the endorsement speaks of it as lying "in Cardiff Moor."
REES' COURT. A row of old houses in the north part of the city of Llandaff, built close to the ruins of some mediaeval house of importance—probably the residence of one of the canons or prebendaries of the Cathedral. These houses and ruins are on the west side of the road leading to Radyr.
RHYD-LEUFER, "Rhydlewar," "Rhydlavar," "Redlaver" (the ford of Lleufer.) A tenement in the parish of Saint Fagan and lordship of Miscyn (1631, 1745.) The name is traditionally, and with some probability, referred to Saint Lucius (in Welsh Lleufer), " the Light-bearer," king of Esyllwg; at whose request Saint Ffagan and his three companions, Dyfan, Medwy and Elfan, were sent from Rome to carry the Christian faith to the Britons.
RHYD-WAEDLYD (the bloody ford.) A ford and hamlet on the Nant-gwaedlyd, where that brook crosses Cardiff Heath, in the chapelry of Whitchurch. Immediately north of the ford is the site of the great battle between the Welsh and the Anglo-Normans. The actual ford is now replaced by a low bridge of stone.
RHYD-Y-MIN-COCH, "Rhyd-y-mincoe" (the ford of the red brink.) (fn. 8) Over the Nant-gwaedlyd, on the Great Heath. A tenement of this name, in the parish of Llanishen, was holden of the manor of Roath-Keynsham at a chief rent (1702.)
RHYD-Y-PENAU (the ford of the heads.) (fn. 8) A farmhouse in the parish of Llanishen, south of the village.
RHYMNY. In corrupt English spelling Rumney. (1) A river which rises amid the hills of Brecknockshire and, flowing south-eastward, divides the counties of Glamorgan and Monmouth, emptying into the Severn Sea 2½ miles east of Cardiff. (2) A parish, called in Welsh Tredelerch, in Monmouthshire, three miles east of Cardiff, divided from the parish of Roath, Glamorgan, by the river Rhymny. (3) A modern industrial urban district near the source of the said river, in the hills of East Monmouthshire. The name is etymologically allied to Rimini, Rheims and Romney, and implies a boundary stream in a flat country.
RISING SUN COURT. Off the west side of the Hayes, near to and parallel with the south side of Wharton Street. At the north-east corner of the court, on the Hayes, stood the Rising Sun public-house. Demolished 1898.
ROATH. Welsh Y Rhâth (the Rath.) (fn. 9) A village, parish and manor, a mile and a half east of Cardiff, bounded on the west by the parish of Saint John, Cardiff, and on the east by the river Rhymny. The easternmost Glamorgan parish on the road to England. It was carved out of the original Cardiff parish of Saint Mary early in the 16th century. The village is now joined to Cardiff by many streets of dwelling-houses, containing a vast population. The earliest occurrence of the name in an extant document is of circa 1102, and its spelling is Raz— the z representing, probably, the hard dental sound of th. There was an early tendency to give the vowel, in English mouths, the o sound. Ptolemy's Itinerary mentions a town called Ratostabios, or Ratostathibios, which it places just about on the site of Cardiff Castle. This seems to indicate that Râth-Tâv was the earliest name of Cardiff. If I am asked in what way the name of the rath was transferred from the site of Cardiff Castle to the Roath of to-day—a parish extending from Longcross to the Rhymny—I suggest that the old name, from the fort on the Taff, was applied to the whole of the flat land lying between Taff and Rhymny, by naming this in terms equivalent to "the District of the Rath"; and that, on the division of the country into parishes, the name was restricted to the eastern half of that district, while Cardiff (already a burgh) became a parish also, under its present name. Some confirmation of this supposition may be found in the fact that Cardiff Castle was anciently reckoned within the original Manor of Roath. Indeed, what might have been expected to be called the "Manor of Cardiff," namely, the Castle and the Burgh, were both within the Manor of Roath. (fn. 10) (Vide Taff et Cardiff.)
ROATH COURT. An eighteenth-century mansion, on an ancient site, which was the manor-house of Roath-Dogfield. The older building, fortified and moated, was ruinous in the reign of Elizabeth. The Court stands a short distance south of Roath church, at the corner of Newport Road and Albany Road, in pleasant grounds.
ROATH-DOGFIELD. The manorial name of the original Lordship of Roath, to distinguish it from the portions which the Lord of Glamorgan had granted to the Abbeys of Tewkesbury and Keynsham. The name Dogfield is a modern variant of the mediaeval personal name Doggeville or Docgevel, from Welsh Dogvael, earlier Docmael.
ROATH HOUSE. An 18th-century dwelling which still stands, off the west side of the Newport Road, near Roath village, opposite the smithy. Between it and Crockherbtown there was no house, previous to about 1870, except a cottage near the old milestone.
ROATH-KEYNSHAM. The name given to such part of the Manor of Roath as had been granted to the Abbot and Monks of the Benedictine Abbey of Keynsham, Somersetshire, to be holden by them of the Lord of Glamorgan in free alms.
ROATH MILL. An ancient water grist-mill which stood on the northern arm of the Nant-mawr, a little north-west of Roath church. It was the lord's mill for the Manor of Roath. Some remains of the original structure were to be seen, but the later building dated from the 18th century. It was demolished 1897, after a useful existence of a thousand years.
ROATH PARK. A tract of land lying along the valley of the Nantmawr, from Pont-Lleici northward to the Dyffryn. In 1894 it was given by the Marquess of Bute, Lord Tredegar and other landowners, to the Corporation of Cardiff for the purposes of a public park.
ROATH-TEWKESBURY. The name given to such part of the Manor of Roath as had been granted to the Abbot and Monks of the Benedictine Abbey of Tewkesbury, Gloucestershire, to be holden by them of the Lord of Glamorgan in free alms.
ROGERSHOOKS, "Rogreshokes," "Roggeshokes." A parcel of land and meadow in the farm of the grange in the lordship of Leckwith (1456, 1492.) It lay in the Leckwith moors, and a ditch divided it from Rusham Mead. Robert Rogger was a cottier of Leckwith manor ante 1456. Mr. J. S. Corbett's map has "Rogershook" as south of Rusham, between Leckwith Moor and Leckwith Grange.
ROWLANDS' BUILDINGS. A court of old dwelling-houses off the east side of North Street, behind Queen Street. So called after one Edmund Rowlands, who was landlord of the Rose and Crown inn, close by, in 1777.
RUMNEY. In Welsh Tredelerch. The south-westernmost parish of Monmouthshire, divided from the parish of Saint John, Cardiff, by the river Rumney, which is crossed here by a handsome one-arched bride of 1800. The manor, called Rempney, is under the lordship of Gwentllwg.
RUNNING CAMP. A narrow thoroughfare which formed the western portion of King Street. It was sometimes called Camp Street, and Camp Lane (1821.) The name is somewhat of a mystery. It is not met with in the records earlier than the close of the 18th century. The most probable solution of its etymology is that some game of that name was customarily played there. In Welsh, and in some English dialects, "camp" means a game; and in some parts of Scotland football is called "kicking-camp."
RUSHAM MEAD. A meadow of 21 acres in the Leckwith moors, reserved for the horses of the lord's servants (1492.) Later Accounts call it "Busham Mead," apparently by a clerical error. Rusham-way was a road in the lordship of Leckwith. Mr. J. S. Corbett's map shews "Rusham" as bounded north by Canton Common, south by Leckwith Moor, east by Cardiff West Moors, and west by parts of Canton Common and Leckwith Moor.