Cardiff Records: Volume 5. Originally published by Cardiff Records Committee, Cardiff, 1905.
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Members of Parliament for Cardiff.
DURING the three centuries and a half that the Borough has returned a representative to Westminster, many eminent men have placed their services at the disposal of Cardiff; and it is therefore the more matter for congratulation that in nearly every instance were they Glamorganshire men, and scions of the foremost county families. Such well-known houses as Morgan of Tredegar, Herbert of Cogan, Lewis of the Van, Mansel of Margam, and Stradling of St. Donat's, all supplied Members for Cardiff, followed in later times by the Windsors and Mackworths, while from 1790 the Stuarts held the chief political influence for many years, no less than five of the family representing the constituency. In the long roll of representatives may be mentioned the names of such eminent Civilians as John Cokk (1547) and the Right Hon. John Nicholl (1832), who were both Dean of the Arches, the latter being also Judge Advocate General. Of Ambassadors were Sir Philip Hoby (1548), who was also Master of the Ordnance to Henry VIII., and Algernon Sidney (1646) who met his death on the scaffold on Tower Hill. Of Soldiers were Colonel William Herbert (1640), who died for his King at Edgehill, and Lord Evelyn Stuart (1794), while his brother Lord William Stuart (1802) appears, curious to relate, to have been the only Sailor chosen for Cardiff. Among the Politicians may be mentioned Francis Gwyn (1685), who was Secretary of War, and John Nicholl and Sir Edward Reed (1880), who both held the office of Lord of the Treasury, while of Courtiers were Sir Philip Hoby, who was a Gentlemen of the Privy Chamber to Edward VI., and Sir Robert Thomas (1661), who held a similar appointment at the Court of Charles II. During the Great Civil War the two Herberts (1621 and 1640), and Sir Richard Lloyd (1661) were Royalists, while Algernon Sidney (1646), John Price (1654), and Col. Bussy Mansel (1660), were staunch supporters of the Commonwealth. It might have been expected that, standing so near the Marches, Cardiff would have supplied more than one "Welsh Judge," but only Sir Richard Lloyd was Chief Justice of the Cardiff Circuit. The most distinguished of the Defeated Candidates were Admiral Matthews (1734), the present Lord Chancellor, Lord Halsbury (1868), and Viscount Hampden (1886), the present Governor of New South Wales.
The earliest instance on record, of a contested election for Cardiff, is in 1660; and though the figures of the poll have been lost, yet it appears that it resulted in a Double Return of both candidates, and a consequent petition. Curiously enough, a nearly similar event took place the following year, though a little more complicated. There were other contests and petitions in 1679 and 1734, but the only further contest previous to the passing of the Reform Act, 1832, seems to have been in 1820. The Conservative candidate held the seat 1832-52, and the Liberals supplied all the Members 1852-95, when once more the Conservative headed the poll. The following is the
It is probable that this Member, who was usually called John Thomas Bassett, was of Llantrithyd and the eldest son of Thomas Bassett of that place (who was a younger son of the Beaupre family, but acquired the Manor of Llantrithyd with his wife.) The Bassetts were of Norman descent, and flourished in Glamorganshire from the time of Edward I. John Thomas Bassett was born in 1507, and was of the Inner Temple in 1542. He was M.P. for Cardiff 1542-4, and for Glamorganshire 1547-51, and was High Sheriff of the County 1545, in which year he purchased the Manor of Talawan and half Peterston-super-Ely from the Crown. He married (1) Alice, daughter of Thomas Love of Dinas Powis, and (2) Elizabeth, daughter of Andrew Norton, of Bristol, and sister of Sir George Norton of Abbot's Leigh. He died 20 July 1551, aged 44, and was buried at Llantrithyd, beneath an altar tomb of unusual magnificence.
This eminent civilian, whose name was spelt in so many various ways, was the son of William Cock of Wormley, Hants, by Joan Forster, and married Ann, daughter and heir of Thomas Goodyer. Having been admitted a member of the College of Advocates, he acquired a considerable practice in ecclesiastical matters, and was Dean of the Arches (as John Cockys) 1543-5, Vicar-General to the Archbishop of Canterbury 1543-56, and a Master of Requests to Queen Mary. He was probably concerned in the suppression of the monasteries, for he received a grant from the King, 36 Henry 8, of the rectory of Whitegate, Cheshire, and the advowson of the vicarage; and furthermore was granted by the Crown "the site of a house of Franciscan or Grey Friers in Chester, and also of a Monastery of Preaching or Black Friers, and of other religious houses in Chester." (Pennant's Tour.) He was M.P. for Oxford (as John Kook) December 1541-4, Cardiff 1547, till he resigned his seat about 1548 in order to be returned for Hertfordshire, which he represented till 1552 and again 9 February to 31 March 1553, March to May 1554 (as John Corkes), November 1554 to January 1555, and (as Sir John Hokett or John Cobbys) October to December 1555. He probably died in 1556.
vice Cock, returned for Herts. Sir Philip Hoby of Bisham was a very well-known personage in his day. He was a Herefordshire man, the son of William Hoby of Leominster, and was born in 1504 and knighted 30 September 1544. He married Elizabeth, only daughter of Sir Walter Stonor of Stonor, Oxfordshire, and relict of Sir William Compton, and died 31 May 1558, aged 53. Sir Philip was made Master of the Ordnance 1545, and seems to have held that important post for the greater part, if not all, of the rest of his life. He was also a member of the Privy Council. He was Master of the Ordnance and a Gentleman of the Privy Chamber to Edward VI., who wrote about him on 28 March 1553 to William Dansell, Receiver General of Wards and Liveries, as follows:—"We have sent him [as Ambassador] to the Emperor [Charles V. of Germany], and have appointed him five marks by the day, which we require you to pay from the 23rd inst. until his return, with three months' payment in advance; also to repay him sums defrayed for post horses and transport of himself and train, and for sending letters to us or our Council, or on our service." On 3 April 1653 Sir Philip gave a receipt to Dansell "for six months' diet as Ambassador to the Emperor, at five marks a day, from 23 March to 18 September next." This was not his first ambassage, for a Minute of Council, 16 October 1549, having ordered Sir Thomas Cheyne and Dr. Wotton to be sent to the Emperor of Germany to declare the causes of the Duke of Somerset's removal from his office of Protector, Sir Philip Hoby was afterwards sent in the place of Dr. Wotton. As Master of the Ordnance he wrote letters from the Tower to Secretary Cecil, on 26 and 28 July and 1 and 3 August 1552, which are still preserved; and on 30 November 1557 he wrote to Sir William Cecil, inviting him and his lady to spend Christmas with him at his seat at Bisham (Calendar of State Papers.) He was a very great man at Leominster, whose Corporation made a great display at his funeral. One of the family, Peregrine Hoby, resided at Neath Abbey, having married Catherine, grand-daughter of Sir John Herbert, M.P., Secretary of State, of that place.
David Evans of the Great House, Neath, was the eldest son of Evan ap David of Gnoll, and married Catherine, daughter of Sir William Vaughan of Porthamal, Brecknockshire. He was M.P. for Cardiff in three Parliaments—January to March 1553, September to December 1553, and (as David Jevans) March to May 1554. He was High Sheriff of Glamorgan 1562.
William Colchester of Cardiff was member November 1554 to January 1555, and was perhaps a member of the Gloucestershire family of that name. He left a widow, Ann, who re-married to William Herbert, younger son of John Herbert.
The return has been lost, but it is probable that the Member was Captain William Herbert, otherwise called (in Clarke's Genealogies) Captain William Herbert Bach. He was the elder son of Philip Herbert of Llandilo (brother to the William Herbert who married William Colchester's widow), and married (1) Elizabeth, daughter of Jenkin Turberville of Penllyne, and (2) Mary, second daughter of Thomas Lewis of the Van, High Sheriff 1569, and widow of Humphrey Mathew of Castell-y-myneich.
Lleisan Price of Briton Ferry, otherwise Leyson ap Rees or Leyshon Price, was the eldest son of Rhys ap Evan of Ynys-y-maerdy and Cwrt-y-carnau, and married Maud, eldest daughter of the above David Evans of Gnoll (see 1553.) He was admitted a student of the Inner Temple February 1549, called to the bar 155—, and was elected a Bencher of his Inn 1568.
Probably of Cardiff, and Under-Sheriff of Glamorgan, 1552. He was M.P. for Cardiff 1563–7. It is doubtful if he was the same person as Henry Lewis of Mathern, who was High Sheriff 1558. If so he was son of John Lewis, the Sheriff 1546 (who was third son of Henry Lewis of St. Pierre, the Sheriff 1544.) Henry Lewis's will was dated 1613.
It is doubtful who he was. He may have been Henry Morgan of Lanrhymny, who was younger son of Rowland Morgan of Machen, and brother to Thomas Morgan, M.P. for Monmouthshire 1588 (ancestor of Lord Tredegar); and, if so, married Catherine, daughter and heir of William Kemeys of Lanrhymny. It appears, however, more probable that he was his cousin Henry Morgan, of Llandaff in 1574, and afterwards of Pen-llwyn-sarth, who was eldest son of Edmund Morgan of Pen-llwyn-sarth and married Elenor, daughter of John Morgan of Pencraig. If so, he was High Sheriff of Monmouthshire 1588, and father of the Members for that county in 1601 and 1614. Among the Commissioners for holding the Inquisitio post mortem of Thomas Lewis of the Van, at Cardiff 15 April 1595, appears the name of Henry Morgan, gent.
David Roberts of Cardiff was Under-Sheriff of Glamorgan 1571, and M.P. for Cardiff 1572-83 and February to April 1593. He sold some lands to the abovementioned Thomas Lewis of the Van. Owing to complaints made to the Council of the prevalence of piracy at Cardiff, Fabian Phillips (afterwards a Welsh Judge) and Thomas Lewys were commissioned to take steps to inquire into the matter; and on 24 April 1577 they wrote from Cardiff to the Council, enclosing "proofs against William Harbart and David Roberts esqrs., for buying goods unlawfully from the Commissioners [of Customs] at Cardiff."
Nicholas Herbert of Cogan Pill and Swansea was the third son of Matthew Herbert of Swansea, and grandson of Sir George Herbert, M.P. for Glamorgan 1542. He married (1) Mary Morgan, and (2) Catherine or Jennet, daughter and heir of John Thomas Edward of Crindau, and widow of Miles Herbert, third son of Sir Walter Herbert of St. Julian's, Monmouthshire. He was High Sheriff of Glamorgan 1578 and 1587, and sat for Cardiff 1584-5.
George Lewis of Llystalybont was the second son of the abovementioned Thomas Lewis of the Van (Sheriff 1569, died 1593), and married three times: (1) Catherine, daughter of Miles Mathew of Castell-y-myneich; (2) Mary, daughter of Francis Zouch, and (3) Mary, daughter of William Gore, of Wilts. He was M.P. for Cardiff 1586-7, served as Sheriff of Glamorgan 1610, and was living in 1645, when he was possessed of an estate of £400 a year. His father by his will left him lands in fee and a house near the family mansion in Cardiff, with £300 cash, 20 kine, half his chattels except plate, certain articles of plate, and half his fat cattle and sheep in stock at St. Fagan's, St. John's in Cardiff, and the Grange near Cardiff.
Gabriel Lewis of Llanishen was of kin to the last Member, for he was the eldest son of Edward Lewis of that place (who was youngest son of Edward Lewis of the Van, Sheriff 1548.) He married Elizabeth, daughter of William Carne of Nash, and sat for Cardiff 1588-9. He was Deputy Sheriff of Glamorgan 1585 and 1604, High Sheriff 1614, and Escheator of the County in 1595. He was living in 1623. His daughter Elizabeth married Edward, son of Captain William Herbert (see 1555).
This Member, who sat for Cardiff 1597-8, was the son of the celebrated Admiral Sir John Hawkins. His daughter Catherine became the second wife of Sir Rowland Morgan of Llandaff and Bedwellty, Sheriff 1593, which explains his connection with Cardiff.
Possibly of Glyn-Taf in Eglwysilan, second son of Edward Lewis of the Van (High Sheriff 1548), and of kin to the Members 1586 and 1588. If so, he married either Joan, daughter of Philip Champernowne of Darlington and widow of Robert Gamage of Coety, or the daughter of Thomas ap Jenkin of Glyn-Ogwr and widow of John Gamage, last lord of Coety, who died 1584.
Returned for Cardiff, Llantrisant and Cowbridge. William Herbert of Cardiff matriculated from Christ Church, Oxon, 17 October 1600, aged 17, and was the elder son of Richard Herbert of Wernllwynwhith. He, however, sold that place and purchased the White Friars, Cardiff, and the manor of Rumney. He married Ann Hurst, and built the Friars' House, Cardiff. William Herbert was an active personage, and his name appears as one of the Deputy Vice-Admirals for South Wales on 29 December 1633, when he wrote a letter from Cardiff Castle to Secretary Nicholas, concerning a wreck in the Severn. He was Mayor of Cardiff and Constable of Cardiff Castle in the reign of Charles I., being appointed in September 1642, at the outbreak of the Civil War, to seize it for the King, and to collect the rents of the Earl of Pembroke, who sided with the Parliament. His estates, which were said to be worth £1,000 a year in 1645, were bequeathed at his decease, after 1645, to his great-nephew, William Herbert of St. Fagan's, in fulfilment of a promise made to the King, who had interested himself on his behalf after the death of his father (see 1640) at Edgehill.
William Price of Briton Ferry, eldest son of Lleisan Price (see 1558), married Catherine, daughter and heir of David Popkin Thomas of Ynys-Forgan. He was M.P. for Old Sarum March to June 1614, Glamorgan 1621-2, and Cardiff 1624-5, May to August 1625, and February to June 1626. He was Under-Sheriff of the county 1626. His daughter and heir, Jane, married Arthur Mansel (see 1679).
This William Herbert was of Cogan Pill, and was the nephew of the M.P. 1621. He was the son of William Herbert of Cogan Pill (Sheriff 1579, 1583, 1592, 1600, eldest son of the M.P. 1584), and was heir male of Sir George Herbert, Sir William Herbert and Sir Matthew Cradock. He married (1) Elizabeth, daughter of Edward Thomas of Wenvoe, and (2) Jane, daughter of —Bussy. He had an estate of £1,000 a year, and sat for Cardiff March to May 1640, and again October 1640 till 23 October 1642 when (as Lieut.-Col. Herbert) he met his death at the Battle of Edgehill, fighting like a gallant gentleman for his King.
vice Herbert, disabled to sit 5 February 1644, but previously deceased. This celebrated personage was undoubtedly the most historical figure among the Members for Cardiff. The third son of Robert, second Earl of Leicester, K.G., and grandson of the Member for Glamorgan 1584, he was born in 1600, and at the age of 19 was captain of a troop of horse engaged in suppressing the Catholic rising in Ireland. A man of advanced views, he vehemently espoused the cause of Parliament during the Civil War, and was made captain of a troop of horse in the Earl of Manchester's regiment 10 May 1644. He became Colonel 2 April 1645 fought at York, and was made Governor of Chichester, and afterwards, in the same year, Lieutenant-General of Horse in Ireland and Governor of Dublin. He received the thanks of the House of Commons for his services in Ireland, on 6 May 1647, and was then appointed Governor of Dover Castle. Sidney was M.P. for Cardiff July 1646-53, but opposed the trial of the King; and though appointed a member of the High Court of Justice in January 1649, he never attended or took any part in the proceedings of that infamous Court. He was a member of the Council of State, November 1652 to November 1653, but opposed Oliver Cromwell's usurpation, and so remained out of office until after the Protector's death. He was nominated by the Rump Parliament, 17 May 1659, one of the Council of State, and was appointed (1 July following) one of the three English Commissioners or Plenipotentiaries to the Sound for establishing peace between Sweden and Denmark, and continued there till 21 July 1660. He afterwards resided abroad for many years, but obtained a pardon and returned to England in 1677. He unsuccessfully contested Guildford and Bramber in 1679, but was elected (in a double return) for Agmondesham (Bucks) in August 1679. He thereupon presented a petition, but the election was declared void the next year. He seems to have been an unsuccessful candidate and petitioner there in 1681. On the discovery of the Rye House Plot two years later, Sidney was arrested, and being arraigned for high treason before the notorious Chief Justice Jeffreys, was sentenced to death 26 November, and beheaded on Tower Hill 7 December 1683. "He was too rough and boisterous in his temper to bear contradiction. Stiff he was in all republican principles, and such an enemy to everything that looked like monarchy that he opposed Cromwell after he was made Protector. But he had studied the history of government in all its branches, had a knowledge of mankind, and of their tempers, and could insinuate himself into people that would hearken to his notions with a wonderful dexterity." (Bishop Burnet's History of his own Times.)
John Price of Gelli-ber, was the only son of John Price of that place, and was married twice, his first wife being Cecil, daughter and heir of Rice Arney, of Monmouthshire, but the name of the second wife is unknown. He was a brother-in-law to the famous Col. Philip Jones, M.P., of Fonmon, through whose influence Price was appointed to several posts during the Commonwealth. He was appointed one of the County Committee of Glamorgan 1645, an Assessment Commissioner thereof February 1647, and High Sheriff 1647, a Militia Commissioner for the counties of Glamorgan, Brecknock, Monmouth and Gloucester 21 April 1648, and a Commissioner for South Wales under the Act for ejecting insufficient Ministers and Schoolmasters. Price was made a member of the High Court of Justice 25 June 1651, and a Commissioner for carrying out the Act for safeguarding the person of the Protector 4 May 1658. He was appointed one of the twelve capital burgesses or common council of Swansea under the new Charter 26 February 1655, and was M.P. for Cardiff 1654–5, 1656 to January 1658, and December 1658 to April 1659. His name appears as a trustee for Colonel Philip Jones in deeds of lease and release dated 5 and 6 March 1672.
This was a Double Return, but the Indenture returning Evans was disallowed and Mansel declared duly elected by Order of the House, 27 June 1600. This is the earliest instance known of a contested election and petition for Cardiff.
Herbert Evans of Gnoll, Neath, only son of Edward Evans of Gnoll, was admitted a student of the Inner Temple in November 1660, and for his loyalty was nominated a Knight of the Royal Oak in that year, his estate being put down as £2,000 a year. He married Ann, daughter and co-heir of Sir William Morgan, knight, of Pencraig, Monmouthshire, and thereby acquired that estate. He was M.P. for Cardiff April to June 1660, when unseated on petition, and was J.P. for Glamorgan, serving as High Sheriff 1661. He received the honour of knighthood 29 September 1674, and was a trustee for Colonel Philip Jones in deeds of lease and release dated 5 and 6 March 1672. Sir Herbert's third daughter, Mary, final heir of Gnoll, took that estate to her husband, Sir Humphrey Mackworth, knight, M.P. for Cardiganshire.
The famous Bussy Mansel of Briton Ferry was the younger but only surviving son of Arthur Mansel of that place (third son of Sir Thomas Mansel, M.P., of Margam), and was therefore grandson of the M.P. 1624. He married Catherine, daughter of Alderman Sir Hugh Perry, knight, of London, and widow of Sir Edward Stradling, third baronet, of St. Donat's, and had an estate of £1,100 a year in 1645 (Richard Symond's Diary.) Bussy Mansel, who was J.P. for Glamorgan in 1655, High Sheriff 1645 and 1677, and patron of three livings, was a zealous Parliament-man during the Civil War, and was made Commander-in-Chief of their forces in Glamorgan, under Lord Fairfax, 17 November 1645. This invested him with great authority and power, but on the whole he appears to have behaved in this command with discretion and moderation. He was made one of the County Committee of Glamorgan 1645, an Assessment Commissioner for raising money there for the State 1656, and a Commissioner under the Act for ejecting insufficient Ministers and Schoolmasters. He was added to the High Court of Justice 25 June 1651, and appointed a Militia Commissioner for South Wales 14 March 1654. Bussy Mansel did not hold a seat in the famous Long Parliament, but was one of the six Members appointed (not elected) by Cromwell and his officers to represent the whole of Wales in "Barebone's Parliament" 4 July to 12 December 1653; and with Colonel James Phillips, M.P., was assigned by the Council of State on 27 June 1653 the official lodgings "lately occupied by Sir Harry Vane." He was made a Commissioner for providing for the safety of the Protector 4 May 1658. On 13 July 1659 Colonel Bussy Mansel was commissioned "to command the Militia Troop in counties Pembroke, Carmarthen and Cardigan, formerly commanded by Colonel Dawkins," and on 30 July following he was appointed "to command the whole militia forces in South Wales, horse and foot, to lead them against the enemy if need be." This was in consequence of Sir George Booth's "Cheshire Rising," which, however, was easily quelled. On 19 September 1659 Colonel Mansel wrote to Samuel Moyer, Chairman of the London Committee of Compounding, as follows:— "By the care of our small force in South Wales, it was so kept from insurrection that there will be little work for Sequestration Commissioners. Yet some will be found, for divers delinquents now on hand have estates there and discoveries may be made, of some that went from these parts to the enemy in Chester." (Cal. State Papers.) At the Restoration, Bussy Mansel made his peace with the King's Government, and was Member for Cardiff April to December 1660, and 16 to 28 March 1681. He also sat for Glamorgan in the two Parliaments, February 1679 to January 1681, and again in four Parliaments, 1689 until his death in May 1699 at an advanced age. He was buried at Briton Ferry.
There was again a Double Return of both candidates, with a very curious result. Sir Richard Lloyd, knight, being also elected for Radnorshire, "waived his return for Cardiff, and Mr. Basset was elected; but it appearing to the House, that Robert Thomas had petitioned, of which Lloyd had notice, and that Sir Richard, who knew nothing of the election, did not contest it, resolved that Mr. Thomas was duly elected, and the election of Bassett void."
The Mr. Basset here referred to was probably William Basset of Broviscyn, the second son of William Basset of Miscyn (who was High Sheriff 1610.) If so, he became Fellow of All Souls College, Oxford, 1632, B.C.L. 24 May 1636, D.C.L. 26 June 1641, and was expelled from the University by the Parliamentary Visitors 1648, but restored 1660. He was High Sheriff of Glamorgan 1652, and nominated a Knight of the Royal Oak 1660, for his loyal services, his estate being put down at £800 a year. He married at Llantrithyd, 3 February 1663, Margaret, daughter of Robert Button of Worlton, and died at or near Miscyn in 1677. His only child, Mary, married Sir Rowland Gwynne, knight, M.P., of Llanelwedd, Radnorshire.
Sir Richard Lloyd of Ecclusham, Denbighshire, and Dulasau, Carnarvonshire, was an eminent Royalist. Born in 1602 or 1609, the eldest son of Primus Lloyd of Marrington, Salop, he matriculated from Exeter College, Oxford, 13 December 1622, aged 20, and became B.A. 31 January 1626, and M.A. 10 July 1628. Having entered himself as a student at the Inner Temple in November 1631, he was called to the Bar about 1635, and was sent on a foreign mission by the King in March 1637. He was granted the reversion of the office of Prothonotary and Clerk of the Crown for counties Denbigh and Montgomery in November 1637, but surrendered the reversion 31 July 1661, having never occupied the post. He was Attorney General for North Wales in June 1642; and when the Civil War broke out, he took up arms for the King and became one of his most zealous supporters. He was knighted at Wrexham 7 October 1642 by Charles I., whom he entertained at his Denbighshire seat in 1643, and was Governor of Holt Castle in 1645, which, however, he was obliged to surrender to General Mytton 13 January 1647. Lloyd was one of those exempted by Parliament from pardon that year. At the Restoration he was made Chief Justice of the Great Session (and ex-officio J.P.) for the counties of Brecknock, Glamorgan and Radnor, which judicial position he enjoyed for the rest of his life. Sir Richard was returned both for Cardiff and Radnorshire in 1661, but made his election to represent the latter constituency, for which he continued to sit until his death, 5 May 1676. He was buried in Wrexham Church (M.I.)
Robert Thomas, of Bettws and Llanfihangel, was the eldest son of Sir Edward Thomas, knight and baronet, of those place_, whom_he succeeded as second baronet in 1673. He married, before 1654, Mary, daughter of the patriotic Judge David Jenkins of Hensol. Sir Robert, who was styled of Cowbridge in 1654, and afterwards of Michaelston, sold his Bettws and Llanfihangel estates to Sir Humphrey Edwin, knight, of Hedley, Surrey (ancestor of the Earls of Dunraven.) He was M.P. for Cardiff in three Parliaments, 1661–81, and was one the Gentlemen of the Privy Chamber to the King in 1670 and 1682. He was one of the witnesses to the will of Colonel Philip Jones, 15 April 1673, and was a J.P. for Glamorgan u_til "left out" of the commission 5 February 1680. The title became extinct at his death, the date of which, however, is unknown.
Francis Gwyn of Llansannor, and of Ford Abbey, Devon, was an industrious and capable politician, who filled several ministerial offices. Born in 1648 or 1649, the son of Edward Gwyn of Llansannor, he matriculated from Christ Church, Oxford, 1 June 1666, aged 17, and having entered the Middle Temple 1667, was called to the Bar 167—, and appointed Recorder of Totnes. In 1690 he married Margaret, daughter and heir of Edmund PrideauxFranceis of Ford Abbey. Mr. Gwyn was Chamberlain of Brecknock 15 October 1681–90, and sat in Parliament about 46 years, being Member for Chippenham February 1673–9, Cardiff 1685–7, Callington 1695–8, Totnes January 1699 to November 1701, Christchurch 1689–95, December 1701–15, and March 1717–22, Christchurch and Wells 1722, but preferred to represent the latter till 1727. He gave £2,500 for the office of one of the four Clerks of the Privy Council in Ordinary, and was sworn into office 5 December 1679, and enjoyed it until the death of Charles II. in January 1685. He was also Groom of the Bedchamber to the King till January 1685. Under-Secretary of State under his cousin, Edward, Earl of Conway, February 1681 to January 1683; Joint Secretary to the Treasury 1685–7; Secretary to the Lords who acted as Regents during the Interregnum 1688; and again UnderSecretary of State, December 1688 to September 1689. Gwyn was furthermore Secretary to the Lord Lieutenant of Ireland, December. 1700 to January 1703; added to the Privy Council in Ireland 1703; a Lord Commissioner of Trade and Foreign Plantations (with a salary of £1,000 a year) June 1711 to September 1713; and finally Secretary at War, August 1713 to September 1714. In the tract, A Seasonable Argument for a New Parliament, 1677, he was said to be a Commissioner of Revenue in Ireland, and to have had £500 given him for supporting the Court measures. He died at his seat, Ford Abbey, 2 June 1734, aged 86.
Thomas Mansel of Margam, born in 1667, was the second son of Sir Edward Mansel, M.P., whom he succeeded in title and estate 17 November 1706. He matriculated from Jesus College, Oxford, 7 March 1685, aged 17, and married Martha, daughter and heir of Francis Millington, of London. Having been made a J.P. for Glamorgan, he served as High Sheriff 1701, was made Constable of Cardiff Castle January 1706, and held office as Comptroller of the Household to Queen Anne April 1704 to April 1708, and again June 1711 to July 1712. He was a Lord Commissioner of the Treasury (salary £1,600 a year), 10 August 1710 to 30 May 1711, and one of the four Tellers of the Exchequer (a very lucrative sinecure, executed by Deputy) July 1712 to November 1714, when the accession of George I. displaced the Tories from power. He sat for Cardiff 1689–98, and for Glamorgan December 1699 to December 1700 and December 1701 until raised to the Peerage as Baron Mansel 31 December 1711, being one of the twelve Peers created at that date to increase the Tory party in the Upper House, of whom a witty opponent inquired if they voted by their foreman. Lord Mansel was made Vice-Admiral of South Wales and Governor of Milford Haven in January 1714, and died 11 December 1723.
Sir Edward was the second but eldest surviving son of Sir Edward Stradling, knight and baronet, of St. Donat's, whom he succeeded as fifth baronet 5 September 1685. He was born in or about 1672, matriculated from Christ Church, Oxford, 18 July 1684, at the early age of 12, and married at Margam 5 June 1694 Elizabeth, younger daughter of Sir Edward Mansel, second baronet, M.P., of Margam, and sister to Lord Mansel (see 1689.) Sir Edward was M.P. for Cardiff 1698 to November 1701, and 1710–22; J. P. for Glamorgan; High Sheriff 1710, and patron of the living of St. Donat's. He died at St. Donat's Castle 5 April 1735, having made his will 9 February 1714, which was proved 31 May 1735. The title became extinct on the death, unmarried, of his younger son, Sir Thomas Stradling, sixth baronet, who was killed in a duel at Montpelier, in France, 27 September 1738, aged 28. Much litigation ensued, lasting over several years, with regard to his estates, and the matter was finally settled by a special Act of Parliament.
This Thomas Mansel was of Briton Ferry, the only son of Thomas Mansel, M.P., of that place, and grandson of Colonel Bussy Mansel (see 1660.) He was born about 1668, and was M.P. for Glamorgan January to November 1701, and for Cardiff December 1701 until his decease, being buried in Westminster Abbey, 15 January 1706. He was Constable of Cardiff Castle at the time of his death, in which post he was succeeded by his kinsman, Lord Mansel. He bequeathed his estates to his godson, Bussy (fourth Lord) Mansel, (see 1727.)
Sir John was the only son of Sir John Awbrey, second baronet, M.P., of Llantrithyd, who was killed by a fall from his horse in September 1700. He was baptized at Llantrithyd 27 May 1680, and matriculated at Jesus College, Oxford, 7 May 1698, aged 17. He married three wives: (1) Mary Staley, who was buried 7 July 1714; (2) Frances, daughter of William Jephson of Boarstol, Oxon; and (3) Jane Thomas. Sir John sat for Cardiff February 1706-10; was J.P. for Glamorgan, High Sheriff, 1711, and dying on 16 April, was buried at Boarstol 23 April 1743.
This was the elder son of the last Member (see 1698.) He was born 26 May 1699, matriculated Christ Church, Oxon, 16 April 1716, aged 17, and was elected for Cardiff at the age of 22, in 1722, but died unmarried in his father's lifetime, 3 October 1726, at the early age of 27, and was buried the next day.
The Hon. Bussy Mansel of Briton Ferry was another of the Cardiff Members who also represented the County. Born in St. Anne's, Westminster, the third son of the 1st Lord Mansel (see 1689,) he matriculated Christ Church, Oxford, 13 July 1717, aged 16, and succeeded to the Briton Ferry estate under the will of his godfather and kinsman, Thomas Mansel (see December 1701.) He married twice: (1) on 8 May 1724 Lady Betty Hervey (who died in 1727), third daughter of John, first Earl of Bristol; and (2) on 13 March 1729 Lady Barbara, only daughter of William (Villiers), second Earl of Jersey, and widow of Sir Walter Blackett, baronet, of Newcastleupon-Tyne. Mr. Mansel, who became "Honourable" by courtesy, 31 December 1711, was attached to the Hon. Charles Fane's mission to Florence, November 1737 to January 1738. He came into an estate of £5000 a year on the death of his kinsman, Sir Thomas Stradling, last Baronet, 27 September 1738, and became tenant for life of the St. Donat's estate. He voted against Walpole's measures on the subject of the employment of the Hessian Troops 1730, and the Excise Bill 1733, and sat for Cardiff January 1727–34, when he stood for the County. Owing to the very partial conduct of the Sheriff, Mr. Mansel was at first returned, but on a scrutiny his opponent, the Hon. William Talbot of Hensol Castle, was declared duly elected. The death of his father, Lord Talbot, the Lord Chancellor, called him to the House of Lords, and on 9 March 1737 he was succeeded without opposition, as Member for Glamorgan, by Mr. Mansel; who, however, was himself called to the House of Lords as fourth Lord Mansel, on the death of his brother Christopher, 26 November 1744. His Lordship died 29 November 1750, and was buried in Westminster Abbey, the Peerage becoming extinct at his death. His only child and heir, Barbara, married George, second Lord Vernon. The Margam estate eventually devolved upon the Rev. Thomas Mansel Talbot, son of John Ivory Talbot, of Laycock, Wilts, who had married Lord Mansel's youngest sister, Mary. The Earl of Jersey is the present owner of the Briton Ferry property.
Hon. Herbert Windsor of Beechworth, Surrey, and St. Fagan's Castle, was the only son of Thomas, Viscount Windsor, and married 16 April 1737 Alice, eldest daughter of Sir James Clavering, bart., of Axwell, "with £60,000." He sat for Cardiff 1734, until he succeeded his father as second Viscount Windsor 8 June 1738, and died 24 January 1758, when the title became extinct. His eldest daughter and co-heir, Charlotte Jane, married in 1766 John, fourth Earl of Bute, the celebrated Prime Minister 1762–3.
Herbert Mackworth of Gnoll was the eldest son of Sir Humphrey Mackworth, knight, M.P., of Gnoll, and grandson of Sir Herbert Evans (see 1660). Born on 7 September 1689, he matriculated, Magdalen College, Oxford, 12 October 1704, aged 15, and was created Hon. D.C.L. 8 July 1756. He became a student of the Inner Temple 1708, but was never called to the Bar. Mr. Mackworth married 29 April 1730 the Hon. Juliana Digby, daughter of William, fifth Lord Digby, and was J.P. for Glamorgan and High Sheriff January 1733. He voted against Walpole on the matter of the Convention with Spain 1739, and sat for Cardiff for 26 years, from February 1739 till his death, 20 August 1765.
Herbert Mackworth of Gnoll Castle, only son of the last Member (see 1739), was born 1 January 1737, and married about 1761 Eliza, daughter of Robert Cotton Trefusis of Trefusis, Cornwall. He was Major of the Glamorgan Militia 14 January 1761–5, and Lieut.Colonel 1765–91, a Fellow of the Royal Society and a Vice-President of the Marine Society. He was created a baronet 16 September 1776, voted for Wilkes 1769, and sat for Cardiff for 24 years, January 1766–90, being also elected for Midhurst 1774, when he gave his preference to Cardiff, which he and his father thus represented without interruption for 51 years. He died at his seat, Gnoll Castle, on 25 October 1791, aged 54, very rich, being possessed of large landed property. "His death was occasioned by a thorn breaking in his finger, which brought on a violent inflammation and swelling in the hand and arm, no medical assistance being called in till a month after the accident happened. His real estate (not an acre of it entailed) is near £5,000 per annum; the personalties of which Sir Herbert died possessed are expected to amount to £60,000. He left £1,000 to his widow, and £12,000 in money to be partitioned among his two younger children." (Gentleman's Magazine.)
|1768 March 25.||The same.|
|1774 October 18.|
|1780 September 15.||The same, as Sir H. Mackworth, bart.|
|1784 April 9.|
|1790 June 19.||Hon. John Stuart, (T.)|
He was the first of his family to represent Cardiff. The Hon. John Stuart of Cardiff Castle was the eldest son of John, fourth Earl of Bute, who was created Marquis of Bute 21 March 1796, and grandson of the third Earl, who was Prime Minister 1762–3. His mother was the eldest daughter of the last Viscount Windsor (see 1734.) Born on 25 September 1768, he was created M.A., St. John's College, Cambridge, 1787, and was elected for Cardiff in 1790, at the age of 21 (Sir Herbert Mackworth having yielded the seat to him.) He was made Colonel of the Glamorgan Militia in 1793, and Lord-Lieutenant and Custos Rotulorum of the County (in the room of his father, who resigned in his favour) May 1793. The death of his grandfather occasioned the removal of his father to the House of Lords as fourth Earl of Bute, when Mr. Stuart assumed the courtesy title of Viscount Mountstuart, 10 March 1792. On 12 October following he married the Lady Elizabeth Penelope Crichton, daughter and sole heir of Patrick, fifth Earl of Dumfries, and thereby greatly added to the already vast Bute estates. Young, rich and amiable, life seemed to be opening its most attractive features to him, only to be blighted by his early death, at the age of 25, in his father's lifetime, on 22 January 1794, at Basingbourn Hall, near Stanstead, Essex, in consequence of a "fall from his horse about a month before. His heart glowed with the virtues which were rendered irresistibly endearing by the brilliancy of his accomplishments. He was an inestimable blessing to his family, and not solely a distinguished but a beneficial ornament to society." (Gentleman's Magazine.) His lady only survived him till 26 June 1797, leaving two sons, John, who succeeded his grandfather as second Marquis of Bute in 1814, and Patrick (see 1818.)
vice his brother, John, Viscount Mountstuart, deceased. He was the second son of the first Marquis of Bute, was born 7 May 1773. Being elected for Cardiff at the age of 20, in February 1794, he took his seat 2 June following, after coming of age, and represented the borough till 1802, and again November 1814–18. He became "Lord" by courtesy, on his father being made a Marquis 21 March 1796. Lord Evelyn Stuart entered the army, and was a Lieutenant (with the rank of Captain) in the Foot Guards in 1796. He became Lieutenatnt-Colonel in the army 1797, was LieutenantColonel of the 2nd Battalion of the 21st Foot, and also LieutenantGovernor of Fort Augustus, near Inverness (£300 a year) under the celebrated Sir Ralph Abercromby in 1800, Lieutenant-Colonel of the 52nd Regiment in 1802, and became Colonel in the army 2 November 1805. He appears to have left the army before 1813. He died unmarried 16 August 1842.
This nobleman was the fifth son of the first Marquis of Bute, and brother to the two last Members, and uncle to the M.P. 1818. He was born 18 November 1778, became "Lord William Stuart" 21 March 1796, and married June 1806 Hon. Georgiana Maude (who died 31 August 1807), fourth daughter of Cornwallis, first Viscount Hawarden. He became a Captain in the Royal Navy at the age of 20 or 21, in 1799; commanded the "Champion," of 24 guns, in the Mediterranean, took the "Bulldog," of 14 guns, from under the batteries of Gallipoli, and commanded the "Crescent," of 36 guns, in the Channel in 1806. He represented Cardiff 1802 until his death, s.p., 12 July 1814, aged 35.
Lord Patrick James Herbert Crichton-Stuart, of Cardiff Castle, and Rosemount, Ayrshire, was the younger of the two sons of Viscount Mountstuart (see 1790,) and was born (posthumously) 23 August 1794. He was made M.A., Christ College, Cambridge, 1814, and married 13 July 1818 Hannah, daughter of William Tighe, M.P., of Woodstock, co. Kilkenny. He assumed by sign-manual 21 March 1817 the additional surname and arms of Crichton, and was granted a patent of precedency and the rank of a younger son of a Marquis, 28 May 1817. Lord Patrick was M.P. for Cardiff 1818–20, and 1826–32, when he lost his seat, this being the only occasion in which one of the Bute family has suffered defeat at Cardiff. He however was also M.P. for Buteshire 1820–6; Ayr Burghs March 1834– 52, and Ayrshire 1857 until his death, 7 September 1859, having succeeded his brother, Lord Bute, as Lord Lieutenant of Buteshire
The poll was kept open for seven days. Wyndham Lewis of Greenmeadow and Pantwynlais Castle, fourth son of Rev. Wyndham Lewis, M.A., of Newhouse, was born 7 October 1780, and called to the Bar at Lincolns Inn 25 November 1819. He married in December 1815 Mary Anne, only daughter of Capt. John Viney Evans, R.N., of Bamford Speke, Devon. He was J.P. and D.L. for Glamorgan, Major of the Glamorgan Militia, and M.P. for Cardiff 1820–6, and for Aldeburgh (Suffolk) May 1827–30. Mr. Wyndham Lewis unsuccessfully contested Camelford 1826, and Maidstone 1830 and 1832, but represented the latter place from 1835 till his death s.p., 14 March 1838. His widow re-married on 28 August 1839 to Benjamin Disraeli (who was elected his colleague for Maidstone 1837), afterwards the celebrated Prime Minister in 1868 and 1874–80, who was created Earl of Beaconsfield in 1876 and died 19 April 1881.
This was the first election after the passing of the celebrated Reform Act, 1832. John Nicholl jun., of Merthyr Mawr, who sat for Cardiff nearly 20 years, 1832–52, when he was defeated, was the only son of the Right Hon. Sir John Nicholl, knight, M.P., of Merthyr Mawr, Dean of the Arches, who died 1838. Born 21 August 1797, he was educated at Westminster School, and matriculated Christ Church, Oxford, 12 June 1815, where he held a studentship 1816–22, and graduated first class in classics, B.C.L. 1823, D.C.L. 1825. He was called to the Bar at Lincoln's Inn in 1824, admitted a member of the College of Advocates 1826, and married 14 December 1821 Jane Harriet, second daughter of Thomas Mansel Talbot of Margam, and sister to C. R. M. Talbot, M.P. for Glamorgan 1830–90. Mr. Nicholl held office under Sir Robert Peel as Junior Lord of the Treasury, for a few weeks in March and April 1835, and as Judge Advocate General September 1841 to July 1846. He was sworn a Privy Councillor 14 September 1841, was Master of the Faculties and Vicar General of Canterbury August 1838 to September 1841, appointed an Ecclesiastical Commissioner and a member of the Board of Trade January 1846, and was J. P. and D.L. and Chairman of Quarter Sessions of Glamorgan. He died abroad 27 January 1853, aged 55.
Walter Coffin, of Llandaff Court, son of Walter Coffin, of Bridgend, was born 1784, and sat for Cardiff 1852–7. He was a J. P. for Glamorgan, became Deputy Chairman of the Taff Vale Railway 1846, and was Chairman thereof in 1855. He was Chairman of the Cardiff Board of Guardians in 1855, and died unmarried in London 15 February 1867.
Lieutenant-Colonel James Frederick Dudley Crichton Stuart, of London, was the elder son of Lord Patrick Stuart (see 1818), and was born 17 February 1824, and educated at Eton and Trinity College, Cambridge. He entered the army as Ensign and Lieutenant, Grenadier Guards, October 1842, became Lieutenant and Captain February 1847, Captain and Lieutenant-Colonel June 1855, but retired from the army in 1861. He married 28 July 1864 Gertrude Frances, second daughter of the Right Hon. Sir George Hamilton Seymour, G.C.B. and sat for Cardiff 1857–80. He was J. P. Ayrshire and Glamorgan, and Lord-Lieutenant and Sheriff Principal of Buteshire (in succession to his father) 1859 till his death, 24 October 1890.
Mr. Reed was born at Sheerness 20 September 1830, and is the third son of John Reed, of Sheerness Dockyard. He was educated at the School of Mathematics and Naval Construction, Portsmouth, and was Chief Constructor of the Royal Navy July 1863 to July 1870, being made C.B. 1868, and K.C.B. 1880. He unsuccessfully contested Hull October 1873, but was M.P. for Pembroke 1874–80, and for Cardiff 1880–95, when he lost his seat. He held office as a Junior Lord of the Treasury (£1,000 a year) February to July 1886. Sir Edward Reed married in 1851 Rosetta, eldest daughter of Sir Nathaniel Barnaby, K.C.B., of Sheerness, Constructor of the Navy. He was chosen President of the Committee to determine the load-line of steamers 1884, F.R.S., Vice-President of the Institute of Naval Architects, member of the Council of the Institute of Civil Engineers, member of the Institute of Mechanical Engineers, and was made a Knight Commander of the Order of St. Joseph of Austria 1874, a Knight of the Russian Order of St. Stanislaus, of the Turkish Order of the Medjidie (second class), and of the Japanese Order of the Rising Sun. Sir Edward is author of "Our Ironclad Ships," "Shipbuilding in Iron and Steel," "Our Naval Coast Defences." "Japan, its History, Traditions and Religions," "The Stability of Ships," and of papers in " Philosophical Transactions." He is a J. P. for counties Pembroke and Glamorgan.
The Hon. Henry Robert Brand was M.P. for Herts 1868–74, and for Stroud in 1874 and 1880–6, and was Surveyor General of the Ordnance 1883–5. He succeeded his father (who was Speaker of the House of Commons 1872–84) as second Viscount Hampden in 1893, and has been Governor of New South Wales since 1895.
Mr. John Gunn, of Llandaff House, son of Donald Gunn, of Achlibster, Caithness, was born in 1837 and married in 1877 Harriette, daughter of James Boyle, J. P., of Ballymacrea, co. Antrim. He is a J.P. for Glamorgan, and also for Cardiff.
James Mackenzie Maclean was born 13 August 1835, the youngest son of Alexander Maclean, of Liberton, Edinburgh, and married in 1867 Anna Maria, daughter of Philip Whitehead. Residing in India as a journalist, he was editor and proprietor of the Bombay Gazette for several years, was elected a Fellow of Bombay University, and was sometime Chairman of the Bombay Town Council. He is author of Maclean's "Guide to Bombay," and of numerous essays on Indian subjects. On his return home he unsuccessfully contested the Elgin Burghs 1880, but sat for Oldham 1885–92, when he was defeated. Mr. Maclean, who is one of the proprietors of the Western Mail, has been the Member for Cardiff since 1895.
The registered electors for the Cardiff District were 687 in 1832; 778 in 1841; 1,640 in 1858; 5,388 (after the extension of the franchise) in 1868; 7,445 in 1874; 10,384 in 1884; and 18,415 (after the further extension of the franchise by the Act of 1884) in 1894 (when Cardiff had 17,776, Cowbridge 208, and Llantrisant 441 voters). In 1895 the electorate had advanced to 19,358. The Mayor of Cardiff for the time being is the Returning Officer.