Charters and Documents Relating To the City of Glasgow 1175-1649 Part 1. Originally published by Scottish Burgh Records Society, Glasgow, 1897.
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On 9th March, 1600, king James granted an obligation to maintain Ludovick, duke of Lennox, in the possession of all offices and privileges which the house of Lennox had before enjoyed, of the archbishopric of Glasgow during the lifetime of archbishop James Beaton, and after his death to erect the archbishopric into a temporal lordship, to remain with the house of Lennox for ever. (fn. 1)
On the 28th of the same month of March the general assembly met at Montrose. It was attended by a large number of ministers from the north, and the king was also present. After considerable discussion, it was decided that the church should be represented in parliament by certain ministers, each of whom was to be elected by the king, out of a list of six to be recommended by the church. The persons so selected were not to bear the title of bishops or abbots, under which designation the estates had advised they could only be received, but as "commissioners." This decision was, moreover, followed by the condition that they were to propose nothing in name of the church without its express authority; that they were to report their action annually to the assembly; that they were to be content with so much of their benefice as was assigned to them by the king, and were not to dilapidate it; that they were to discharge their pastoral duties to their respective congregations, and not to usurp jurisdiction over their brethren; that they were to remain subject to the censures of the church courts, and, in the event of their being deposed from the ministry, were eo ipso to vacate their seats and benefices. (fn. 2) Aberdeen and Argyle were already filled by ministers, St. Andrews and Glasgow were in the hands of the duke of Lennox, Moray was possessed by lord Spynie, and Orkney by the earl of Orkney; Dunkeld, Brechin, and Dunblane had their own titulars, who were not ministers; Galloway and the Isles were so dilapidated as to have nothing left; and in Ross and Caithness some provision remained, to the former of which Mr. David Lindsay, minister of Leith, was presented, and to the latter, Mr. George Gladstanes, minister of St. Andrews. (fn. 3)
In April, 1600, the wrights, including glazing wrights, painters, bowyers, and sawyers, presented a supplication to the town council, in which, setting forth the increase in their number, the inconvenience of masons judging wright work and of wrights judging mason work, they craved to be disjoined from the craft of masons, and to obtain a letter of deaconhead to themselves. This application, with the heads of the letter sought, were, on the 12th of that month, remitted for consideration to the three bailies and nine others; and on the 27th of April the council ordained the letter of deaconhead to be prepared, subscribed, and sealed—the deacon of the masons protesting that it should not prejudice the liberties of that craft. By this document the craft were (1) empowered to elect yearly a deacon, half of the quartermasters, and one box master, and the deacon was authorised to appoint the other half of the quartermasters and a second boxmaster. (2) Each freeman of the craft, before setting up a booth in the town, had to be made a burgess and freeman and found able to make sufficient work. (3) On being admitted, to pay to the craft's box, if a freeman's son and apprentice in the city, five merks; the same, but not apprentice, ten merks; strangers, £20. (4) Every apprentice at his entry had to pay, if a freeman's son, twenty shillings; if an unfreeman's son, forty shillings. (5) Every freeman of the craft had to pay weekly one penny, and every unfreeman who presented work in the market of 20s. value to pay one penny. (6) Every out-townsman, not being apprentice within the town, before being admitted to serve, to be examined, to produce a testimonial from his former master that his apprenticeship was completed, and to pay forty shillings to the box, and not to be admitted freeman until he served three years thereafter. (7) Craftsmen absent from the four quarter conventions to be fined 8s., and those absent from other conventions, 4s. (8) No freeman to take an apprentice for a shorter time than seven years; nor more than one apprentice during that period. (9) The deacon and kirk masters to search and examine the craftsmen's work, and report to the oversmen of the town such as was found insufficient, and it was to be thereafter forfeited. (10) No master of the craft to take another man's servant or his apprentice without licence of the master he previously served. (11) Strangers to sell made work within the city on Mondays only (market and fair days excepted), under penalty of forfeiting one-fifth thereof, a half being paid to the bailies and a half to the craft. (12) Any craftsman disobeying the deacon or the officer of the craft to pay a new upset of twenty shillings to the bailies for every offence. (13) The deacon to have power to poind for the duties above expressed, and, failing payment, to close the defaulter's booth and window. (14) A craftsman to have no more than one hired servant in his house continually from year to year beside his apprentice. (15) No persons to sell, make, or work the work of the craft within the city unless they were free with the town and the craft, and, if they did so, the bailies were to interfere. (16) No stranger apprentice to be admitted a freeman until he had served with a freeman for two years after the expiration of his apprenticeship. (17) No one of the craft to do any work except that in which he served his apprenticeship, unless when freemen of that craft could not be had. (18) This erection to be read four times yearly, at the quarter conventions of the whole brethren of the craft. (fn. 4) On the 3rd of May, the date of the seal of cause, the council passed a minute declaring that the seal of cause thus granted should not prejudice craftsmen working both mason craft and wright craft, and such as "biggis with poist and pan, and layes with blak morter in tyme cuming as thai wont of befoir." (fn. 5)
On Tuesday, the 5th August, the mysterious incident in Scottish history known as the Gowrie conspiracy took place. While hunting near Falkland on the morning of that day, the king was induced by Alexander, master of Ruthven, a brother of the earl of Gowrie, and who held an office in the king's chamber, to accompany him to Gowrie house, in Perth, where he said a suspicious person, with a large pot of foreign gold in his possession, was detained for the king's inspection. On his arrival, with a train not exceeding twelve or fifteen persons, including Lennox, Mar, and others, the king was induced to go alone into one of the rooms, and was there attacked, dragged about, and nearly murdered. Succeeding in reaching one of the windows, he called for assistance, and the courtiers, entering by different staircases, rescued the king, and killed the earl and his brother. The details of the incident are given by Calderwood, Tytler, and Burton, the two latter of whom, as well as Grub, being satisfied that it was the result of a political plot to get possession of the royal person. (fn. 6) On the following morning the citizens of Edinburgh received the king's account of what had taken place, and the ministers of the town were commanded to have the church bells rung, the congregations assembled, and thanks given to God for his majesty's deliverance. Bonfires were also ordered to be lighted in the city and neighbourhood. (fn. 7) The ministers were, however, sceptical, and declined to comply with the order till they had further evidence of the accuracy of the statement they were required to proclaim. Under these circumstances, David Lindsay, bishop of Ross, gave the information to the people, who uncovered and praised God, and various expressions of popular rejoicing were given. Five days later the king returned by Leith to Edinburgh, and was enthusiastically received in both places, but as the five Edinburgh ministers still remained incredulous, they were cited to appear before the privy council, and by them were ordered to leave Edinburgh, and were interdicted from preaching within Scotland. (fn. 8) Four of them afterwards professed their belief in the royal statement, and were restored; but the fifth, Bruce, remained obstinate, and was banished to France. On the 21st of August the privy council ordered a solemn thanksgiving throughout all the kirks of the realm for the king's deliverance, (fn. 9) and on the 23rd preparations were made for receiving his majesty in Glasgow; all persons who absented themselves from meeting him on his arrival were subjected to a fine of £5; and the inhabitants were warned to remove "thair middings, tymmer, and stanes" from the streets, under a similar penalty. (fn. 10) Three days later the council ordered all freemen to be in readiness to meet the king "sufficientlie bodin in armour, weill acquipageit in hagbuttis, jakis, speris, and steilbonnettis alanerly," each person under pain of £5; otherwise to meet him in their best array on foot or on horseback, after being warned by the town officers. It was further ordered that no one should appear in a blue bonnet; that John Buchan should be on the cross, with all his "sangisteris" when the king arrived; that bonfires should be lighted at night, and that the council and deacons should accompany the bailies on the occasion. (fn. 11) The object of this visit, as to which the council records are silent, was, doubtless, to inform the citizens and people of the west as to the Gowrie conspiracy. Accordingly, on the 31st of August, when the king seems to have come to Glasgow, he was received by the magistrates with congratulatory speeches, and a minister, who accompanied him, preached a sermon, in the course of which he informed his audience of the facts, and denounced those who put an interpretation upon them hostile to his majesty. (fn. 12) On the 1st of September seven persons, "domestik servitouris" to the king, were made burgesses of the city gratis, (fn. 13) and on the 16th an extent was ordered to be levied within the town to defray, among other things, the expense of "furnising to his majesteis cumyng to Glasgw." (fn. 14)
On 30th September Sir George Elphinstoun of Blythswood, knight, appeared before the council, and presented a letter from the duke of Lennox, with a recommendatory letter from the king, by the former of which Sir George was nominated to be provost for the following year. It also gave commission to the "schiref air" to receive the leets of the bailies and to nominate them for the following year. The magistrates and council at once gave effect to the nomination of the provost, and appointed Sir George to that office, but found the letter, in so far as it applied to the nomination of the bailies, to be prejudicial to the interest of the town, "and nevir vsit of befor." They therefore refused to present the leets for the bailies to any other than the duke himself, according to old use and wont. Eight persons were therefore appointed to ride to Brechin and present the leets to his grace; and on 7th October it was intimated that he had chosen Robert Rowatt, James Forrett, and Alexander Baillie to be bailies. (fn. 15) These having been duly elected, the provost and bailies, old and new, chose the council, which included Sir Mathew Stewart, of Mynto, the old provost, two old bailies, and twenty-seven other persons. (fn. 16)
In anticipation of the meeting of the general assembly at Edinburgh on 14th October, 1600, the town council, on 11th October, resolved to send James Bell as a commissioner to it to desire that such further security as might be devised should be given to the prior of Blantyre, tacksman of the teinds of the parsonage of Glasgow, for the further security of himself or such other person as he might appoint. This resolution bears to have been come to in respect of the prior's promise and goodwill to the town for the farther planting of the kirk of Glasgow; and the treasurer of the burgh was authorised to give Bell £10 for his expenses. (fn. 17)
On 14th October an ecclesiastical convention, summoned by the king, was held at Holyrood. The convention was composed of the special commissioners of the kirk, who had been appointed at the previous general assembly as an ecclesiastical council to the king, with delegates from the different synods, and its main object was to advise his majesty as to what should be done with the five Edinburgh ministers who had offended him by their scepticism as to the Gowrie conspiracy. A deputation of this convention was appointed to wait on these ministers, and endeavour to induce them to consent to accept charges out of Edinburgh; but, during their absence, the king, with the concurrence of those members who remained, chose a bishop for each of Ross, Aberdeen, and Caithness. This was the first step towards carrying into effect the resolution of the general assembly held at Montrose in March, 1600, and these bishops were to represent the revised system of actual clerical episcopacy till additions could be made to it. (fn. 18)
On 15th November a parliament, which met in Edinburgh on the 1st and commenced business on the 11th, concluded its sittings. "It was," says Dr. Masson, "to be the last Scottish parliament before the king's removal to England. At it the three newly appointed bishops of Ross, Aberdeen, and Caithness, who had received their formal presentations to their sees, were present and voted, and the titular bishops of Dunkeld and Brechin were among the lords of the articles." At this parliament acts were passed forfeiting the estates of the earl of Gowrie and his brother, abolishing the surname of Ruthven, and annexing the forfeited estates to the crown. (fn. 19) Another act ratified the restitution of the aged and long-exiled archbishop Beaton, set forth in an act of the estates dated 29th June, 1598, (fn. 20) and decerned the same to have full effect from its date, without any limitation or restriction; but without prejudice (1) to such feus of the temporal lands of the bishopric as had been lawfully set without diminution of rental to any persons; (2) to the ministers' stipends, conform to the particular assignations made to them furth of the bishopric; and (3) to the rents and duties belonging to the college of Glasgow. There were also excepted from the restitution the castle of Glasgow, the choosing of the provost and bailies of the city, and the provostry and bailiary thereof. (fn. 21) This act, and the previous act of the estates, indicated an attitude of independence on the part of the king towards the presbyterian clergy which gave great offence to the ministers of Edinburgh, who bitterly reproached the king on account of it. (fn. 22)
On 31st July, 1599, a convention of estates at Holyrood passed an act by which, in order to prevent the injury sustained by the lieges through the forging of many private writs, such as instruments of sasine, reversions, and others, and the keeping of them privately, ordained that in future all such instruments as should not be registered in the public records therein specified within forty days should be null. Such registers it appointed to be established in several places, and inter alia, in the city of Glasgow for the barony of Glasgow and sheriffdom of Renfrew. (fn. 23) This act was followed on 15th November, 1600, by an act of parliament which enacted that all such deeds (other than sasines of burgage subjects), as should not be registered in the books of council and session, or in the registers appointed for that purpose, within forty days should be null and of no effect. Like the act of convention, this statute appointed the register for the barony of Glasgow and sheriffdom of Renfrew to be kept in the city of Glasgow. (fn. 24)
On 17th November, the king, by a charter under the great seal, conveyed in feu to duke Ludovic, therein designed high chamberlain, and to his heirs male, whom failing, to Esme Stewart, lord Aubigny, his brother, and his heirs male, whom all failing to revert to the crown, the castle of Glasgow, with the houses, buildings, gardens, and greens belonging to it, and all the privileges and pertinents thereof, and the heritable right of nomination and yearly election of the provost, bailies, and other officers and magistrates of the burgh and city, as freely as the archbishop had previously possessed. He also constituted the duke, and his heirs male, heritable bailies and justiciars of the whole lands, lordships, baronies, and possessions belonging to the temporality of the archbishopric, and without the bounds of the regality, wheresoever situated, within the kingdom; and granted to them the offices of bailiary and justiciary, with power to dispose of all escheats falling within the bounds of the regality; to hold courts of bailiary and justiciary; to uplift and apply to their own proper uses the issues, fines, escheats, &c., of these courts; to repledge and carry to the privilege and freedom of their own courts the tenants and inhabitants of the lands, lordships, baronies, and possessions of the temporality of the archbishopric; all of which objects and rights belonged to, and were subject to the disposal of, the crown, by virtue of the act of annexation. In respect of the grant thus made, the duke, and his heirs male, were bound to pay to the crown twenty shillings Scots at Whitsunday and Martinmas, by equal portions, in name of feu duty, and to build and repair the castle in the necessaries thereof, and to use and exercise sufficiently the offices of bailiary and justiciary, and the nomination and yearly election of the provost, bailies, magistrates, and officers of the burgh and city. (fn. 25)
On the 19th of November the queen gave birth at Dunfermline to a third child, who, on the 23rd of December, was baptized by the name of Charles. On the same day the young prince was created lord of Ardmanoch, earl of Ross, marquess of Ormond, and duke of Albany. (fn. 26)
On 6th December the council, "for honouring of my lorde duike [the duke of Lennox], thair ouer-lorde, and his lady," resolved to erect seats for them in the high kirk suitable to their estate. (fn. 27)
At this time the grammar school of the burgh had fallen into decay, and on 23rd August, 1600, the council ordained that on every council day the matter should be brought forward by Mr. John Blackburn, schoolmaster, till the work was completed. They also ordered all the stones of the ruinous back almshouse to be applied to the building of the school, and the site of the almshouse to be used as a yard by the four men belonging thereto; any stones not required for that object to be dedicated to the work of the high kirk and other town works. (fn. 28) On 13th December the council appointed a committee to confer with masons, wrights, and slaters, to ascertain for what sum they would repair and build the school, and to report. Subsequently, on the 22nd, a committee was authorised to contract for the building and repair, "as gud chaip" as they could, and to report. At the same time they granted to Blackburn, during his services as master, the chaplainry previously possessed by Master John Davidson, then deceased, with entry thereto as at Whitsunday, 1600. The master was also empowered to increase the yearly fee payable by scholars born within the town or children of freemen, and to receive from each quarterly 5 s., and twenty pence to the doctor, who should be provided by the master and accepted by the magistrates and council. The master was further to be bound to appear, along with his doctor, and submit to trial of their qualifications, otherwise the augmentation of fees was not to receive effect. One John Buchan was also authorised to have of every scholar 5 s. quarterly, with twenty pence to the doctor; Blackburn was directed not to receive scholars without a certificate from Buchan that they had paid their "scollege;" and the provost promised to give him £20 of the maltmen's composition to be some present support. (fn. 29) On 10th January, 1601, the magistrates and council ordained Blackburn to pay to Pettigrew, master of work, four hundred merks, which Harry, the porter of the college, had left to that institution, and which sum was now applied by it to help the building of the school. (fn. 30) On 14th March, 1601, an extent was imposed on the town, inter alia, for the repairing of the grammar school. (fn. 31)
The plague was at this time prevalent in the vicinity of Glasgow; and on 21st December, 1601, the privy council passed an act in which, in respect of the danger likely to arise from traffic between the city and Edinburgh, all the inhabitants of the former were prohibited, under pain of death, from resorting to the latter, or to Canongate or Leith or the suburbs, so long as any suspicion existed of the plague being in Glasgow, and till the prohibition was removed by proclamation. Conversely, the inhabitants of those places in the east were forbidden to repair to Glasgow, or to receive wares thence, during the same time, and under the same penalty. (fn. 32) The council records from 27th October, 1601, to 13th June, 1605, are, however, awanting; and the action of the town council in regard to this visitation is not known. (fn. 33)
On 18th March, 1601, the council resolved that, in order to the better furnishing of the citizens for general weaponshawing, the town should be divided into four quarters, each with a commander, for training up the inhabitants to the wars. To the provost was assigned the first quarter, and to each of the bailies a quarter. Each quartermaster was appointed to have a lieutenant and ensign, two of the ensigns being appointed for the crafts. The commander was also empowered to select the other members [officers ?], and to "tak tryall" of the force once a month. The four quarters were ordered to be exercised in two divisions in skirmishing or weaponshawing with ensigns. (fn. 34) On the 18th of the following month the duke of Lennox attended a meeting of the council at which the arrangements for dividing the town into quarters for military purposes was under consideration, and it was resolved that the lieutenants, ensigns, corporals, and sergeants should be merchants and craftsmen equally, and that the lieutenants, corporals, and sergeants should be chosen annually at Michaelmas. (fn. 35) On 18th June the whole inhabitants, freemen, burgesses, were ordered to be in readiness, with their arms, on foot, on the following Wednesday morning (being the Symmer hill day), under prescribed penalties; and the provost, bailies, council, and deacons were appointed to be on horseback. (fn. 36)
At a meeting of the general assembly, held at Burntisland on 12th May, 1601, a proposition was made for a new translation of the Bible and a revision of the Psalms in metre. In this project the king took a deep personal interest, and advocated its necessity in such a way as to command the admiration of the assembly, who recommended the work to be proceeded with. But nothing was accomplished in this direction till after his accession to the throne of England, when the work was accomplished by the divines assembled at Westminster. (fn. 37)
In 1601 the duke of Lennox was appointed ambassador to France, and the magistrates and council resolved to do honour and show favour to his grace by entertaining him at a banquet on Saturday, the 23rd of May, thereafter, and by sending forty persons to accompany him to Edinburgh and to remain there for a day. (fn. 38) On the day so appointed, accordingly, the council passed an act in which, in consideration of the uncertainty as to the time of his return, and to the possibility of his not being in the city at the period for electing the provost and magistrates, it was agreed with his grace, to preserve the liberties of both parties, that the bailies and council should at the usual period choose leets, and present the same on his return, and that in the meantime the old bailies and council should retain office, without prejudice to the liberties of the town. The old council and bailies accordingly received commission to execute justice and use their office as they had heretofore done. (fn. 39)
In July the duke proceeded on his mission to France, the object of which seems to have been the confirmation of amity between the two countries. He was accompanied by two members of the privy council and by Mr. John Spottiswood—afterwards archbishop, first of Glasgow, and subsequently of St. Andrews—as chaplain. Travelling by sea, he arrived in Dieppe on the 24th of July. At St. Denis he was met by archbishop Beaton and a number of Scotsmen, who accompanied him to Paris, where he arrived about the 9th of August. Towards the end of October the duke took leave of the king, and proceeded to London, which he reached in the beginning of November. Here he succeeded in ingratiating himself with Elizabeth, and after three weeks returned to Scotland, arriving in Edinburgh in the end of December. (fn. 40)
On 25th June, 1601, the council, for the keeping of better friendship between the town and Dunbarton, agreed that in future the freemen burgesses of that burgh who resorted to Glasgow should be relieved of the payment of customs, provided Dunbarton extended a similar exemption to the burgesses and residents in Glasgow. (fn. 41)
A great fire took place in Glasgow in this month, and the sufferers applied for relief to the magistrates, council, ministers, and deacons, who, on the 30th of June, agreed to invite voluntary subscriptions from the citizens. The town was accordingly divided into sections, and to each section a number of persons were appointed to collect contributions. This fire arose in the smithy of one James Leishman, and an enquiry was instituted as to whether he or his servants had been guilty of carelessness in the matter. The result of the enquiry, however, was that they were found to be blameless, and that the calamity proceeded only of the providence of God. (fn. 42)
On 15th August the council, with advice of the deacons, ordered St. Mungo's kirkyard, beyond the Gallowgate bridge, to remain and be a burial place in time coming, both in kirk and kirkyard, and to be enclosed with a wall. (fn. 43)
On 1st September the king was again in Glasgow, and the council made forty-two of his domestic servants, including the constable of Dundee, burgesses and freemen. (fn. 44)
On 6th October, Aulay M'Caulay, of Ardencapill, appeared before the council, and produced a missive from the duke, as lord superior of Glasgow, and having power to nominate the provost and bailies, desiring the bailies and council to admit Sir George Elphinstoun of Blythswood, knight, to be provost for the following year. The council admitted Sir George accordingly, and directed the requisite commission to be made out. Thereafter a leet of five merchants and three craftsmen was prepared, from which the bailies were to be elected; but, as had been arranged with the duke, the presentation of the leet to his grace was delayed till his return to the country. (fn. 45)
Another gap occurs in the records of the council from 27th October, 1601, till 13th June, 1605.
At a convention of burghs held at Ayr in July, 1602, several questions between Glasgow, Dunbarton, Ayr, and Irvine came up for consideration on the 4th of that month.—(1) A complaint by Renfrew against Glasgow that it uplifted from the inhabitants of Renfrew sixpence on each thousand herring which were brought to the bridge of Glasgow. This complaint was continued till next convention, which was held at Haddington on 6th July, 1603, when Glasgow was ordered to cease from levying the impost complained of. (fn. 46) (2) Glasgow and Renfrew, for themselves and Dunbarton, complained of Ayr and Irvine allowing fishers within their waters to fish with "sandaill polkis," to the destruction of herring fry, and to take and sell herring fry in their markets. The burghs complained of were ordered to cause these practices to cease. (3) Ayr complained of Glasgow, Dunbarton, and Renfrew not keeping the Clyde within their respective bounds clean, and obtained an order on them to see that the river, and specially the portion within their respective bounds, was kept unpolluted with dead carrion, bukeis [dead bodies], and other filthy matters hurtful to the fishing, and to remove the pollution then in the river. (fn. 47)
In August, 1602, the king was in Glasgow, and a section of the privy council held meetings there for the transaction of business, on 27th, 29th, and 30th of that month. The king appears to have been present on the 29th. (fn. 48)
On 21st February, 1603, king James granted a charter under the great seal to duke Ludovic, great chamberlain and admiral of Scotland, by which he confirmed to him, inter alia, the dukedom, earldom, lordship, barony, and regality of Lennox, comprehending the lands therein specified, with the office of sheriff of Dunbarton, as also the castle of Glasgow, and heritable right of electing the magistrates of that city, all as specified in the charter of 17th November, 1600. (fn. 49) And as administrator for his son, Henry, duke of Rothesay, &c., he confirmed to duke Ludovic the lands of Cruikisfie and Darnlie, &c., under the reservations therein specified. Further, he of new granted to the duke the office of admiral and chamberlain of Scotland, the castle of Dumbarton, and the several lands therein specified, and incorporated the whole into a free dukedom, earldom, lordship, barony, or regality of Lennox, giving to the duke power to erect burghs of barony and regality in any part of the dukedom, and exempted the inhabitants of the dukedom from the jurisdiction of the sheriffdom of Stirling, Linlithgow and Perth: rendering for the castle of Glasgow twenty shillings, and keeping it in necessary repair, as also excepting the office of sheriffship and the nomination of bailies, and paying for the remainder of the dukedom twopence in blench farm, and for the earldom of Darnlie one penny in blench farm. (fn. 50)
A charter granted by the king on 15th March, 1603, to John Stewart, of Rosland, one of the ushers of the royal chamber, of the lands of White-inchmeadow, in the barony and regality of Glasgow and sheriffdom of Renfrew, proceeding on Stewart's resignation, imposed on Stewart and his successors, inter alia, the payment for the lands to the king, instead of to the archbishop, of £4, with sixty threaves of straw and one hundred stones of hay, whenever the king, on premonition of forty days, should reside in the castle and city of Glasgow for forty days, and the straw and hay should be eaten by his own horses; and if the king should remain for a shorter period than this, then Stewart and his successors should give for each day of his residence one and a half threaves of straw, and four stones of hay, or otherwise pay twelve pence for each threave and sixpence for each stone. (fn. 51)
For some time the relations between the king and Elizabeth had not been friendly. She knew that James was looking forward with anxiety to her death, and was doing his utmost to strengthen the party which would favour his claims to the succession; and he, on the other hand, suspected that the Gowrie conspiracy was not unsympathised with by Elizabeth. But she ultimately expressed her detestation of the treason in terms so conciliatory that he proffered her the aid of Scottish troops to co-operate with the English army in England. The necessity for availing herself of such aid was, however, obviated by the success of her land and naval forces. But the peace which succeeded could not compensate for the loss of physical strength, and though she strove to conceal her increasing infirmities by all kinds of gaiety, it was obvious to her courtiers that her reign was rapidly closing. Seeing this, Sir Robert Cecil, Elizabeth's powerful minister, opened negociations with James, who accepted them cordially, and a thorough understanding between them was established. (fn. 52) The queen's sentiments towards James, as expressed in her last letter to him, dated 6th January, 1603, were also most friendly, and he could afford to wait patiently for the end. This was near. On the 16th of January she caught a severe cold, and sank into a deep melancholy and weariness of life, which nothing could dissipate. Resisting every solicitation to undress and go to bed, and in a condition of profound misery, she sat for two days and three nights; her finger pressed upon her lips, as if afraid of betraying some secret, her eyes open, and fixed on the ground, and generally silent and immovable. Urged on the night on which she died to indicate who should be her successor, she made no response; but Cecil and two lords who were in attendance on her later, declared that she afterwards indicated by signs that the king of Scots alone should succeed her. After this she became insensible, and about midnight fell into a placid sleep, from which she awoke to expire, without a struggle, at three o'clock on the morning of Thursday, 24th March, 1603. (fn. 53) So ended the reign of the great queen. It is said that when entreated by the lord admiral to go to bed Elizabeth assured him, with a shudder of terror, that "if he had seen what she saw there, he would choose any place but that." This fear may have been the result simply of physical weakness and partial delirium; but it presents a remarkable contrast to the heroic placidity with which queen Mary met her fate in the hall of Fotheringhay.
Immediately after the death of the queen, Sir Robert Cecil and the lords of the council who had been in attendance on her at Richmond posted to London. A council was held at six in the morning, and before ten o'clock James was proclaimed king of England, as the heir and successor of Elizabeth. A letter was then despatched by the privy council to the king announcing the queen's death, the proclamation of his accession, and the anxiety of his English subjects to welcome their sovereign. This official communication was, however, anticipated by Sir Robert Carey, a brother of lady Scrope, one of the queen's ladies, who immediately after Elizabeth's death communicated the event by signal to Sir Robert, who rode post to Edinburgh, and, arriving at Holyrood on Saturday night after the king had retired to bed, announced the death, and saluted him as sovereign of England, Scotland, Ireland, and France. The official intimation of his accession was proclaimed at the market cross of Edinburgh on 30th March, and, after committing the government of Scotland to the privy council, he, with a long train of attendants, English and Scottish, took his departure for England on Tuesday, the 5th of April. (fn. 54) His journey, which occupied a month, was a long and brilliant pageant, and he entered London on the 6th of May, 1603.
Two days after he had left Edinburgh, the king, on 7th April, granted to duke Ludovic a charter under the great seal, by which on a narrative of his descent from the family of Lennox, and that the lands, lordships, and baronies, bailiary, regality, and archbishopric of Glasgow were in his hands, by virtue of the act of Parliament, 1587, c. 8, he disponed in feu farm to the duke and his heirs male in the dukedom of Lennox, the lands, &c., which formerly belonged to the archbishopric, viz., the lands and barony of Glasgow, the castle, city, burgh, and regality of Glasgow, the lands and tenements of that burgh, and certain other lands. And the duke and his heirs were constituted superiors of the whole regality, with power to hold courts of regality and justiciary. The king also erected these lands, barony and regality, into a temporal lordship and regality, to be called "the lordship of Glasgow," with the privilege of chapel and chancellary. By this charter the barony and regality, with the castle, city, and burgh, were appointed to be holden of the crown for payment of £304 8s. 4d. of money, 36 chalders 4 bolls of meal, 31 chalders 5 bolls of barley, 13 chalders 4 bolls of oats, 49 dozen of capons, 31 dozen of poultry, and 14 dozen of kane salmon; "together with all other duties specified in the annual rental of the bishopric, "in use to be paid to the archbishop, with twenty merks further of augmen"tation." The king also promised, in verbo principis, to have the charter ratified by parliament. (fn. 55)
When at Burleigh-house, near Stamford, the king received intelligence of the death of archbishop Beaton, at Paris, on the 25th of April. (fn. 56) He thereupon designated Mr. John Spottiswood, parson of Calder, in Midlothian, to the see of Glasgow. Spottiswood was in attendance on the king at the time, but was sent back to Scotland to accompany the queen to England. (fn. 57) She, with prince Henry, left Edinburgh for England on the 10th of June, and the princess Elizabeth on the following day.