Journal of the House of Commons: Volume 12, 1697-1699. Originally published by His Majesty's Stationery Office, London, 1803.
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Mercurii, 18 die Januarii;
10° Gulielmi, Tertii.
A BILL to naturalize Bartholomew Ogilvy was read the First time.
Resolved, That the Bill be read a Second time upon Friday Morning next.
A Petition of William Gyhon, of the Middle-Temple, London, Gentleman, was presented to the House, and read; setting forth, That there is a Bill depending in this House, to enable Edward Bulwer Esquire to sell certain Lands in the County of Norfolk, he settling other Lands, in the same County, of equal Value, to the same Uses: That the Lands intended to be sold by the said Bill are settled on Trustees, for the raising of 3,000£. as the Portion for Hannah, the now Wife of the Petitioner, and only Daughter of the said Mr. Buller; and, if the said Bill should pass as now drawn, the Petitioner is like to lose the said 3,000£. which he ought to receive out of the said Estate: And praying to be heard against the said Bill before it pass this House.
Ordered, That the said Petition do lie upon the Table until the said Bill be read a Second time: And that the same be read upon Monday Morning next.
Claims for Prizes.
A Petition of George Camock, late Captain of his M jesty's Ship the Bridget Intelligence, in behalf of himself, and Company, &c. was presented to the House, and read; setting forth, That, on the 27 June 1697, the Petitioner took a Prize Sweeds Ship, called the Deer-Garden; out of which was taken 178 Tons of High-Country Wine, which was condemned, and sold by the Prize-Office, as they pretend, at 6£. per Ton, about 60 Tons being embezzled; and so they quite wipe off that Quantity, although they paid full Freight for the said 178 Tons, 438£. as appears by the Prize-Office Accounts; so that by their Reckoning, the Petitioner and Ship's Company's Share comes but to 42£. though the Value of the said Prize cost above Six times as much in France: And praying, That the Commissioners of Prizes may give a more particular Account of the said Ship and Cargo, in order to the Petitioner's Relief.
Ordered, That the said Petition be referred to such of the Commissioners for Prizes who are Members of the House, to lay before this House an Answer, in Writing, thereunto.
Writs of Error.
A Bill for limiting certain Times, within which Writs of Error shall be brought for reversing Fines, common Recoveries, and ancient Judgments, was read a Second time.
Resolved, That the Bill be committed to Mr. Ogle, Mr. Mounstevens, Mr. Harcourt, Mr. Thornhagh, Mr. Bulkly, Mr. Blaake, Sir Edw. Stradling, Mr. Hughes, Mr. Eyres, Mr. Blofeild, Mr. Saunderson, Mr. Burrard, Mr. Lowther, Sir Abstr. Danby, Mr. Bernardiston, Sir Richard Onslow, Mr. Clayton, Mr. Hancock, Sir Wm. Drake, Mr. Thursby, Mr. Foley, Sir Cha. Barrington, Mr. Dyott, Mr. Osborne, Mr. Hamond, Mr. Freeman, Sir Robert Eden, Mr. Shackerly, Sir Edw. Ernly, Sir William Ellis, Sir Jacob Ashly; and all the Gentlemen of the Long Robe: And they are to meet this Afternoon at Five a Clock, in the Speaker's Chambers.
Ayre and Calder Navigation.
The Lord Fairfax, according to Order, presented to the House a Bill for the making navigable the Rivers of Aire and Calder, in the County of York, at the Charge of such Persons as will undertake the same: And the same was received; and read the First time.
Resolved, That the Bill be read a Second time.
Abuses in King's Bench and Fleet Prisons.
Ordered, That Mr. Stonehouse, Mr. Verney, Colonel Kirkby, Sir Rich. Cox, Mr. Wilkins, Mr. Halsey, Sir Edw. Blacket, Mr. Offley, be added to the Committee, to whom the Petition of John Goodall is referred, and who are to inquire into the ill Practices and Abuses of the Prisons of the King's-Bench and Fleet.
Orders respecting Strangers, &c. at Committee of Privileges.
A Complaint being made to the House, That there have of late been such great Numbers of Strangers at the Committee of Privileges and Elections, that the Members of the House have not been able to come into the House, and take their Seats therein; and that they have had, and may have, other Annoyances, to the Endangering of their Healths, if timely Care be not taken to the contrary; and that there hath been such Crouding in the Passage, by Witnesses, and others, that the Witnesses cannot have free Passage into, and out of, the Committee;
Ordered, That the Serjeant at Arms attending this House do give Order to the Door-keepers and Messengers of the House, constantly to attend the Committee of Privileges and Elections, and other Committees sitting in the House; and take care, that no Persons do croud, or sit, upon the Seats of the House, either below, or above in the Gallery, where the Members ought to sit; and that such Witnesses as shall be examined at the said Committees do attend in the Lobby, and be called in, one by one, and severally examined, and then withdraw, for others to come in and be examined; and that the Passage be kept clear for that Purpose.
Mr. Blathwaite, according to Order, presented to the House, from the Commissioners of Trade and Plantations, a Representation from the said Commissioners: And also,
A Copy of a Representation for hindering the Exportation of Wool: And also,
A Copy of a Representation, relating to the Trade between England and Ireland; especially the Linen and Woollen Manufactures: And also,
A Copy of a Representation, with Amendments to the Bill for encouraging the Linen and Hempen Manufacture in Ireland: And also,
A Copy of a Representation upon the general State of the Trade of this Kingdom: And also,
A Copy of a Representation upon a Memorial from the Turkey Company, relating to the East-India Company's interfering with them in the Vent of Woollen Manufacturers in Persia: And also,
A Copy of a Representation on a Petition from the Turkey Company; praying, That the new East-India Company may not be under any positive Obligation of exporting Draperies: And also,
A Copy of a Representation upon Two Bills transmitted from Ireland; the one laying a Duty upon Woollen Manufactures exported; and the other encourageing the Manufacture of Flax and Hemp: And also,
A Copy of an Extract out of the Council-Books, upon a Representation upon a Bill transmitted from Ireland, for encouraging the Manufactures of Flax and Hemp in that Kingdom: And also,
A Copy of a Representation, relating to the Par between the English and Irish Woollen Manufactures.
And the Titles of them were read.
And the said Copies are as follow; viz.
The Representation (fn. 1) [of the Commissioners] for Trade and Plantations to the Honourable House of Commons.
In Obedience to an Order of this Honourable House, dated the 7th of this Month, requiring from us such Observations as we have made, and such Papers as we have, relating to the Encouragement of the Woollen Manufacture of this Kingdom, and of the Linen Manufacture of Ireland; we humbly offer;
That, some of our earliest Inquiries having been concerning the State of the Woollen Manufacture of this Kingdom; and having, upon all Occasions, continued the same; we have found, by many Observations, that though our old Drapery have gradually increased for many Years last past, and our Weavers have invented also great Variety of new Draperies, yet several Obstructions have all along remained in the Way to the further Improvement and Sale thereof, both at home and abroad:
The Obstructions which appear unto us most evident at home are, the constant Practice of exporting our unwrought Wool into France, Holland, Sweden, and other foreign Parts; and the Mode and Humour that hath too much prevailed among ourselves, to delight in the Wear of French and other foreign Manufactures:
The Obstructions from abroad have been from the Endeavours used in several foreign Countries to set up Manufactures of their own; in order whereunto they have, in some Places, prohibited the Importation or Use of ours; and, in other Places, laid such high Duties upon them, as amount to the same thing: But more especially, under this Head, we think it proper to mention the great Increase of the Woollen Manufactures in Ireland: which, being made there so much cheaper than the like Sorts in England, tend exceedingly to the Prejudice of this Kingdom: And of all these kinds we have had many Instances; of which we shall mention some, according to the Order of Time in which they have occurred unto us, or we have had Occasion to take them into Consideration.
In October 1696, the Lords Commissioners of the Treasury did communicate to us some Advices they had received, from the Commissioners of the Customs, concerning a Woollen Manufacture setting up at Sada, near the Groyne: Whereupon, we took care to make Inquiries in several Parts of Spain, about the State and Progress thereof, by his Majesty's (fn. 2) [Ministers] there, and otherwise: And having received Information, from his Majesty's Consul at the Groyne, that this Work was carried on by the Advance of a considerable Sum of Money from the Court of Spain, and the Grant of very great Privileges; as also by the supposed Countenance of the Dutch Consul there; we have Notice thereof, from time to time, to the Secretaries of State, desiring, That his Majesty's Ambassador at the Hague might be informed of the same, and make Application to the States-General for an Order to forbid their Consul from meddling therein, as a Thing prejudicial to the common Interest: Whereupon, we, some time after, received, by the Hands of One of the Secretaries of State, a Copy of the Resolutions of the States-General, commanding their said Consul, as much as in him lay, to cause the Erecting of any such Woollen Manufacture in that Place to cease: And we are still attending the further Proceedings of the Spaniards in that Work.
In December 1696, Notice having been taken by us, of the great Exorbitances committed in Rumney-Marsh, and thereabouts, by the constant Exportation of Wool, we humbly laid before his Majesty, a Representation of what we thought most expedient for the better Prevention thereof; which is hereunto annexed (N° A.): And thereupon, besides the small Ships appointed for Cruisers on that Coast, Mr. Henry Baker, Solicitor of the Treasury, was commissioned to take care, as well to prevent the Exportation of Wool, as to prosecute the Offenders; wherein, as we understand, he has had great Success, by his personal Attendance in those Parts, and the Officers under him; and is in the way of effectually performing that Service: Towards which, upon discoursing with him, we conceive, that if, instead of a long Process, usually practised against Offenders, during which they nevertheless continue in their Transgressions, a more expeditious Way were by Law provided, by Capias, or otherwise, it would very much conduce to the Suppressing of those ill Practices.
In April 1697, his Majesty having directed us to take into Consideration the Trade of England and Ireland, how they stand in relation to each other, and how they may be improved to the Advantage of both Nations; we did, in pursuance thereof, lay before their Excellencies the Lords Justices a Representation of what then appeared unto us proper for those Ends: Which Representation (N° B.) relating peculiarly to the Woollen and Linen Manufactures in Ireland, with respect to the Interest of England, we herewith offer the same to the Consideration of this Honourable House.
In the same Month of April 1697, upon the Prospect of a Treaty of Peace with France, having been required by his Majesty to prepare a Project of a Treaty of Commerce with that Crown, we proceeded thereupon; and took care in the Project, which we accordingly prepared, to provide for the Encouragement of the Woollen Manufactures of this Kingdom, by removing the Load of Impositions laid upon them, and facilitating the Introduction and Vent of That, and other English Manufactures, in those Parts, upon a reasonable Foot.
And, in like manner, we having, at several times, received Informations of the Hardships put upon the English Merchants in Sweden, and the high Duties laid upon our Woollen Manufactures; as also, of the Endeavours used there to set up a Woollen Manufacture of their own; for the promoting of which, the Sweeds had found means to draw constant Supplies of Wool from Scotland, which is, the greatest Part of it, either the Product of Ireland or England; and having thereupon been directed by his Majesty, in the Month of April 1698, to prepare a Project of a Treaty of Commerce, fit to be proposed to the Crown of Sweden; we took the best Informations from his Majesty's Resident at that Court, and from the East-land Merchants, and those trading particularly to the Swedish Dominions; and laid before his Majesty a Project of such a Treaty, with Articles and Clauses proper to remedy the Inconveniencies and Pressures, which the Merchants and Trade of England there lay under.
In the Month of November 1697, having been ordered by their Excellencies the Lords Justices to consider of a Bill transmitted from Ireland, for encouraging the Linen and Hempen Manufacture in that Kingdom; and thereupon to propose such Alterations and Additions as we judged might make the same more effectual to the Purposes intended; we, accordingly, made such Alterations and Additions, and laid them before their Excellencies the Lords Justices, in a Representation; whereof a Copy is annexed (N° C.).
In December 1697, having applied ourselves to the Consideration of the general State of the Trade of this Kingdom, we laid before his Majesty a Representation thereof: Wherein there being divers Particulars relating to the Woollen Manufacture, we have annexed a Copy thereof (N° D.); and, having distinguished those Particulars by Lines in the Margin, we refer ourselves thereunto.
The Turkey Company finding themselves prejudiced by the East-India Company's vending a great Part of the Woollen Manufactures which they are obliged to export at Tauris, and other Places, in Persia, that were formerly supplied from Turkey, they presented to his Majesty a Memorial for the Remedy thereof: Which having been referred unto us; after the Hearing of both Parties, we laid before his Majesty, the 19 of January 1697 / 8, the annexed Representation (N° E.)
And, upon Occasion of the Establishment of the new East-India Company, the Turkey Company having again petitioned his Majesty, That the Clause in the old EastIndia Company's Charter, obliging them to export, annually, Goods of the Growth, Product, and Manufacture, of this Kingdom, to the Value of 100,000£. (which had forced them to vend great Quantities of Drapery, as aforesaid, in Persia) might be omitted in the Charter to be granted to the said new Company; and the Consideration of that Petition having, by his Majesty, been also referred unto us; we offered unto their Excellencies the Lords Justices, the 9th of August last, the annexed Representation (N° F.)
In October last, having been directed by their Excellencies the Lords Justices to consider of Two Bills transmitted from Ireland, intituled, An Act for laying an additional Duty upon Woollen Manufactures exported out of that Kingdom; and, An Act for encouraging the Manufactures of Flax and Hemp in that Kingdom; we laid before their Excellencies, the 11th of that Month, our Report upon the same: And therein offered, upon the last of those Bills, several Amendments and Additions, which we thought proper to make it effectual for the Ends proposed; together with our Reasons for each of the said Alterations: All which, with the Orders of Council made thereupon, are hereunto annexed (N° G. and H.)
And, having been further required by their Excellencies the Lords Justices to consider, and report, what Impositions upon the Woollen Manufactures of Ireland exported will bring them to a Part with the Woollen Manufactures of England exported, we presented to their Excellencies, the 13th of the said Month, a further Report upon that Subject (N° I.): In which we laid down some certain Calculations, to be considered of according to the Probability of different Suppositions therein mentioned.
Besides our fore-mentioned Proceedings and Observations, in reference to the preserving the Woollen Manufacture of this Kingdom, we continued to have our Eye upon what should be undertaken in France with relation thereunto; and, by our Correspondency abroad, we received particular Informations, in the Month of March last, of a Design carrying on there for setting up a Woollen Manufacture in the Provence of Languedoc, with great Encouragements from that Court: And we just now come to understand, that a considerable Progress is made therein; and that Endeavours are using to procure Workmen from England and Holland, with all Sorts of necessary Matorials; which ought to be discouraged by all possible means.
We do also observe, That notwithstanding it was the Intent, in settling our Plantations in America, that the People there should be only employed in such Things as are not the Product of England, to which they belong, except for so much as should be wanting for their own Sustenance, and Supply of Provisions to their Neighbours; yet New-England, and other Northern Colonies, have applied themselves too much, besides other Things, to the Improvement of Woollen Manufactures amongst themselves; which, in its Proportion, is as prejudicial to this Kingdom, as the Working of those Manufactures in Ireland: Wherefore it is submitted, That, upon Occasion, the like Prohibitions be made with relation to those Northern Colonies, as to Ireland.
Upon the whole Matter, we cannot but observe, That the Woollen Manufacture of this Kingdom will receive the greatest Encouragement by a due Consumption of it at home, the largest Vent of it abroad, and the hindering, as much as is possible, the Growth and Increase of it elsewhere: And that therefore, amongst other Things, the Exportation not only of Wool from Ireland, but also of their Woollen Manufactures, and of the Wool, and Woollen Manufactures, of the respective English Plantations in America, to other Parts than England, ought to be prohibited, or discouraged, by the most coercive and proper Means; which, although they may not at first be so effectual as might be wished, yet, upon further Experience, and additional Remedies, the Means designed may become more perfect: In order whereunto, it seems withal expedient, That the People of this Kingdom, skilled or employed in the Woollen Manufacture, be prohibited from going over into Ireland, or other Parts; and that such as have been already enticed thither be encouraged to return home.
Whitehall, January the 13th, 169 8 / 9.
Which is humbly submitted to this Honourable House.
(A.) The said Copy of a Representation for hindering the Exportation of Wool.
To the King's most Excellent Majesty.
May it please your Majesty,
The Right Honourable Mr. Secretary Trumbull having transmitted to us some Memorials, together with Petitions, from Merchants and Clothiers, in several Places, relating to the Necessity and Means of preventing the Exportation of Wool, more especially from the Coast of Kent and Sussex, and hindering the Correspondence which is thereby carried on with France; we have taken that Matter into our Consideration; and thereupon humbly beg Leave to represent to your Majesty;
That the Importance of the Thing being such as has already occasioned several Acts of Parliament to have been made upon it, we humbly conceive, That the due Execution of those Acts, and more especially of that Clause in the Act, passed in the last Session of this present Parliament, for the more effectual preventing the Exportation of Wool, &c. which provides, That One Ship of the 5th Rate, and Two Ships of the 6th Rate, and Four armed Sloops, shall be directed and appointed constantly to cruise from off the North-Foreland to the Isle of Wight, with Orders for taking and seizing all Ships, Vessels, or Boats, which shall export any Wool, or carry or bring any prohibited Goods, or any suspected Persons, will very much conduce to the Ends proposed.
Yet, in order to the better Advancement of those Ends, and for the reaping a more certain Benefit by the forementioned Cruisers; having inquired into what has formerly been practised upon the like Occasion with best Success, we are thereby induced to be humbly of Opinion, That it may be further expedient, that some proper Person should be also particularly commissioned and appointed on Land, as has been formerly, with Three or Four Officers under his Direction, to observe and watch that Coast, by such Rules as may be contrived suitable to the Service intended; and to maintain such a Correspondence with the Commanders of those Cruisers as may enable them, on both Sides, by Signals, mutually to direct each other, upon all Occasions, in their several Stations by Sea and Land, so as may best tend to the Discovery of all Attempts of that kind, and to the Seizure of either Ships, Goods, or Persons, as may be requisite.
All which, nevertheless, is most humbly submitted.
Whitehall, the 30th December 1696.
(N° B.) The said Copy of a Representation, relating to the Trade between England and Ireland; especially the Linen and Woollen Manufactures; viz.
To their Excellencies the Lords Justices.
May it please your Excellencies,
In Obedience to his Majesty's Commands, signified to us by Mr. Secretary Trumbull, That we should take into Consideration the Trade of England and Ireland, how they stand in relation to each other, and how they may be improved to the Advantage of both Nations; we humbly represent to your Excellencies;
That the Woollen Manufactures in Ireland cannot be carried on, and continued to be improved there, at the rate it hath been of late Years, without very ill Consequence to this Kingdom: The Care of our Parliaments, in all times, in preserving this Manufacture entirely to England, and the sensible Damage we have suffered when any Part of it hath been lost from us to any other Country, makes this so evident, that we think we need use no other Reasons to shew of what Necessity it is not to let in any new Sharers.
To hinder therefore the Growth of the Woollen Manufacture in Ireland, so wholly incompatible with the fundamental Trade of England, on which the Prosperity of this Nation so much depends, we are humbly of Opinion, That the Exportation of all Sorts of Woollen Manufactures out of Ireland, to any Parts whatsoever, except only that of their Frize, as is wont, to England, be restrained, and discouraged, by Impositions, Penalties, and all other Ways, which together may be sufficient to hinder it:
But since the private Exportation of Wool in England, acknowledged by every-body to be directly against the Interest of England, is too publick an Instance how little bare Prohibitions of Exportation, though under the severest Penalties, are to be depended upon, where the Temptation of great Profit may encourage private Men to bribe Officers, and run other Risques; it is much less to be expected, that the bare Stopping of the Exportation of Woollen Manufactures, when made, by a Guard upon them only at the Ports, will be sufficient to keep them from being sent out of Ireland, where not only the Gain of private Exporters, but the general Sense of the People that it is the Interest of the Country to export them, concur to break through all Obstacles of this kind:
We therefore crave Leave humbly to offer to your Excellencies Consideration, Whether it will not be convenient to add the following Remedies, as a more natural and effectual Way to take off the People there from their Application to that Sort of Trade; so that the Cheapness of Victuals, and consequently of Labour, may not enable them to transport their Woollen Manufactures to foreign Markets, to the Prejudice of our English Trade;
That a sufficient Duty be laid upon the Importation of Oil; upon Teasles, whether imported or growing there; and upon all the Utensils employed in the making of any Woollen Manufactures, such as Cards for Wool of all Sorts, Fulling-Mills, Racks, Presses, &c. as also on the Utensils of Worsted-combers; and, particularly, a Duty, by the Yard, upon all Cloth and Woollen Stuffs, except Frizes, before they are taken off the Loom:
But, because we can by no means think it adviseable, that Men should be, all on a sudden, stopt in their Way of Livelihood till other Ways of Employment be opened to them, since such Changes cannot possibly be effected all at once, but must be introduced by Degrees, we are humbly of Opinion, That though it be requisite, that the Remedies above propounded, be enacted all at once, yet, that they should not all, or any of them, be in Force, and put in Execution, but only by such Degrees, and in such Proportions, as, by Proclamation from the Lord Lieutenant, or Lords Justices, by the Advice of the PrivyCouncil there, shall, from time to time, be directed and required; so that the gradual Increase of those Duties may warn, and give People time to turn themselves to some other Employments:
Provided, That whatever Part of the said Act shall, by such Proclamation, be once put in Force, the same shall remain so, and stand good; and whatever Proportion of the said Duties shall, in this manner, be required, it shall no more be diminished, but may, at any time, if it be found requisite, in the same manner, be augmented, so far as the said Act allows:
Nevertheless, That the Owners of Wool may not be hindered in the Vent thereof, by the diverting of labouring Hands to other Manufactures, we humbly offer, That unwrought Wool have free Exportation from Ireland into England, without any Duty, from and to the Ports now appointed by Act of Parliament; but that the Exportation of it any-where else be effectually hindered, by all Ways and Means possible to be used.
And, since it generally proves ineffectual, and we conceive it hard, to endeavour to drive Men from the Trade they are employed in, by bare Prohibitions, without offering them, at the same time, some other Trade, which, if they please, may turn to Account; we humbly propose;
That the Linen Manufacture be set on foot, and so encouraged, in Ireland, as may make it the general Trade of that Country, as effectually as the Woollen Manufacture is, and must be, of England:
To which Purpose, we humbly conceive it of great Importance, that it be intimated and insinuated from hence, to all such Persons there, and in such Ways and Manner as shall be thought most convenient, that they seriously bethink themselves of setting up, and carrying on, the Linen Manufactures in that Country; it being not to be supposed, that England either can, or ever will, suffer, that the Woollen Manufacture should grow up in Ireland, so as to come any way in Competition with, or so much as threaten, that Trade, so necessary to the Subsistence of England.
For the Encouragement, therefore, and setting up the Linen Manufacture in Ireland, we humbly propose;
That the Importation of Hempseed and Linseed into Ireland be free from all Duties for Three Years; or longer, if the Directors, whose Office and Employment is hereafter to be explained, shall think it requisite:
That Flax and Hemp, growing in Ireland, shall be Tythe and Tax-free for One-and-twenty Years; and, after 21 Years, shall pay for Tythes only 2s. 6d. per Acre, per Annum:
That the present Customs, and other Duties, on Hemp, Flax, and all Manufactures made thereof, imported into Ireland, be increased One-fourth Part every Year, till they come to be quadruple to what they are at present; and that the like gradual Increase of Duties be laid on Callicoes, and all other Sorts of Cloth made of Cotton, that may supply the Place and Use of Linen:
That the Exportation of Linen Cloth, and all other Manufactures made of Flax and Hemp, without any Mixture of Wool, shall be free to all Places, and without any Custom:
That all Dressers of Hemp or Flax, Linen weavers, Rope-makers, and all other Workers in Hemp or Flax, and using no other Trades, shall be free, during the time that they follow those Vocations, from serving on Juries, or bearing any Offices which they themselves shall not be willing to undergo:
And because the poorest Earnings in the several Parts of the Linen Manufacture is at present in the Work of the Spinners, who therefore need the greatest Encouragement, and ought to be increased as much as possible, That therefore Spinning-Schools be set up, in such Places, and at such Distances, as the Directors shall appoint; where whoever will come to learn to spin, shall be taught gratis; and to which all Persons, who have not 40s. a Year Estate, shall be obliged to send all their Children, both Male and Female, that they have at home with them, from Six to Fourteen Years of Age (and may have Liberty to send those also between Four and Six, if they please) to be employed there in Spinning, Ten Hours in the Day, when the Days are so long; or as long as it is light, when they are shorter: Provided always, That no Child be obliged to go above Two Miles to any such School:
That all Children, who are thus obliged to come to those Schools, shall be paid for what they earn there in Spinning, according to the ordinary Rate paid to others; first deducting (fn. 3) [from each of them], what they have spoiled in Tow or Flax, in their beginning to learn:
That all, in general, who come there to learn, shall have Wheels provided for them; and that they who are able to spin on Mr. Firmin's double Wheel shall, at their going away, have One of those double Wheels given them:
That no Wheel shall be used in any of those SpinningSchools, but what shall be turned with the Foot, and have the Distaff placed in the Middle; so that both the Hands being at Liberty, sometimes the one, sometimes the other, may be used to draw the Flax, the only Way to fit them for the double Wheel, which they can never use till each Hand can draw the Flax with an equal Facility.
The Use of this double Wheel is of that great Consequence to the Linen Manufacture, that nothing can contribute more to the Advancement of it than the bringing this Wheel in Fashion; they that can use it being enabled to earn thereby very near double with the same Labour:
And it deserving therefore, by all Ways possible, to be encouraged;
In order thereunto, we humbly propose;
That the Husbands of such Wives as can spin upon the double Wheel, and do follow that Employment, either in Teaching or Working, shall have the same Immunities and Privileges that are hereafter proposed to be granted to Linen-weavers, and other Workers in Hemp or Flax; though their said Husbands are of other Trades and Employments:
That at every Summer Assizes it may be lawful for any Female Inhabitant, of each County respectively, to come there, and shew her Skill in Spinning on the double Wheel; and that she that shall there, in One Hour, spin the most and best Thread, to be judged of by the Grand Jury, shall have Ten Pounds paid her upon the Place, by an Officer to be appointed thereto by the Directors; and, moreover, be recorded in Court a Mistress Spinner, and thereof have a Certificate delivered to her, in Parchment, without Fees, under the Hands of the Judge, the Sheriff, the Foreman of the Jury, and such of the Justices of the Peace as will sign it; which shall entitle her, and her Husband, whenever she shall be married, to a Freedom in any City, Town, Borough, or Corporation, in Ireland, to set up there what Trade he or she shall think fit; with an Exemption to the said Husband, during his Life, from serving on all Juries, and bearing any Manner of Office which he himself shall not be willing to undergo:
And to the end no Person, by reason of Poverty, or Distance from the Place where the Assizes are held, may be hindered from shewing her Skill upon the double Wheel, and may be somewhat considered for the Charge in coming and bringing her Wheel and Flax, every one that comes, and can spin so well on the double Wheel as to be capable of a Trial to be a Mistress Spinner, shall be allowed Two-pence per Mile, from the Place of her Habitation to the Place of the Assizes, to be paid by the same Officer to be appointed thereunto by the Directors, as aforesaid:
That if any double Wheel Spinner, during her following that Way of Living, shall, by Sickness, or other Calamity, be disabled from getting a Livelihood by Spinning, as she used to do, and be thereby reduced to the publick Relief, she shall have double the Allowance that any other Person in her Circumstances hath, or is wont to have:
That it shall also be lawful for any Weaver to bring any Piece of Linen Cloth, of his own Weaving, to the Summer Assizes of the County whereof he is an Inhabitant, as a Sample of his Workmanship; and that the Foreman of the Grand Jury, together with some Persons skilled in Linen Cloth, to be appointed by the Court, and an Officer appointed thereunto by the Directors, shall, upon Oath, give their Judgments which Piece of Cloth, amongst all that are so produced, is best and most workmanlike woven: whereupon, the Piece of Cloth that shall be thus judged best woven shall be cut in Two equal Pieces, to prevent its being again produced; and the Weaver who wove-it shall have Ten Pounds paid him upon the Place, by the aforesaid Officer; shall be recorded in Court a Master Weaver, and shall there receive a Certificate, as before expressed in the Case of a Mistress Spinner; which shall entitle him to a Freedom in any City, Town, Borough, or Corporation, in Ireland, there to set up and practice the said Trade of Linenweaving; with an Exemption from serving on Juries, and bearing any Manner of Office that he is not willing to undergo, so long as he continues the said Trade:
That the like Reward and Privileges, in each County, be also granted to him who shall, at the Summer Assizes, produce the best Piece of Sail-cloth, made the same Year, within the same County; and that the said Piece of Sailcloth be thereupon cut in Two equal Pieces, to prevent its being again produced:
That all the Money that shall be so paid at each Assizes, by the Officers appointed thereunto by the Directors, shall be set down in a Bill, which shall be signed by a Judge of the Assizes, and the Sheriff, to vouch that Article of the said Officer's Account:
Provided always, That none of the foregoing Rewards of Ten Pounds, upon any of the foregoing Trials, be allowed to any Person more than once.
But, because no such publick Manufactures can, at its first Setting up, subsist of itself in a new Place, and hold up against, much less gain upon, the same Trade already settled and established elsewhere; therefore, for defraying the Charge of bringing into Ireland Persons skilled in the Sowing, Dressing, or any ways Improving, of Hemp, Flax, or any Manufactures made thereof, or in Spinning on the double Wheel; together with the several other Charges in Schools, Bleacheries, Magazines, and Rewards, before or hereafter mentioned, with others also that may be necessary; and likewise for sustaining the Losses that may be made in the Infancy of this Undertaking, by taking off any Parcels of Linen Cloth from the Makers, at such reasonable Rates as may enable them to live by their Trade; we humbly further propose.
That every Female above Fourteen Years old, excepting those of such Families as, by reason of Poverty, are exempt from Taxes, shall, every Year, deliver unto such Persons as shall be appointed in each Parish, Twelve Lays of good, found, merchantable, and unbleached, Linen Yarn, or Thread, each Lay containing in Length Two hundred Yards, and the whole Twelve Lays not weighing above Eight Ounces Averdupois; or if they do, then, for each Ounce they weigh more, the Party so bringing them shall deliver Two Ounces of the like merchantable Yarn, or Thread, over and above the Twelve Lays before mentioned:
That every Male above Fourteen Years of Age, not in holy Orders, shall every Year deliver, as aforesaid, One Pound of merchantable Raw Flax, and One Pound of like merchantable Hemp:
That all Parents also, who neglect to send their Children to the Spinning Schools, as before proposed, shall deliver, as aforesaid, the like Quantity of Twelve Lays, or more, of Linen Yarn, or Thread, for every Child, Male and Female, not sent accordingly to the said Schools:
That, in order to this Collection of Linen Yarn, Hemp, and Flax, to be yearly made in each County, as early as may be in the Spring, the Ministers and Churchwardens in each Parish shall, every Year, before the Twenty-fifth Day of March, make and sign a perfect and true List of all Persons, in their respective Parishes, liable to the said Contributions; in Conformity to which List, the said Churchwardens shall forthwith make the whole Collection of the said Contributions of Thread, Hemp, and Flax, within their said respective Parishes, and deliver it, together with the said List, to the Linen-Collector, who is to be appointed by the Directors for that Purpose, when he demands it:
That whosoever shall fail to deliver to the Churchwardens, upon Demand, his or her respective Contribution of Linen Yarn, Flax, or Hemp, as before proposed, shall forfeit One Shilling, to be levied by Distress; which Distress the Churchwardens shall be impowered and required to make, and account for, to the said Linen Collector.
That all the Linen Yarn thus collected shall be bleached the same Summer; and afterwards sold, or made into Cloth, as shall be thought best by the Directors:
That all the Flax also, and Hemp, thus collected, shall be either sold, or further manufactured, as the said Directors shall think fit.
But, left the Profit arising from the aforesaid Contributions should not be sufficient to give the Encouragement, and bear the Losses and Expences, necessary for the Support of the said Manufacture, especially in the First Beginning of it; we are humbly of Opinion;
That it may be requisite a Fund shall be raised, by an Imposition of Two-pence per Pound on Tobacco imported into Ireland; which Imposition, so laid, will but raise the Duties upon that Commodity in Ireland to an Equality with what is now paid upon Tobacco spent in England:
That what Money is raised upon the said Duty of Two-pence per Pound, shall be monthly paid in to the Treasurer of the said Linen Manufacture, who is to be appointed by the Directors, and to whom the Linen-Collectors of each County, and other Officers concerned in any Receipts and Payments by Order of the said Directors, shall be accountable from time to time:
That the said Treasurer shall, once every Year, give in a clear Account, and perfect State, of the publick Revenue, and Contributions given for the carrying on the said Linen Manufacture, unto the Lord Lieutenant, or Lords Justices, of Ireland, or to such Person or Persons as shall be authorized and appointed by them to examine and audite the said Account; to the end that, upon stating thereof, so much as shall be found remaining an Overplus, not expended, or lost, in the Management of the said Manufactures, may be deducted out of the next Year's Tax upon Tobacco, and paid into his Majesty's Treasury, for publick Uses:
That the said Treasurer shall give such Security for his faithful Discharge for the Trust reposed in him, as the Lord Lieutenant, or Lords Justices, and Council, in Ireland, shall think fit; and that, for the Reward of his Pains in the Execution of his said Office, he shall have per Pound upon all Receipts and Disbursements of Money that shall pass his Hands; or what other Reward, or Salary, the said Directors shall think fit:
That all other Officers employed in the Management of this Manufacture, under the Directors, shall have such Salaries, and give such Securities, as the said Directors shall think fit:
That the said Directors shall have the full and sole Power and Authority to nominate and appoint, not only the Officers already mentioned, but so many, and such others also, as they shall think necessary and proper for the good and orderly Management of this whole Undertaking; and to turn out any of the said Officers, and put others in their Places, at their Pleasure:
Provided always, That no Person so near of Kin to any of the said Directors as a Cousin-German shall be capable of any Place or Employment under them;
And that whoever gives, or takes, any Reward for any Employment in this Manufacture, more than the Salary allowed and appointed by the said Directors, shall absolutely, and without Remission, forfeit his respective Place and Employment:
That the said Directors shall likewise have full Power and Authority in all Things whatsoever relating to the Conduct and Management of this whole Affair; as, particularly (where it shall be necessary for the Improvement and Carrying on of the Linen Manufacture) to provide Bleacheries; to erect Magazines, Work-houses, and other public Buildings; to order the Buying and Selling of any thing, in such manner as they judge expedient; to direct the Levying of the several Contributions beforementioned; to order all Receipts and Payments of Money; to regulate and appoint the Breadth, Length, and other Qualities, of the several Sorts of Linen Cloth to be made by their Direction; to give what Names to each Sort they think fit; to appoint an uniform Length of Reels, whereupon to wind the Linen Yarn (which Length, it is supposed, may most conveniently be such, as to contain Two Yards in Circumference); and to do whatever other Things, and make whatever other Regulations, they conceive necessary and proper, for the Improvement of Hemp and Flax in Ireland, and all Manufactures made out of them; and, more particularly, for the carrying on of the Linen Manufacture there to due Perfection: All which Regulations by them made, they are to take care to see duly observed, and that the Transgressors thereof, in any Point, be prosecuted, and brought to such condign Punishment, as is or shall, by Law, be provided:
That all Justices of Peace, and other Officers, be aiding and assisting to the said Directors, and those employed by them, in the Execution of the Trust committed to them:
And forasmuch as the whole Success of this Undertaking seems, unavoidably, to depend upon the Fidelity, Skill, and Diligence of the said Directors, in the Management of it; we having observed, on the one Side, how great Salaries are apt to tempt Men to undertake Things, which they are neither skilled in, nor careful of: by which means, those Undertakings fall, and come to nothing, to the great Detriment of the Publick; and, on the other Side, when, to avoid this Inconvenience, any Manufacture is put into the Hands and Management of a Company, how the Greediness of present Gain occasions Stock-Jobbing, or Contests amongst themselves about sharing the Profit, whilst the Improvement thereof is neglected; whereof we have, in this Kingdom, too many Instances:
To prevent, therefore, the foresaid Mischiefs, on both Sides, we humbly propose;
That the said Directors be rewarded for employing their Time and Care in the Management of this Business, in such a Method and Manner as may lay upon them the highest Obligation imaginable to Fidelity and Diligence therein, by the Increase of their own private Advantage, in proportion to the Improvements they shall make in the Business committed to their Charge:
To which Purpose, we are humbly of Opinion,
That there be Five Directors, honest and able Men, Lovers of their Country, and such as, being willing to take the Employment upon them, shall be nominated and authorized thereunto by Parliament:
That they shall have each of them One hundred Pounds per Annum Salary, to begin from the Time that by their Management, there shall be double the Number of Looms employed in the Weaving of Linen in Ireland, as were employed in it at the passing of the Act, that shall be thought expedient to be made, for the Establishment of that Manufacture; of which Looms, so employed at the Passing of that Act, an exact Account is therefore to be taken:
That, from the Time the Looms there shall be Three times as many as they were at the passing of the said Act, the said Directors shall have each of them Three hundred Pounds per Annum:
That, from the Time the Looms there shall be Four times as many as they were at the passing the said Act, the said Directors shall have each of them Five hundred Pounds per Annum:
That from the Time the said Linen Manufacture shall be there able to subsist of itself, by its own Gains, without any Allowance, or Contribution, from the Publick, for its Support or Encouragement, each of the said Directors shall have One thousand Pounds per Annum:
That if the said Manufacture shall so subsist, and go on, of itself, as to be able to supply the whole Kingdom of Ireland with Linen, the said Directors shall have each of them One thousand Pounds per Annum for their Lives:
And if this proposed Undertaking shall, by them, be brought to that Perfection, as that Ireland shall send forth yearly, to foreign Markets, to the Value of One hundred thousand Pounds in their native Hemp, Flax, or Manufactures of any kind made out of them, the said Directors shall then have each of them, One thousand Pounds per Annum settled upon them, and their Heirs for ever:
That upon the Death of any One of the said Directors, the Survivors shall, from time to time, choose another, to keep up the Number full.
That this Act shall be in Force for Twenty-one Years; but that all the personal Privileges which shall be granted to any one, by virtue thereof, remain good to him, during his or her Life, though they should outlive the said One-and-twenty Years.
All which, nevertheless, is most humbly submitted to your Excellencies great Wisdom.
Whitehall, August the 31st, 1697.
Signed, J. Bridgwater,
The said Copy of a Representation, with Amendments to the Bill for encouraging the Linen and Hempen Manufacture in Ireland; viz.
To their Excellencies the Lords Justices.
May it please your Excellencies,
IN Obedience to your Excellencies Order in Council, dated the 28th of the last Month, referring unto our Consideration a Bill lately transmitted out of Ireland, for encouraging the Linen and Hempen Manufacture in that Kingdom: and requiring us, upon advising with his Majesty's Attorney-General, to propose to your Excellencies such Alterations and Additions to the said Bill as we judge may make the same more effectual to the Purposes intended; we, herewithal, most humbly lay before your Excellencies such Alterations and Additions to the said Bill, as, upon Advice with his Majesty's AttorneyGeneral, we humbly conceive may accordingly make it more effectual.
All which, nevertheless, we most humbly submit to your Excellencies great Wisdom.
Whitehall, 11 November 1697.
(N° C.) Alterations and Additions to a Bill transmitted out of Ireland, for encouraging the Linen and Hempen Manufacture in that Kingdom.
The Title to stand.
The Preamble, being Eight Lines, to the Word "and," in the 9th Line, to stand.
The First Enacting Clause, beginning, with the Word "And," in the 9th Line, and ending next before the Word "And," writ in Capital Letters, in the 26th Line, to stand, except the Words "to continue for ever," in the 13th Line, which are to be left out; and, instead of them, to be inserted "to continue Twenty-one Years."
All the rest of the Lines of the First Skin, from the said Word "And," in the 26th Line; and all the Lines in the 2d, 3d, and 4th Skins; and the Two First Lines, to the Word "And," in the 3d Line of the 5th Skin; to stand.
The First Enacting Clause in the 5th Skin, beginning with the Word "And," in Capital Letters, in the 3d Line, and ending before the Word "And," in Capital Letters, in the 11th Line, to stand; with these Amendments; viz.
In the 4th Line, leave out the Words "for ever;" and, in the 5th Line, after the Words "shall have," leave out the Words "a perpetual Succession," and, instead thereof, insert the Words "Succession for Twenty-one Years."
From the Word "And," in Capital Letters, in the 11th Line of the 5th Skin, to the End of the said Skin; and to the Word "And," in Capital Letters, in the 37th Line of the 6th Skin; to stand; leaving out the Words "for ever," in Two Places, in the 12th Line of the 5th Skin; and inserting, after the Word "enter," and before the Word "his," in the 23d Line of the 6th Skin, the Words "or cause to be entered."
And from the Word "And," in Capital Letters, in the 37th Line in the 6th Skin, ending with the Word "convict," in the 40th Line, to stand.
And from the said Word "convict," to the Word "And," in Capital Letters, in the 43d Line, to be left out; and, instead thereof, insert, "by due Course of Law; and the Fines that shall be set by such Court, where the said Person is convicted, to go, one Half to the Informer, and the other Half to the Corporation of such County where the said Offence shall be committed."
And from the said Word "And," in the 43d Line of the 6th Skin, to the Word "And," in Capital Letters, in the First Line of the 9th Skin, to stand.
And from the said Word "And," in the First Line of the 9th Skin, to the Word "all," in the 4th Line of the said Skin, to be left out; inserting, instead thereof, the Words, "Be it further Enacted, by the Authority aforesaid, That all native or foreign Linen."
And from the Word "Weavers," in the 4th Line of the said Skin, to the Word "Kingdom," in the 7th Line of the said Skin, to stand.
And from the Word "Kingdom," in the 7th Line of the 9th Skin, to the Word "And," in Capital Letters, in the 26th Line of the said Skin, to be left out.
And from the said Word "And," in the 26th Line of the 9th Skin, to the Word "and," in small Letters, in the 7th Line of the 10th Skin, to stand.
And from the said Word "and," in the 7th Line of the said Skin, to the Word "viz." in the 8th Line of the said Skin, to be left out.
From the said Word "viz." in the 8th Line of the said Skin," to the Word "for," in the 11th Line, to stand.
And from the said Word "for," in the said Skin, to the Word "Pence," in the 12th Line, to be left out.
And from the said Word "Pence," in the 12th Line, to the Word "Mark," in the 36th Line, to stand.
From the said Word "Mark," to the Word "Pounds," in the 43d Line of the said Skin, to be left out.
From the Word "Pounds," to the Word "Pence," in the 48th Line of the said Skin, to stand.
From the said Word "Pence," to the Word "Pence," in the 50th Line of the said Skin, to be left out.
From the said Word "Pence," in the 50th Line, to the Word "Pence," in the 51 Line of the said Skin, to stand.
From the said Word "Pence," in the 51th Line of the said Skin, to the End of the 25th Line of the 11th Skin to stand.
From the Word "And," beginning the 26th Line of the said 11th Skin, to the End of the said Skin, to be left out.
"And be it further Enacted, That the said Directors in each County shall, once every Year, pay to such Persons as shall appear to them to be the most expert in Spinning on the double Wheel, Five Pounds to each; and to such Weaver that shall appear to them most skilful in Weaving of Sail-cloth, also the Sum of Five Pounds: Provided, That no such Sums of Five Pounds shall be paid to one and the said Persons more than once.
"And be it further Enacted, That all Females above the Age of Fourteen Years, excepting those of such Families as, by reason of Poverty, are exempt from Taxes, shall, every Year, deliver to such Persons as shall be appointed by the Directors to receive it, in each Parish, Twelve Lays of good, found, merchantable, unbleached Linen Yarn, or Thread, each Lay to contain in Length Two-hundred Yards, and the whole Twelve Lays not to weigh above Eight Ounces Averdupois; and that every Male above Fourteen Years of Age, not in holy Orders, nor of such Families as, by reason of Poverty, are exempt from Taxes, shall, every Year, deliver to such Persons, in each Parish, appointed by the Directors as aforesaid, One Pound of merchantable Raw Flax, and One Pound of like merchantable Raw Hemp; the Persons so to be appointed by the said Directors to receive the said Linen, Thread and Yarn, Hemp and Flax, within the Bounds of the respective Parishes: And in case such Persons as are liable, by this Act, to deliver the said Yarn, Thread, Hemp, or Flax, do fail in the Delivery thereof, each of them shall forfeit One Shilling, to be levied by the same Person or Persons that shall be appointed by the said Directors to recover the said Duty, by Distress of their Goods and Chattels.
"And be it further Enacted, That all such Linen, Yarn, Thread, Hemp, or Flax, thus collected, shall be sold and disposed of, by the said Directors of the respective Counties, and the Product thereof, and what shall be received by the Fines and Forfeitures appointed by this Act, shall be the Fund or Stock, for defraying the Charge of the said Corporations, in each County respectively, and for promoting and encouraging the said Manufacture.
"Provided, That this Act shall continue in Force for Twenty-one Years, and from thence to the End of the next Session of Parliament, and no longer."
(N° D.) The said Copy of a Representation upon the general State of the Trade of this Kingdom; viz.
To the King's Most Excellent Majesty.
May it please your Majesty,
Preface relating to the Commission.
YOUR Majesty, by your Commission, having required us, amongst other Things, to inquire, examine, and take an Account of, the State and Condition of the general Trade of England, and also of the several particular Trades to all foreign Parts, and how the same respectively are advanced or decayed, and the Causes and Occasions thereof; and to inquire into, and examine, what Trades are or may prove hurtful, or are or may be made beneficial; and how advantageous Trades may be improved and extended, and such as are hurtful and prejudicial rectified or discouraged; and to inquire into the several Obstructions of Trade, and the Means of removing the same; and also, in what Manner, and by what proper Methods, Trade may be most effectually protected and secured, in all the Parts thereof; and to consider by what Means the several useful and profitable Manufactures, already settled, may be further improved, and how, and in what manner, new and profitable Manufactures may be introduced:
TRADE in General.
We have made Inquiries into the State of Trade in general, from the Year 1670, to the present Time; and, upon the best Calculations we can make, by the Duties paid at the Custom-house, we are of Opinion, That Trade in general did considerably increase from the End of the Dutch War in 1673, to Anno 1688, when the late War began: But, Trade being subject to many Accidents and Variations, and all Accounts and Informations, relating thereunto, being liable to Objections, it does not appear n what Proportion, nor how much, each Trade hath increased from Year to Year: But, finding that we have imported from some Countries, Goods to a much greater original Value than we have exported thither; and it being certain, that some private Persons may enrich themselves, by trading in Commodities which may, at the same time, diminish the Wealth and Treasure of the Nation, to which no Addition can be made by Trade, but what is gained from Foreigners, and foreign Countries; and that such an Over-balance has not been made good by any Circulation in Trade or Exchange, so as to make such Trades advantageous to this Nation, as they have, of late, been carried on; we have, in our Inquiries, particularly distinguished the same from others, that have a better Foundation; conceiving that such Trades have occasioned the Exportation of Coin, or Bullion, or hindered the Importation thereof.
TRADE with SWEDEN and the BALTICK .
The Iron, Hemp, Pitch, Tar, Wire, Masts, and Deals, (fn. 4) [imported] from Sweden, and the South Side of the Baltick Sea, we find, hath much increased upon us; and that the First Cost, of late Years, amounts to above 200,000£. per Annum; viz.
|Pitch and Tar||15,000||—||—|
|Copper, Masts, Deals, Furs, and other Goods||20,000||—||—|
And that the Ships employed of late, in that Trade are not above One Half English Bottoms; and that the King of Sweden did, about the Year 1680, lay a Duty of above 50 per Cent. upon our Woollen Manufacture imported there; and encouraged Woollen Manufactures in his own Dominions, carried on by the Help of Wool from England, as we are informed, but exported thither by Way of Scotland; and encouraged the Expence of such, by the Example of the Court; and also, having Anno 1696, laid such Difficulties on the English Merchants, as have constrained them to leave the Country, did, by this means, so discourage the Importation of English Goods, that we have not exported thither the Value of 40,000£. per Annum, since the laying of those Duties; by which, we are over-balanced about 200,000£. per Annum, in Goods and Freight.
DENMARK and NORWAY .
From Norway, and other Parts belonging to the King of Denmark, we find the Importation of Timber and Deals much augmented since the Fire of London, and Increase of Buildings; and so much thereof in foreign Bottoms, that, from Michaelmas 1691, to Michaelmas 1696, there were entered in the Custom-house at London 1,070 foreign Ships from those Parts, and but 39 of our Ships; English being charged there with some Duties more than Danes; and our Exportation of Goods thither not 10,000£. per Annum; those People supplying themselves with what they want, chiefly from Holland and Hambrough: And therefore, we are over-balanced in that Trade, by Goods and Freight, at least 150,000£. per Annum.
From France the Importations have gradually increased, from Anno 1670, to the Beginning of the late War, in Wines, Brandies, Silks, Linen, and many Sorts of other Goods; for though there was a Prohibition of French Wine during some of those Years, yet it was brought in under other Names; and, in the same Years, our Exportations thither have decreased.
The 1st Computation that we find of that Trade, stands in the Books we have in our Custody, in a Report made by Sir Geo. Downing, then One of the Commissioners of the Customs, to the Lords of the Privy-Council, then a Committee for Trade, dated the 9th of March 1675; where it is calculated, that in One Year there were imported from France, as many Silks as amounted to 300,000£.; Linens, 500,700£.; Wines, 11,000 Tuns; Brandies, 4,000 Tuns; computed, together, at 217,000£.; which, with Salt, Paper, Prunes, Vinegar, and other Commodities, upon the First Cost in France, amounted, in all, to 1,136,150£. 4s.; besides Point-laces, and what was brought in privately; and that our Exports to France, the same Year, amounted to but 171,021£. 6s. 8d.
And although we believe, that the Silks and Linens are over-valued in the said Report; yet we suppose, that the Goods then brought in privately, not there estimated, and the Increase of the Importation of Wine and Brandy, after that Time, are equivalent to that Over-valuation; for, by other Computations, we are informed, That, Anno 1685, the Wines imported thence amounted to above 20,000 Tuns, And the Brandies 6,000 Tuns; and, by the Receipt of the Excise, it appears, that in the Year ending at Midsummer 1689, the Imports of Brandies amounted to near 8,000 Tuns; of which, we suppose, very little came then from any Place but France; and we are informed, That the Wines that Year exceeded 20,000 Tuns.
And the French King having, Anno 1654, 1660, 1664, and 1667, increased the Duties on our Woollen Goods, and on our Lead, Tin, Coals, Tobacco, Sugar, Fish, and other Commodities, which are usually imported into his Dominions; and also laid an Imposition of 50Sols Tournois per Ton on all English Ships; and restrained the Importation of Woollen Manufactures to his Ports of Calais and Deipe, and other Goods to some other inconvenient Ports; and, in Anno 1686, laid great Duties on all East-India Goods, and restrained their Importation also to select Ports; and, at the same time, by Example and otherwise, encouraging the Consumption of the Cloths, Stuffs, Silks, and other Goods, made by his own People; all which amounted to a Prohibition, in many Cases, of receiving Goods from England; we are of Opinion, That we have been over-balanced in that Trade, in most of the said Years, about One Million per Annum.
From the East Indies, our Importations, from the Year 1670 to Anno 1688, have amounted, upon the Sales here, to about 1,000,000£. per Annum, as we are informed; of which, we suppose, about One Half is usually re-exported; and our Exports in Goods, for those Parts, did not exceed 70,000£. per Annum; and in Bullion, entered by the Company, from the Year 1675 to 1685, about 400,000£. per Annum: But what was more exported in Bullion, for the Carrying on of that Trade from England and Spain, by private Traders to those Parts, we have no certain Information.
SPAIN, PORTUGAL, ITALY, TURKEY, BARBARY, and GUINEA.
From Spain, Portugal, Italy, Turkey, Barbary, and Guinea, we humbly conceive, the Importations of Goods have not exceeded the Exportations; and that there come from those Parts many Goods that are improvable by a further Manufacture here; and, the said Trades being chiefly carried on by the Exportation of our Products and Manufactures, and very advantageous by the Re-exportation of Goods received from thence, we humbly conceive they deserve all Encouragement.
From your Majesty's Plantations in America, great Quantities of Sugar, Tobacco, and other Goods, are usually imported, exceeding much in Value the Goods exported thither: But, the better Half of such Goods being sent from hence to Markets abroad, after having paid considerable Duties here, although the more Southern Colonies are much more beneficial to England than the Northern, yet, being all contribute to the taking off great Quantities of our Woollen Goods, other Products, and Handicraft Wares, and to maintain and increase our Navigation; and the Inhabitants being your Majesty's Subjects, we humbly conceive, the Trade to and from those Colonies deserves the greatest Encouragement, and will be very advantageous, as long as the Acts of Navigation and Trade be duly observed.
And whereas the Planting and curing of Tobacco, Sugar, Cotton, Indigo, and Ginger, the chief Commodities of those Plantations, to make them most advantageous to this Nation, and beneficial to the Planters, is best carried on by the Labour of Negroes, we humbly conceive it convenient, that all Encouragement should be given, that the said Colonies be supplied plentifully with Negroes, and at the cheapest Rates.
The Trade to Hamburgh is very advantageous; for from that great Mart, most Part of Germany is supplied with our Woollen Manufactures, and other Commodities of the Growth of these Kingdoms, or of your Majesty's Plantations, which pay at Hamburgh but small Duties, by reason of the Privileges which your Majesty's Subjects enjoy there, preferably to all others; and our Returns thence are in Goods for necessary Use, and not such as feed Luxury; We, therefore, are humbly of Opinion, That this Trade have all Encouragement, as being very beneficial to this Nation, and to your Majesty's Subjects established there.
HOLLAND and FLANDERS.
From Flanders and Holland our Trades have been much enlarged, during the late War, from what they were before; and we do not foresee how they can hereafter have the Advantage of an Over-balance over us, if the Act of Navigation, prohibiting the Importation of Goods from any Country but such as are of their own Growth and Manufacture, and the Laws for prohibiting Lace from Flanders, &c. be duly observed and executed.
From Russia, our Importations, computed upon the first Cost there, have not exceeded our Exportations; and it is a Trade which, we suppose, may be improved, as well by the Expence of Tobacco, as of our Woollen and other Goods:
But the present Company, who have the sole Management of that Trade, being reduced to 13 Persons, are so small a Number, that it should not be so narrowly confined: Therefore, we are humbly of Opinion, That if more of your Majesty's Subjects were admitted into that Company, under small Fines, as is appointed in the Case of the Eastland Company, by the Act of 25 Car. IId. Cap. 7, it would be a Means to enlarge the said Trade, and make the Benefits more extensive to your Majesty's Subjects.
During the said Course of Years, our Fishing Trades to Newfoundland, Greenland and the Northern Seas, as likewise on our own Coast for Pilchards and Herrings, have decreased; occasioned, as we presume, by the Increase of other Trades, which have been found more beneficial to the Traders, and easy to the Seamen; which has drawn off our People from those Trades, and given Opportunities to Foreigners, more used to hard Labour and Diet, to get a great Share of them.
REMEDIES relating to SWEDEN , and the BALTICK .
To remedy the Inconveniency this Nation suffers by the Trade to Sweden, and the South Side of the Baltick; since your Majesty's Kingdom of Ireland is capable to afford Hemp and Flax, which may be brought thence in English Ships, and, probably, within a short time, may be improved and increased, to be as good, and as cheap, as what comes from those Places; we humbly conceive, if, besides the Encouragements given by an Act, made in the 7th and 8th Years of your Majesty's Reign, intituled, An Act for encouraging the Linen Manufacture of Ireland; and bringing Flax and Hemp into, and making of Sail-cloth in, this Kingdom; and what we humbly represented, upon that Subject, the 31st of August last; a further Inducement could be given by your Majesty's Commissioners of the Navy, by settling a Fund in Ireland, to take from thence what Hemp they may want for your Majesty's Navy, at such Rates paid there, in ready Money, as may be thought sufficient to encourage the Sowing and Cultivating of that Commodity there; it may so far be promoted, that, in a shorttime, that Kingdom may produce Hemp and Flax sufficient, not only to furnish themselves for carrying on the Linen Manufacture, but this Kingdom; also, with what may be necessary for all Occasions: And if the Agents lately sent, by your Majesty's Directions, to New-England, in order to have Pitch, Tar, and Copper, from thence have the Success designed; and the Use of English Iron, and what comes from Bilboa, be promoted, in all Cases, where the Advantage the Swedish Iron hath, by Toughness, doth not make it absolutely necessary, it may be hoped, this Trade may be brought to near a Balance in a short time: But if the King of Sweedland could be prevailed with to revoke his Order, made in 1680, by which he laid great Duties on English Goods; and to grant a Permission to the English Merchants, that they may reside in Stockholme, and other Parts of his Dominions, with an Exemption from high Duties, and with such Privileges as may enable them to trade freely, as usually granted to your Majesty's Subjects by other Princes in Amity with your Majesty; it would also contribute to make this Trade more easy and beneficial.
REMEDIES relating to DENMARK and NORWAY.
To remedy the Inconveniencies this Nation suffers by the Trade to Denmark, being the Carriage of bulky Goods, which employ most Shipping, amounts to near as much as the first Cost; and the Ships only proper for that Trade are those commonly called Catts, not convenient for any other Trade but for that and the Swedish; being we have not any Number of them of English Built, nor can build any of them but with double the Cost of what are built in foreign Parts; and that we cannot build a sufficient Number for the Carrying on of that Trade, without, probably, losing more by the Carriage of such Goods, in the mean time, than the Ships may cost; and being also they will be useful to balance the Trade with Swedland; we humbly conceive it may be convenient, That it be enacted, That all Ships that may be employed in the Trade to Denmark or Sweden, bought within the Term of Five Years, and constantly owned, and failed, by the Natives of this Kingdom, may be naturalized, and have the Privilege of English-built Ships: And, for promoting the Consumption of our Goods there, a Privilege obtained for our Merchants to reside and trade freely, paying small Duties on all Goods from England, and nothing extraordinary imposed on English Ships, would be a means to consume more Goods, there, and employ more of our Ships, and alter the Balance of that Trade.
REMEDIES relating to FRANCE.
To remedy the Inconveniencies that may be apprehended by a Trade with France; being the Goods formerly imported from thence did so much exceed our Exports, and may again if that Trade be laid open, and this Nation should run into the like fond Expence of Commodities from thence, before your Majesty be assured of a Relaxation of the Edicts there, and such Freedom allowed to your Subjects as may afford a mutual Conveniency, by the Consumption of our Goods there; being the French King did, by several Arrests and Tariffs, before the late War, impose such Duties and Restraints upon many of the Goods usually exported hence, as amounted to a Prohibition; and hath, as we are informed, since the late Peace, by an Edict of the 19th of October last, in general Words, referring to all Nations, confirmed the same with some additional Severities, and expressly prohibiting the Importation of the most valuable EastIndia Goods; we humbly conceive. That the Duties and Impositions now charged on French Goods cannot be taken off without laying this Nation open to a great Disadvantage by that Trade, till, by a Treaty of Commerce, Matters relating to Trade can be settled on such Conditions as may prevent the like Over-balance for the future.
And whereas Trade depends on Sale and Consumption; and that nothing but a Lessening of the Expence of French Goods can, probably, reduce that Trade to a Balance; we humbly propose, That the Wearing and Using, of our home-made Silks, Cloth, Stuffs, and other useful Goods, may be encouraged by your Majesty's Royal Example, and the Example of your Court; and that the Manufacture in this Kingdom of Lustrings and Alamodes, and of all other Silks, and of Linen, and Paper, may be promoted; which may be a means not only to lessen the Importation from France, but to give a large Employment to your People here.
And whereas Brandy, before the Year 1660, was imported in so small Quantity, that we do not find any Mention of it in the Book of Rates then made; and the Expence of it hath since increased to near 8,000 Tuns per Annum, which, reckoning one Sort with another at 20£. per Tun, may cost in France near 160,000£. annually; since it hath been found, by Experience, to have occasioned Debauchery, prejudicial to the Health of your Majesty's Subjects, and Loss of many of their Lives; and proved a great Hindrance to the Consumption of Malt; if it could be totally prohibited, we humbly conceive, it would be for the Good of your People, and Ease of the Nation, in carrying on of this Trade.
REMEDIES relating to EAST INDIA.
To remedy, in some manner, the inconvenience which may arise from the Exportation of Bullion to the EastIndies, we humbly conceive, That, unless the East-India Company shall make it appear, that their constant Reexportation of Goods brought from the East-Indies, do occasion the Bringing in of as much Bullion as they first carried out, it may be requisite, that the Wearing or Consumption of the manufactured Goods of India, Persia, or China, made of Silk, or Herb, or mixt with either of those Materials, as also of painted or stained Callicoes, and of all Handicraft Wares, imported from those Parts, be discouraged and lessened in these Kingdoms, and your Majesty's Plantations in America.
And whereas a great Trade may be carried on from one Part of the East Indies to another, in English Shipping, by which so much Gain may be made as will procure a great Part of the Goods we receive from thence; we therefore humbly conceive, That Trade ought to be much encouraged.
REMEDIES relating to FISHERIES.
To remove the Difficulties under which our Fisheries for Greenland, and upon our own Coasts, and the Coasts of Ireland, now labour, we humbly conceive, That the Greenland Company, and the Royal Fishery of England, being, as we are informed, now intent upon the exerting some new Endeavours, in pursuance of each of their respective Powers, the said Companies do deserve all possible Encouragement, as Occasion, from time to time, shall require.
And for the Newfoundland Fishery, after the Care your Majesty has already taken, in the Recovery of that Country, and fortifying St. John's, the principal Harbour there, for the Security thereof; we can at present add nothing further, than that there be a due Execution of the Western Charter; and that your Majesty would be pleased to allow, from time to time, proper Convoys for the Security of those Ships from Sally Men, and other Sea-Rovers, that are used to molest that Trade.
We have also, in pursuance of your Majesty's said Commission, made Inquiries into the State and Condition of our Manufactures; and how they may be improved.
We are of Opinion, That the Woollen Manufacture, which we take to be the most valuable, hath very much increased since the Year 1670, and that our Weavers and Makers are improved in making several useful Sorts, with great Variety: But we find, that it is in Danger to be much prejudiced by the Growth of the like Manufactures made in other Countries, much promoted by Wool carried from England, Scotland, and Ireland: We are informed, That great Quantities are frequently landed in Holland from Scotland, which we suppose is most carried thither out of England or Ireland; particularly, there was landed at Rotterdam, from Scotland, in (fn. 5) [the Beginning of] October last, 982 Bags; and that from Rumny-Marsh, and other Places on the Coast of Kent and Sussex, there hath been imported into Calais, and other Parts in France, according to the best Computation we can get, near 2,000 Sacks, per Annum, ever since this War; each Sack containing 240 lb.; which Wool, unwrought, thus carried out, is so great a Help to the Working up of Wool of foreign Growth, that other Nations do now make great Quantities of Woollen Manufactures, to the great Hindrance of those made in England, and Detriment of this Nation.
WOOLLEN MANUFACTURE in IRELAND.
We also find, That the Woollen Manufacture in Ireland hath increased since the Year 1665, as follows;
|New Draperies.||Old Draperies.||Frize.|
Upon Consideration of all which, we humbly conceive, That it is also absolutely necessary, for the Preservation of this Manufacture, that the Laws against carrying of Wool out of England into Scotland, and out of Ireland to any Place but England, and those against carrying it out of England unwrought, may be strictly put in Execution: And, in order to divert your Majesty's Subjects in Ireland from their Application to the Woollen Manufacture, that all possible Encouragement be given them towards carrying on that of the Linen; that, having a full Employment therein, the Woollen may be entirely reserved to England.
We also find, That the Manufacture of Silk hath much increased since the Year 1670; and that our English Weavers do make several Sorts as good as any made in foreign Parts; but that the Weavers are under a great Discouragement to make them, and the Shop-keepers to store their Shops with them, left the Sale of them should be hindered by Silk from France, especially such as depend upon Figures and Fashions; those coming from thence being generally preferred by the Consumer, before what is invented by our Weavers here.
We do not find, That the Linen Manufacture in this Kingdom hath made any great Progress of late: The Stock subscribed for that Purpose was soon diverted by a Stock-jobbing Trade; and, thereby, the Corporation disabled to promote it: And though that Corporation do still subsist, they have not any Looms; but what Linens they sell at their Sales, are only such as they buy of Weavers in Yorkshire, Durham, and Lancashire: But we find, not only those, but other Counties, are capable to afford great Quantities of Hemp and Flax; and therefore, as good Linen, for all ordinary Uses, may be made in England, as any that comes from abroad; and it is a Manufacture that would be of great Use for the Employment of both Sexes, from Five Years old and upwards; and that, in remote Counties, Wages are cheap, and the People inclined to carry on the said Manufacture; which, if it could be increased, would give a great Employment to the Poor, and prevent the Importation of great Quantities of Linens now imported on us from France, and other foreign Countries: Wherefore, we are humbly of Opinion, That Encouragement be given to the said Manufacture, by keeping on a considerable Duty on all Linens imported, except from Ireland; and by such other Ways as may be thought convenient.
We find, That the Paper Manufacture hath also been hindered by the Perversion of the Stock subscribed for that Purpose, into a Stock-jobbing Trade: The Corporation now in being having but Eight Mills of their own; they make, as we are informed, of all Sorts, about 100,000 Reams per Annum, of white Paper:
We humbly conceive, it is also a very useful Manufacture, deserving all Encouragement; and that we may improve, to make as good as what comes from abroad: But the want of white Rags, which are the chief Material for that Commodity, hath proved a great Hindrance to the Progress of it:
But, for the Encouragement of it, we humbly conceive, That all Paper imported ought to pay a higher Duty than Paper made at home.
OBSTRUCTIONS to TRADE.
We have also inquired into the Obstructions in Trade; and how such may be removed, to render it more beneficial; and are humbly of Opinion, That, by the great Changes and Variations which have happened in Trade, since the making the Book of Rates, Anno 1660, and some Impositions since laid on Commodities, the Duties collected have proved great Obstructions to some Trades, and given Advantage to our neighbouring Nations; as the Duties on coarse Sugars, and Materials for Dyeing, and on some other Goods, by what is repaid by Debentures when re-exported, being made cheaper to be manufactured in foreign Parts, than here at home; which hath occasioned the Loss of a great Part of our Dyeing Trade, and of that of refining Sugars, and of some others; and, by the Fall in Price of some Commodities, and Advance of others, since the making of that Book, the Duties now collected are unequal; and being, that of 1,400 Commodities there enumerated, we do not find above 400 useful for a further Manufacture, or for Naval Stores, nor often re-exported, except to the Plantations; the rest being most Goods and Handicraft Wares, perfectly manufactured abroad, or Commodities only useful to increase Luxury, consumed at home; and, under the Title of Customs outward, some of the Manufactures and Products of this Nation charged with considerable Duties, which we suppose hath proved a Hindrance to their Exportation:
Wherefore, for a general Relief to Trade, and for preventing all Advantages taken by our neighbouring Nations, we humbly offer, That a Book of Rates be made, wherein due Care may be taken in settling of the several Rates and Duties, by easing those Commodities that are for a further Manufacture, or otherwise necessary or convenient; and by loading such other Commodities as may appear hurtful to England; which, without diminishing your Majesty's Revenue, may remove most Obstructions, that are now obvious, in the carrying on of such Trades as are good, and be a Hindrance, or final Discouragement, to such as are bad.
TRANSFERRING of BONDS, &c .
And, whereas a great Part of Trade is carried on by Credit and Trust in dealing; we humbly conceive, if it were enacted, That it shall not hereafter be in the Power of any Person that hath, by any Writing under his Hand, testified by Two Witnesses, assigned or transferred any Bond, Bill, or Note, made to him by any other Person, to make void, release, or discharge the said Bond, Bill, or Note, or any of the Money due on such Bond, Bill, or Note, or any Part thereof, after such Assignment; but that such Assignee shall have the same Right, Power, and Authority to sue such Person, indebted by such Bond, Bill, or Note, in his own Name, and to recover the Money so due, as if such Bond, Bill, or Note, had been made originally to himself; that then Traders would more frequently take Bonds, Notes, or Bills, for such Goods as they may sell, to be paid at time; and would transfer and assign the same to others, as their Occasions may require; and thereby make such Bonds, Bills, and Notes, very useful and subservient for the carrying on and increasing of Trade.
BY-LAWS of CORPORATIONS.
And, having observed, that, among the several Statutes formerly made relating to Trade, and the many By-laws of particular Corporations, there are some which prove Obstructions to the general Good of Trade; we are humbly of Opinion, That if a new Book of Rates be made, That may be a proper time to consider of those Laws, and to propose necessary Remedies.
SCOTCH EAST-INDIA COMPANY; PIRATES; and ACT of NAVIGATION.
And whereas we have upon several Occasions, represented to your Majesty the Dangers which threaten our Trade, from the Scotch East-India Company, and from the Increase of Pirates in the East and West-Indies; as also from the Breaches made upon the Act of Navigation; and other Matters referring to the Plantations; in which your Majesty hath been graciously pleased to signify your Royal Pleasure; we humbly conceive, it may not be necessary at present to repeat the same.
All which, nevertheless, is most humbly submitted.
Whitehall, 23 December 1697.
(N° E.) The said Copy of a Representation, upon a Memorial from the Turkey Company, relating to the East-India Company's interfering with them in the Vent of Woollen Manufactures in Persia; viz.
To the King's Most Excellent Majesty.
May it please your Majesty,
IN Obedience to your Majesty's Commands, signified to us by Mr. Secretary Trumbull, That we should hear the Turkey and East-India Company, upon the Matter of a Petition, presented to your Majesty by the Turkey Company, relating to the East-India Company's interfering with their Trade in the Woollen Manufacture; and thereupon report to your Majesty our Opinion; we most humbly represent to your Majesty;
That, having accordingly heard both the said Parties, and otherwise inquired into that Matter, we find, That the East-India Company being obliged, by a Clause in their Charter, for the better. Increase of Trade, yearly to export, and carry to the East-Indies, Goods of the Growth Product, or Manufacture, of this Kingdom, so many as shall amount to (fn. 6) [the Value of] One hundred thousand Pounds; they have thereupon, amongst other things, exported considerable Quantities of Draperies; but, not finding an advantageous Vent for them in India, they have afterwards transported a great Part thereof to Persia, and particularly to Tauris, and other Northern Parts of that Country, which were formerly supplied with Draperies from the Turkey Company's Factories at Constantinople, Smyrna, and principally Allepo:
That, by this means, though the East-India Company seem to have complied with the Words of their Charter; yet your Majesty's Intent and Meaning therein, as we humbly conceive, is wholly frustrated; their transporting such Quantities of Draperies to the Northern Parts of Persia having diminished the Turkey Company's Trade to those Parts, in the same, if not a greater, Proportion.
That, it is also justly to be feared, the Disturbance of so considerable a Trade as that of the Turkey Company, and turning it, in this manner, out of its ancient Channel, may be attended with many pernicious Consequences: And, amongst the rest, it is unquestionable, that, by the interfering of these Two Companies, in offering to Sale the same Commodity, in the same Market, the Price and Value of that Commodity, viz. our Woollen Manufacture, in those Parts, must of Necessity sink, to the manifest Prejudice of England.
Upon which Considerations, we are most humbly of Opinion, That in pursuance of the true End of the forementioned Clause in the East-India Company's Charter; viz. for the better Increase of Trade, and encouraging the Exportation of Goods and Merchandizes, of the Growth, Product, and Manufacture, of this Kingdom; it is not convenient, that the said Company should transport any greater Quantities of Draperies into Persia than they have formerly done; but that, by your Majesty's Recommendation and Influence, they be either induced, or else, by Act of Parliament, obliged, to vend the greater Quantities, which they are now required to send to the East-Indies, at whatsoever Market they find most convenient, either in India, China, Japan, or elsewhere, at such Distance from those Places where the Turkey Company have usually traded, as may prevent the Interfering, now complained of, between those Two Companies, and produce the intended Advantage to England, according to the said Clause.
All which, nevertheless, is most humbly submitted.
Whitehall, 19th January, 1697/8.
John Pollexfen, Abr. Hill.
(N°F.) The aforesaid Copy of a Representation on the Petition of the Turky Company, praying, That the new East-India Company may not be under any positive Obligation of exporting Draperies.
To their Excellencies the Lords Justices.
May it please your Excellencies,
HAVING in Obedience to his Majesty's Commands, humbly laid before his Majesty, the 19th of January last, our Opinion upon the Turky Company's Petition, relating to a Clause in the East-India Company's Charter, whereby they are obliged, yearly, to export to the EastIndies, Goods of the Growth, Product, or Manufacture, of this Kingdom, to the Value of 100,000l.; which the Turky Company complained of as prejudicial to their Trade, and even to the Interest of England, in the Vent of the Woollen Manufacture; and the Right Honourable Mr. Secretary Vernon having again signified to us his Majesty's Pleasure, upon the renewed Petition of the Turky Company, That the aforesaid Clause should be omitted in the new Charter, to be granted to the late Subscribers, and they left to their own Liberty in that Particular; requiring us to consider thereof; and report our Opinion, Whether it be for the Advantage of the Kingdom in general, that the said Clause be omitted in the new Charter, or how far it may be fit to be qualified for the best Improvement of Trade, and the greatest Exportation of the Woollen Manufacture; we humbly report to your Excellencies, in Confirmation of what we formerly laid before his Majesty, That, the East-India Company not having been able to vend in India the Quantities of Draperies, which, in Consequence of the said Clause, they were obliged to carry thither; and being forced, therefore, to transport a great Part thereof into Persia, which has really interfered with the Turky Company's Vent of those Commodities in that Country; we are humbly of Opinion, That this Kingdom hath not thereby received any manner of Advantage:
Yet, nevertheless, not thinking it advisable, that a Clause which has been thought to tend to the Consumption of our Woollen Manufacture, should be wholly omitted, we have discoursed with some of the principal Trustees for the late Subscribers, in order to the qualifying it, as required, in the best manner possible, for a National Interest; and, being satisfied by them, that it would not only be unreasonable, that they, whose Trade at first will be but small, though it may annually increase, should from the very Beginning, be put under the Obligation of exporting to a fixed Sum, so disproportionate to their Trade; but that it is even impossible to be complied withal, unless the whole Body of Traders to India were united in One single Company; and having understood from them, that, for the avoiding of these Difficulties, they had already consented, and, in some fort, agreed, with the Right Honourable the Lords Commissioners of his Majesty's Treasury, That, whatever the Value of their Trade should be, they would transport, annually, the Tenth Part of it, in the manner prescribed by the fore-mentioned Clause; we humbly represent to your Excellencies, That their said Agreement, or Proposal, in these Circumstances, appears unto us reasonable: And if thereunto be added, an Obligation upon them, That what Draperies they may thus export to India, they shall not themselves, or by their Agents, carry, or cause to be carried, into Persia; we humbly conceive, the Exportation of such Quantities, under such Restriction, will tend to the Advantage of this Kingdom.
All which, nevertheless, is most humbly submitted.
Whitehall, 9th August 1698.
(N° G.) The said Copy of a Representation, upon the said Two Bills transmitted from Ireland; the one laying a Duty upon Woollen Manufactures exported; and the other encouraging the Manufacture of Flax and Hemp.
To their Excellencies the Lords Justices.
May it please your Excellencies,
IN Obedience to your Excellencies Order in Council, of the 4th Instant, requiring us to consider of Two Bills lately transmitted from Ireland, intituled, An Act for laying an additional Duty upon Woollen Manufactures exported out of this Kingdom; and, an Act for encouraging the Manufactures of Flax and Hemp (a) [in this Kingdom]; and to report our Opinion upon them, with such Amendments and Additions as we should think necessary; we, having accordingly considered the same, do humbly report to your Excellencies;
That we conceive it not necessary to make any Alterations whatsoever in the first fore-mentioned Act; though we cannot but offer to your Excellencies Consideration, That the Duties thereby laid on Broad-Cloth, of which very little is made there, is 20 per Cent.; but the Duty on New Draperies, of which much is made, is but 10 per Cent.
And, upon the other Bill, we humbly offer unto your Excellencies the following Amendments and Additions, with the Reasons thereunto subjoined;
Skin 2 L. 38. after the Word "Default," add "and the said Grand Jury, after they have examined the said Account, shall give a fair Copy thereof, with their Opinion thereupon, unto the said Judge, or Judges, to be by them lodged in the Chancery of this Kingdom, for publick Satisfaction:"
This Addition, as we humbly conceive, will be a means to enforce the more careful Inspection of the Accounts hereby directed to be made; and, accordingly, tend to the publick Service.
Skin the 3d, Line the 2d, after the Words "for," and before the Word "in," add "yearly, at the Lent Assizes:"
We do not understand, that, by the Word in the Act, as they stand without this Addition, there is any Obligation to account for this 100l. per Annum, any more than One Year; because the 300l. unto which Reference is here made for the manner of accounting for this 100l. is to be accounted for but once.
Skin 4. L. 31. instead of the Words "and levied," write "levied, and accounted for:"
(a) [L. 33. instead of the Words "and disposed of," write "disposed of, and accounted for:"]
The Obligation upon any Receiver to account for the Money received, speaks its own Reason.
Skin 5. L. 18. instead of the Words "by deposed," write "be deposed:"
This is a literal Error.
Skin 6. L. 25. after the Word "Sessions," add "being satisfied, by the Report of such Justice or Justices of the Peace, with the Cause and Reason of their Committal of such Persons;" and, after the Word "make," leave out "such:"
L. 27. from the Word "for," in the Beginning of this Line, to the Words "and to the Intent," in the 34 Line, to be left out; and, instead thereof, write "the Space of Three Years longer; or, in case they are not satisfied with the Cause and Reason of their Committal of such Person, as aforesaid, to set them at Liberty: Provided always, That if, at any future Court of Quarter-Sessions, during the Continuance of the said Three Years, it shall seem reasonable unto the said Court, from the Deportment of any such Person or Persons, so committed and confined, that the said Person or Persons be discharged from such their Committal and Confinement before the Expiration of the Three Years, for which they stood so committed, it shall and may then be lawful for such Court, upon sufficient Security given, that such Person or Persons, as aforesaid, will duly apply themselves to Work and Labour, and will not beg, or use such loose or idle Course of Life, as aforesaid, during the Space of Three Years, to be reckoned from the Time of their giving such Security, and not otherwise, to make an Order, that any of the said Person or Persons be then discharged, and set at Liberty:"
We have observed, That, in the late Acts for erecting of Hospitals and Work-houses in the City of Bristol, and other Places in England, a Power is given to commit all such loose and idle Persons to Work-houses, and there keep them at Work for the Space of Three Years absolute; and, therefore, are of Opinion, That the same Time, under the Conditions here proposed, may be also proper in Ireland.
Skin 6. L. 42. instead of the Word "Eighteen," write One-and-Twenty;" and, instead of "Sixteen," write Eighteen:"
We humbly conceive, That the Continuance of Male and Female Children in Work-houses, or Workingschools, to the respective Years we have here set down, will be an Advantage not only to themselves, by continuing them at honest Labour during that Part of their Life in which they may be most likely to miscarry, and till they are well perfected in some Part of this Manufacture; but also to the Work-houses, or Working-schools, where they shall be kept, by some Profit that may then be made of their Labour; and we have been also the rather induced to prolong this Time, in this manner, because we find the same Time allowed afterwards by this Act for Children to be bound to private Persons.
Skin 7. L. 12. from the Word "Kingdom," to the Words "And be it further," in the 14 Line, to be left out:
The Proviso here omitted is already provided for, by the Alteration in the foregoing Skin, as we humbly conceive.
Skin 7. L. 36. leave out "said;" and, after the Word "Overseers," add "hereafter appointed to have the Direction and Management of the said School-house:"
This Addition we thought necessary to denote the Persons here intended.
Skin 8. L. last but Two, from the Word "determined," to the Words "And be it further," in the 13 Line of the 9th Skin, to be left out:
We fear, left the Power hereby given, to remove Children quite away from their Parents, merely upon Account of Religion, would hinder many from being sent to the Working-schools.
Skin 10. L. 7. after the Word "whatsoever," add Provided always, That no Part of the Profit, or Increase, of the publick Stock afore-mentioned shall, upon any Account, be diverted or employed to any other Use or Purpose, than the Establishing, promoting, and carrying on, the aforesaid Flaxen and Hempen Manufactures, so long as the same can or may be employed, and made use of, in such respective County, City, or Town, to the Ends aforesaid, according to the true Intent and Meaning of this Act:"
The Design of this Act being singly to promote the Flaxen and Hempen Manufacture, we humbly conceive this Proviso necessary to prevent the diverting of any thing that may be helpful to it, contrary to the Intention either of the publick Charge, or of any private Donation that may be made for carrying it on.
Skin 11. L. 24. the Words "rough Hemp, or Flax," to be left out:
The Reason of the Omission here proposed is, because we conceive, any Encouragement given to the Importation of Hemp or Flax, will be a Discouragement to the Sowing of Land therewithal; which seems to be most absolutely necessary for the End intended.
Sk. 11. L. 26. after the Word "free," add "yet so, that the Exporters and Importers of any such Goods shall be obliged to make due Entries thereof at the Custom-house:"
This seems always necessary, that the State of this Manufacture may at any time be the better known.
Skin 11. L. 33. after the Word "our," and before the Word "One," write "Lord:"
This Error is plain.
Skin 12. L. 18. viz. the 3 Line after the Blank, instead of the Word "he," in the Beginning of this Line, write "they;" and after the Word "be," and before the Word "excused," write "respectively:"
This Alteration better explains the Sense.
Sk. 13. L. 11. from the Word "them," to the Words "And be it," in the 15th Line, to be left out:
The Clause, here proposed to be omitted, being for the Repeal of that Part of an Act, in the 17 of King Charles the 2d, which relates to the Sowing of Hemp or Flax; we humbly conceive, That there should not be so much seeming Discouragement to the Sowing of Hemp and Flax in Ireland, as the repealing a Law that injoins it, before a better be enacted; which we do not understand to have been yet done.
Skin 13. L. 25. instead of the Words "in this Kingdom," write "within the County in which he, she, or they respectively have so wrought, and been instructed:"
We humbly conceive this Restriction necessary to prevent the Drawing of skilful Workmen, who have been taught and raised at the Charge of one County, into another; whereby the Manufacture would be hindered from becoming universal.
Skin 14th, L. 21. leave out the Word "Custom:"
We are doubtful, left the Word "Custom," here used, may be extended to signify his Majesty's Customs upon the Exportation or Importation of Commodities; and therefore propose, that it may be omitted: But if it be confined only to Tolls, and other such-like small local Duties, we have no Objection against that Word.
Skin 14. L. last but One, after the Words "Fourpence," add "And be it also further enacted, That all Treasurers, or Receivers, and Governors, of Workhouses, or School-houses, appointed by this Act, shall, besides the Accounts which they are required to give unto the Persons appointed to receive and inspect the same, give also, and deliver, Duplicates of the same Accounts, under their respective Hands and Seals, to the respective Persons unto whom they are accountable; that the said Accounts may, by them, be transmitted to the Lord Chancellor of this Kingdom, to be lodged in the Chancery:"
We humbly conceive this Addition necessary, that the Accounts of the Money raised and employed for this Manufacture, may be lodged, and preserved, in some publick Office, where Recourse may be had to them upon any Occasion.
To the foregoing Clause subjoin this following;
"And, to the Intent that all Matters and Things whatsoever, by this Act provided for, and directed to be done and executed, for encouraging, promoting, and carrying on, the aforesaid Manufactures of Flax and Hemp, be the more effectually done and executed, accordingly; it is hereby further Enacted by the Authority aforesaid, That it shall and may be lawful for the Chief Governor, or Governors, and Council, of this Kingdom, for the Time being, whensoever they judge convenient, to appoint, and commission, under the Great Seal of this Kingdom, such and so many fit and worthy Persons as they judge convenient, to go into any County or Counties, Town and County, or Market-Town, of this Kingdom, and there to make Inquiry, and examine, what Sum or Sums of Money have been levied by virtue of this Act; and how the same have been laid out, and employed; as likewise, to inquire and examine into the State of the Flaxen and Hempen Manufactures, in any such County, Town and County, or Market-Town, of this Kingdom; and how far, and in what manner, the same is advanced, or has been obstructed; and to make Report thereof to the Chief Governor, or Governors, and Council, of this Kingdom, for the Time being: And if, thereupon, it shall appear unto them, that, in any County, Town and County, or Market-Town, of this Kingdom, the Execution of this Act has been so neglected, or that any thing hereby directed to be done has not been so managed, that the Ends of the said Act are there frustrated, or not attained, it shall and may be lawful for the said Chief Governor, or Governors, and Council, of this Kingdom, for the Time being, to constitute and appoint such other Persons as they think fit, to be Overseers of the publick Work-house, Workhouses, or Working-schools, in any of the respective Counties, Towns and Counties, or Market-Towns, of this Kingdom, where such Neglect or Mismanagement has been, in the place and stead of those who before were Overseers; which Persons, so appointed by the Chief Governor, or Governors, and Council, of this Kingdom, for the Time being, shall have all the Powers given to the Overseers of such Work-houses, or Working-schools, by this Act, and be under the same Regulations."
This Bill, to the best of our Observation, not giving sufficient Grounds to hope, that it will enforce its own Execution, we have thought it necessary to add these last Clauses, to enforce, as much as possible, the Execution of the Whole.
May it please your Excellencies,
In the Amendments and Additions, here above offered, we hope we have expressed ourselves so, that our Meaning will be understood; though we cannot assume to ourselves to judge, whether all that is therein, or in the Bill, be according to the exact Stile of the Law.
We, nevertheless, submit the Whole to your Excellencies great Wisdom.
Whitehall, 11 October 1698
(No. H.) The said Copy of an Extract out of the Council-Books.
Council-Chamber, 13th October 1698.
THIS Day the Bill latey transmitted from Ireland, for encouraging the Manufactures of Flax and Hemp in that Kingdom, was read, and approved, with these following Amendments; viz.
Skin 1. L. 6. from the Words "poor people," to the Words "And whereas," in the 12 Line, to be left out.
Skin 2. L. 28. after the Word "Default," add "and the said Grand Jury, after they have examined the said Account, shall give a fair Copy thereof, with their Opinion thereupon, unto the said Judge, or Judges, to be by them lodged in the Chancery of this Kingdom, for publick Satisfaction."
Skin 3. L. 2. After the Word "for," and before the Word "in," add "yearly, at the Lent Assizes."
Skin 4. L. 31. after the Words "collected, raised," leave out "and levied," and insert" levied, and accounted for:"
L. 33. after the Words "laid out," leave out and disposed of," and insert "disposed of, and accounted for."
L. 38. after the Word "shall," leave out hereafter," and insert "from and after the said 29th Day of September."
Skin 5. L. 18. after the Words "Room may," leave out "by," and insert "be."
Skin 6. L. 25. after the Word "Sessions," add "being satisfied by the Report of such Justice or Justices of the Peace, with the Cause and Reason of their Committal of such Persons;" and, after the Word make," leave out "such."
L. 27. from the Word "for," in the Beginning of this Line, to the Words "and to the Intent," in the 34th Line, to be left out; and, instead thereof, insert "the Space of Three Years longer; or, in case they are not satisfied with the Cause and Reason of their Committal of such Persons, as aforesaid, to set them at Liberty: Provided always, That if, at any future Court of Quarter-Sessions, during the Continuance of the said Three Years, it shall seem reasonable to the said Court, from the Deportment of any such Person or Persons, so committed and continued, that the said Person or Persons be discharged from such their Committal and Confinement before the Expiration of the said Three Years, for which they stand so committed, it shall and may then be lawful for such Court, upon sufficient Security given, that such Person or Persons, as aforesaid, will duly apply themselves to Work and Labour, and will not beg, or use such loose or idle Course of Life, as aforesaid, during the Space of Three Years, to be reckoned from the Time of their giving such Security, and not otherwise, to make Order, that any of the said Person or Persons be then discharged, and set at Liberty."
Skin 6. L 42. instead of the Word "Eighteen," write "One-and-twenty;" and, instead of the Word "Sixteen," write "Eighteen."
Skin 7. L. 36. leave out the Word "said;" and, after the Word "Overseers," add "hereafter appointed to have the Direction and Management of the said School-houses."
Skin 8. L. last but Two from the Word "determined," in this Line, to the Words "And be it further," in the 13th Line of the 9th Skin, to be left out.
Skin 10. L. 7. after the Word "whatsoever," add Provided always, That no Part of the Profit, or Increase, of the publick Stock aforesaid shall, upon any Account, be diverted or employed to any other Use or Purpose, than the establishing, promoting, and carrying on, the aforesaid Hempen and Flaxen Manufactures, so long as the same can or may be employed, and made use of, in such respective County, City, or Town, to the Ends aforesaid, according to the true Intent and Meaning of this Act."
Skin 11. L. 24. the Words "rough Hemp, or Flax," to be left out.
L. 26. after the Word "free," add "yet so, that the Exporters and Importers of any such Goods shall be obliged to make due Entries thereof at the Custom-house."
L. 33. after the Word "our," and before the Word "One," write the Word "Lord."
Skin 12. L. 18. instead of the Word, "he," in the Beginning of this Line, write "they," and after the Word "be," and before the Word "excused," write respectively."
Line the last but Four, after the Words "Value of," leave out "Twenty," and insert "Five;" and, after the Words "or upwards," add " and under Forty Shillings."
Skin 13. L. 7. from the Word "reasonable," in this Line, to the Words "And be it," in the 15th Line, to be left out.
L. 16. after the Word "Year," add "of the Reign."
L. 25. leave out the Words "in this Kingdom," and insert, in the room thereof, " within the County in which he, she, or they, respectively, have so wrought, and been instructed."
Skin 14. L. 21. leave out the Word "Custom."
Line last but One, after the Words "Fourpence," and before the Word "Provided," add "And be it further Enacted, That all Treasurers, or Receivers, and Governors, of Work-houses, or School-houses, appointed by this Act, shall, besides the Accounts which they are required to give unto the Persons appointed to receive and inspect the same, give also, and deliver, Duplicates of the same Accounts, under their respective Hands and Seals, to the respective Persons unto whom they are accountable; that the said Accounts may be, by them, transmitted to the Lord Chancellor of this Kingdom, to be lodged in the Chancery: And, to the Intent that all Matters and Things whatsoever, by this Act provided for, and directed to be done and executed, for encouraging, promoting, and carrying on, the aforesaid Manufactures of Flax and Hemp, be the more effectually done and executed, accordingly; it is hereby further Enacted, by the Authority aforesaid, That it shall and may be lawful for the Chief Governor, or Governors, and Council, of this Kingdom, for the Time being, from time to time, whensoever they judge convenient, to appoint, and commission, under the Great Seal of this Kingdom, such and so many sit and worthy Persons as they judge convenient, to go into any County or Counties, Town and County, or Market-Town, of this Kingdom, and there to make Inquiry, and to examine, what Sum or Sums of Money have been levied by virtue of this Act; and how the same have been laid out, and employed; as likewise, to inquire and examine into the State of the Flaxen and Hempen Manufactures in any such County, Town and County, or MarketTown, of this Kingdom; and how far, and in what manner, the same is advanced, or hath been obstructed; and to make Report thereof to the Chief Governor, or Governors, and Council of this Kingdom, for the Time being: And if, thereupon, it shall appear unto them, that, in any County, Town and County, or Market-Town, of this Kingdom, the Execution of this Act has been so neglected, or that any thing thereby directed to be done has been so mismanaged, that the Ends of the said Act are there frustrated, or not attained, it shall and may be lawful to and for the said Chief Governor, or Governors, and Council, of this Kingdom, for the Time being, to constitute and appoint such other Persons as they think fit, to be Overseers of the publick Work-house, or Work-houses, or Working-schools, in any of the respective Counties, Towns and Counties, or Market-Towns, of this Kingdom, where such Neglect or Mismanagement has been, in the place and stead of those who before were Overseers; which Persons, so appointed by the Chief Governor, or Governors, and Council, of this Kingdom, for the Time being, shall have all the Powers given to the Overseers of such Work-houses, or Working-schools, by this Act, and be under the same Regulations."
Examined, Wm. Bridgman.
(N° I.) The said Copy of a Representation relating to the Par between the English and Irish Woollen Manufactures.
To their Excellencies the Lords Justices.
May it please your Excellencies,
IN Obedience to your Excellencies Order in Council, dated the 11th Instant, requiring us to consider, and report, what Impositions upon the Woollen Manufactures of Ireland exported, will bring them to a Par with the Woollen Manufactures of England exported, we humbly represent to your Excellencies;
That by the Bill lately transmitted from Ireland, intituled, An Act for laying an additional Duty upon Woollen Manufactures exported out of this Kingdom, the said national Duty, laid upon Broad Cloth exported, is 20 per Cent.; which, we humbly conceive, does plainly imply, that, in the sense of that Bill, 20 per Cent. added to whatsoever Duty was before, upon the Exportation of that Sort of Cloth there, will not exceed the Cost of the same Sort of Cloth exported out of England: For if it did, that additional Duty would, in effect, amount to an absolute Prohibition of the Exportation of that Sort of Cloth from Ireland; which, we humbly conceive, can never be intended by that Bill.
And we humbly add, That, for whatever other Reason the Duties laid on New Draperies, by that Bill, are One Half less than on the Broad-Cloth; if the Deliberation were only about bringing them to a Par with English Draperies, of the same Sort, they might rather bear more.
It being thus evident, upon these Grounds, that though 20 per Cent. were laid upon the Exportation of all Irish Draperies, or Woollen Manufactures, whatsoever, they would yet be cheaper at foreign Markets, than the like Sorts exported from England; we have endeavoured to inquire more particularly what may be the true Difference of the first Cost between them, that, from thence, it may appear what Impositions the one will bear more than the other: But it being impossible for us, in so short a Time, to get all the Information that might be necessary to resolve, exactly, so very difficult a Question, we humbly beg Leave to lay before your Excellencies the Ground, upon which we have made some Conclusions, which seem unto us to have some Degree of Probability.
The annexed Extract, out of the late Lord Chief Justice Hales's Discourse touching Provision for the Poor; which we cannot doubt to have been carefully and impartially made; shews,
|The first Cost of the Wool, in an ordinary Piece of Gloucestershire Cloth, to be||4||10||—|
|The Cost of Cards and Oil||1||—||—|
|The Expence of Work||6||5||—|
Now, it being evident, that both Wool and Labour are much cheaper in Ireland than England, though more or less in different Places; for which Reason, it is scarce possible to determine, exactly, how much; we think it a reasonable Conjecture to take that Difference, upon a Medium, to be One-third:
We then observe, That the Third Part of the Value of the Wool and Labour, employed in the abovesaid Piece of English Cloth, is 3l. 11s. 8d. which would be saved in making a like piece of Cloth in Ireland; and, therefore, computing the Par between English and Irish Cloth, of that Sort, by the Difference between that Sum, and the remaining Value of such a Piece of Cloth made in Ireland, which would be 8l. 3s. 4d.; we find it to be above 437/8 per Cent.; which is to say, That 437/8 per Cent. may be laid on Broad-Cloth exported out of Ireland, more than on the like Cloth exported out of England, to bring them both to an Equality: And are humbly of Opinion, That the same Proportion will hold between other Sorts of English and Irish Woollen Manufactures.
But, this being grounded only upon the fore-mentioned Supposition of the Price of Wool and Labour in Ireland, we humbly beg leave to offer unto your Excellencies Two other Suppositions, though they seem to us less probable, with Calculations made by the same Rule; viz. That, reckoning the Price of Wool in Ireland equal with that in England, and the Price of Labour there Onethird Part less, the Difference between the first Cost of English and Irish Woollen Manufactures would then be about 21½ per Cent.; and, reckoning the Price of Labour equal, and the Price of Wool One-third Part less, the said Difference would be about 14½ per Cent.
These different Calculations we humbly conceive to be unquestionably clear, upon the Grounds and Suppositions upon which we have made them.
But we dare not presume to assert, positively, how that Matter is, in Fact, without a thorough Inquiry into every particular Head, both here and in Ireland; and into all the Circumstances of Trade relating to this Subject, which are many and changeable; and the Examination of which will require much Time, and very great Care.
This, therefore, we most humbly Submit.
Whitehall, 13 October, 1698.
The said Extract, mentioned in the last Representation touching the said Par between English and Irish Woollen Manufactures; viz.
The ordinary Process and Time, and Charge, of making a common coarse Medley-Cloth, of our Gloucestershire Wool, at this Day, is;
In every such Cloth, of about 32 Yards long, there is Ninety Pounds of Wool; which will cost, at this Day, at 12d. per Pound, 4l. 10s. viz. ordinary, in a grey Cloth;
Ordered, That the Consideration of the said Representation, and other Accounts, be referred to the Committee of the whole House, to whom the Bill to encourage the Woollen Manufactures in England; and to restrain the Exportation of Woollen Manufactures from Ireland into any foreign Parts; and for the better preventing the Exportation of Wool from England and Ireland; is committed.
Ordered, That the Report from the Committee of Privileges and Elections, touching the Election for the Port of Hastings, be made upon Friday Morning next.
Ordered, That all Committees be revived.
Disbanding the Army.
An ingrossed Bill for the speedy and effectual Disbanding the Land-Forces in England and Ireland was read the Third time.
And the Question being put, That the Bill do pass;
The House divided.
The Yeas go forth.
|Tellers for the Yeas,||
Sir Cha. Carterett:
|Tellers for the Noes,||
Sir Walter Yonge:
So it was resolved in the Affirmative:
And that the Title be, An Act for granting an Aid to his Majesty, for disbanding the Army, and other necessary Occasions.
Ordered, That Mr. Conyers do carry the Bill to the Lords, and desire their Concurrence thereunto.
Ordered, That all Committees be adjourned.
Resolved, That this House will, upon Friday Morning next, resolve itself into a Committee of the whole House, to consider of the Bill for encouraging the Woollen Manufacture in England; and to restrain the Exportation of Woollen Manufactures from Ireland into any foreign Parts; and for the better preventing the Exportation of Wool from England and Ireland.
And then the House adjourned till To-morrow Morning, Eight a Clock.