Henry VIII: November 1543, 21-25

Pages 219-227

Letters and Papers, Foreign and Domestic, Henry VIII, Volume 18 Part 2, August-December 1543. Originally published by His Majesty's Stationery Office, London, 1902.

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November 1543, 21-25

21 Nov.
Add. MS. 32,653, f. 83. B. M. Hamilton Papers, II., No.108.
410. The Privy Council to Suffolk.
The King has received his of the 16th and seen the letters sent with it, and takes thankfully his wise consideration of affairs, as appears by the appointment of his device for the aid of money and for comfortable letters; which he will have, ere this, learnt from the Council's letters. To discourage the Scottish of the French party, he should bruit "how the French king ran away," as may be gathered from the copies lately sent him "from me William Paget." Where Sadler wrote of Somervile's desire for the entertainment of his son, and his hope to escape by corrupting the captain of the Blacknesse; Suffolk shall send for the Master of Somervile and entertain him gently. If the captain may be won by reward, Sadler might, if he can get a fit messenger to Somervile, practise with him what may be done with the captain for delivery of the castle to the King for "any reasonable reward." This is to be written to Sadleyr, with proviso that, unless he can get a trusty messenger to do this by mouth, without danger of being taken, he shall not venture it.
Copy, pp. 2. Endd. : Mynute to the Duke of Suffolk, xxjo Novembris 1543.
21 Nov.
Add. MS. 32,653. f. 78. B. M. Hamilton Papers, II., No. 106.
411. Sadler to Suffolk and Tunstall.
Has nothing important to write, but is loth to let the posts sit idle, and would gladly hear from their lordships. Angus and the others, who were determined to come to Edinburgh on Monday last, have changed their purpose, as appears by the copy in cipher (herewith) of a letter from Angus. Temptallon, 21 Nov. Signed.
Partly in cipher, p. 1. Add.
Ib. f. 79. 2. Decipher of the above. P. 1.
22 Nov.
Add. MS. 32,653, f. 85. B. M. Hamilton Papers, II., No. 109.
412. Henry VIII. to Suffolk.
Intended to revoke him home before Christmas, as he desired; but the state of affairs in Scotland is now suddenly driven into such terms that a personage of reputation must be in those parts to comfort the King's friends and keep enemies in awe. Desires him, as he has already travailed so much there, to take some more pain therein, until it appear what this variety of things in Scotland will grow to; and his service will both please the King and turn to his honour. Ampthil, 21 (sic) Nov. 35 Henry VIII.
Draft, pp. 2. Endd. : Mynute to the duke of Suffolk, xxijo Novembris 1543.
22 Nov.
Add. MS. 32,653, f. 87. B. M. Hamilton Papers, II., No. 110.
413. The Privy Council to Suffolk.
By the King's letter herewith he will perceive some alteration touching his return, which is due to the King's good opinion of his service, who has sundry times spoken earnestly that he would gladly see him. Trust that his stay will not be long, as the King intends to establish two wardens there. Whereas such Scots as are the King's enemies boast that, next year, they will have 10,000 Scots at the French King's charge and 4,000 lansknechts out of Denmark; Suffolk shall bruit abroad that the French King, whom the King and the Emperor mean to assail next year both by sea and land, having no friend in Christendom, is like to be so strained as to have neither men nor money for his friends in Scotland, nor yet sufficient for himself, and also, for this year's wars, has been constrained to let out his salt garners for two years' rent beforehand. The French King's friends in Scotland will not only lack help next year, but be restrained from traffic with the Emperor's countries, who, as by treaty bound, will take them for enemies; whereas the King, thank God!, has treasure enough for himself and his friends, whom he will succour both by sea and land. As the King is informed that John a Barton's ships are already passed into France, a safeconduct is sent, by bearer, only for himself to come to the King. Suffolk shall write letters of thanks to the sheriff of Ayr and Dunlanrik; and cause Wharton to declare to Dunlanrik that the King means to show him favour. Here is no news but that the Emperor and French King have dissolved their armies, and Mr. Wallop, with the King's men, is by this time arrived at Calais; missing very few men, and no gentlemen save Sir George Carew, Sir Thos. Paulmer and Mr. Bellingham, who are prisoners, but well.
Draft, pp. 4. Endd. : Mynute to the Duke of Suffolk, xxijo Novembris 1543.
22 Nov.
Add. MS. 32,653, f. 89. B. M. Hamilton Papers, II., No. 111.
414. Suffolk and Tunstall to the Council.
Suffolk perceives, by theirs of the 19th, that he is to bruit in Scotland how the French king ran away; which is already done and the copy of the news sent to Sadler, and also to Sir George Douglas, who has returned word that he will so bruit it among friends and enemies that the Governor's and Cardinal's ears shall be full of it. As to sending for Master Somervell and giving him good entertainment; that, without licence to return and help his father, will be little to his comfort, and considering Angus's and Douglas's suit to have him home (to lead his father's men, who will be ruled by no other), and offer of other hostages, Suffolk once minded to let him go, seeing his father imprisoned for the King's cause, but tarried for the King's answer; for those that are the King's friends "will somewhat regard the goodness that they have found in him," and those that are not will care little how long their pledges lie, for Scots do not love their children as Englishmen do, "but seem to care little for them." Suffolk therefore forbears to send for Master Somervell, who would perhaps repute it "to be to keep him more safely," and albeit the man is "not most personable, yet he is noted to be a man of courage." Give reasons against the practise, by Sadler, with lord Somervell for delivery of the castle*; both because of the difficulty of it (Sadler being suspected to be against the Governor and Cardinal, and commanded to avoid, and proclamation since made in Edinburgh that no man shall victual Temptallon) and the danger of it (seeing that the messenger must be a Scottishman, and should have great profit in disclosing it). Besides the danger to Somervell and Sadler and the unlikelihood of success, its disclosure would make many in Scotland forsake the King's friends. If the King's friends now prevail, the most they intend "is to get the marriage and the peace to hold, with laying in of hostages for it"; but they never durst tell their friends that they go about to make a party for Englishmen, which can only be made after deadly feud among themselves drives them to seek succour of England, as Sir George Douglas's discourse showed. Few Scottishmen will help the King to conquer any part of Scotland unless forced thereto; and if the King's enemies prevail his friends must either join them, "like untrue gentlemen," or else flee to him for succour. Their friends help them in their own quarrel, but not for England, and will desert them if it come abroad that the King goes about to get holds in Scotland. Upon the success of the aid of money now ministered, the King will shortly know how to trust his friends. Forbear therefore to write to Sadler. To write to Angus to send his chaplain, who is his chief secretary, would make him suspect the chaplain; who himself says that, unless Winchester sends for him he will not come, as appears by his late letter. As for the 100l. for Angus above his wages, besides the 1,500l. now advanced, it shall be ready for him if demanded. Enclose two letters of Wharton's, one of Gilbert Swynnew's and one of Sir Ralph Eure (the effect of which Suffolk has written to Sir George Douglas); also a bill, from my lord President, of receipts now in the receivers' hands. Of the 4,000l. which Mr. Stannehop shall bring, after the aid paid to the King's friends and this month's wages to the garrisons, little above 1,200l. will remain. Darneton, 22 Nov. Signed.
P.S.Suffolk has stayed the money in the receivers' hands, and thinks it should be put in the lord President's keeping, so that, if the King will use it here, carriage may be saved. A servant of Sadler's has been here for money. Despatched him, with word to his master to repair to Edinburgh at the King's friends' being there, where he may learn practices and do better service than where he is.
Pp. 8. Add. Endd. : 1543.
22 Nov.
R. O. St. P., IX. 559.
415. Chr. Mont to Henry VIII.
No news here in Upper Germany. The Emperor's commissioners are at Spires with the delegates of the Catholics and Protestants about the reformation of the judgment of the Chamber. Explains the quarrel about this. The Emperor lately wrote letters to the republic of Cologne and to the city of Metz warning them to persist in the old religion; and commanded the Hildeshcimers, who had joined the Protestant confession and expelled the monks, to restore things to their former state. The noble canons of Cologne had had themselves absolved, by the Bishop of Rome, from their oath to their Bishop; (fn. 2) and the Emperor is said to resent that Bishop's attempted change of religion. The Emperor's harbingers are at Spires to assign lodgings for the coming Diet. Three weeks ago the Emperor sent Count William a Furstenberg, with six ensigns of foot, into Luxembourg, which is devastated by the French king. Spires, 22 Nov. 1543.
News has just come that Furstenberg has taken Arla and two neighbouring castles, but the cold hinders further operations.
Latin. Hol., pp. 3. Add. Sealed. Endd.
22 Nov.
R. O.
416. Mary Of Guise to Paul III.
Received by the Patriarch of Aquileia, his letter and brief, which was quite a proposito to aid the affairs of this realm; and has, from the Patriarch, learnt his Holiness' good will to the Queen her daughter, and to her and to this realm. Need not write of affairs, of which she has fully informed the Patriarch, except to advertise him that since the King's death the realm is marvellously seduced and spoiled by the Lutheran sect, as well by the King of England as by the greater part of the subjects of this realm, so that it is in the way of being lost altogether. Begs him to succour it. Will herself do what is possible; and assures him that her cousin the Cardinal of St. Andrews has done his duty well. "Scritta in Essilinga (qu. misreading of Esterlinga?) a 22 di Novembre, 1543."
Italian. Modern transcript from a Vatican MS., pp. 2. Original endorsed : A N. Sre, la Regina di Scotia.
23 Nov.
Add. MS. 32,653, f. 94. B. M. Hamilton Papers, II., No. 112.
417. Suffolk and Tunstall to the Council.
Enclose a letter of Sir George Douglas's and one of Symple's sent to Wharton. Where Douglas writes that promise was made him by Suffolk for the lord of Mowe; Suffolk made no promise, and so has answered Douglas; albeit, Mowe's son lying in pledge for him, and Douglas bound for his re-entry, if he might be won to serve the King, it were well to let Douglas have him. Desire to know the King's pleasure in this, and for Master Somervell "whose father lieth in durance for the King's sake." Where Douglas writes to have the coming of the King's money to Berwick kept secret, and he to have the conveyance of it; Suffolk wrote to Shelley to deliver it to such persons as Angus, Casselles, Glencarne and Douglas should send with "bills of their hands," so that if Douglas bring all these bills he shall receive all. Hope that Somervell, being in hold, will not be forgotten among them, for he is well dedicate to the King and needs help. Where Douglas writes that he should meet the English Commissioners at the Bounde Rode at Berwick for redress of harms done to and by persons assured by him, who, he prays God, will hereafter stand of as good will as himself; Suffolk has written to him that, if he pray God that his friends may be as himself, the prayer implies that he mistrusts them, and therefore he should cause them to lay in hostages, for surely if they break their promise they shall smart for it. His writing that he will keep promise, not doubting but by Suffolk's help to "have the countrepayne," seems to mean to have Suffolk's promises to him kept, which were that if he proceeded truly to serve the King "he should lack none aid, neither of men nor money." Suffolk promised that if overset by his enemies he should have ready aid; and for this 1,200 men are prepared. Darnton, 23 Nov. Signed.
P.S.Douglas has promised to bind himself by letter for the re-entry of Mowe, besides his hostage.
Pp. 4. Add. Endd. : 1543.
24 Nov.
R. O. St. P. IX., 561.
418. Henry VIII. to Charles V.
Sent Brian to him to communicate things concerning the continuance of the amity, and to reside with him while he remained with his army in the field. Hearing now that, after the flight of the enemy, the army shall repose, as the season requires, recalls Brian and the bp. of London; and sends in their place the bearer, Dr. Wootton, dean of Canterbury, who has been lately resident with the Regent, and who is replaced by Dr. Layton, dean of York, who shall start with all diligence. Begs credence for Wootton. "A notre(blank) d'Ampthill, le (blank) jour de Novembre, 1513."
French. (fn. 3) Draft, broadsheet, p. 1. Corrected by Wriothesley. Add. Endd. : Mynute to the Emperor.
R. O. [Spanish Calendar, VI. II., No. 261.] 2. Original letter of which the above is the draft. Dated Ampthill, 24 Nov. 1543.
French, p. 1. Modern transcript from Vienna.
24 Nov.
Spanish Calendar, VI. II., No. 262.
419. Henry VIII. to the Queen Of Hungary.
Has determined to recall his ambassador Dr. Wotton and send him to the Emperor to replace the bp. of London, who is revoked. Ampthill, 24 Nov. 1543.
Original at Vienna.

Add. MS. 2,442, f. 34. B. M.
420. Charles V.
"Instructions given to Mr. Doctor Wotton towards (sic) the Emperor, to remain there as ambassador lieger in the place of the bishop of London and Sir Francis Bryan."
The King, having determined to revoke the bp. of London and Sir Fras. Brian, now his ambassadors with his good brother and ally the Emperor, has appointed "you the said Doctor Wootton" to supply their place. Upon receipt of these instructions, and two letters from his Majesty sent herewith, to the Queen Regent for your revocation from attendance upon her and to the Emperor for your acceptation, you shall declare to the Queen Regent the King's determination, adding that Mr. Dr. Leighton shall be forthwith sent to replace you, then take your leave and depart to the Emperor's Court. There, after conferring with the Bishop and Sir Francis, you shall make access, together with them, deliver the King's letters and declare his Majesty's resolution, adding that Dr. Layton, dean of Yorke, is to replace him with the Regent.
Whereas letters were lately written to the Bishop and Sir Francis to require the Emperor to take the Scots for enemies, except such as had the King's safe conduct, you shall eftsoons, after the departure of the Bishop and Sir Francis, purchase that the Scots may be published common enemies; and, as it is covenanted that the King and Emperor shall next year invade the French king's country, you shall likewise move the Emperor and Granville to devise order for consultation thereupon. Where the duke of Lorraine has been lately at the Emperor's Court and made overture for peace or truce between the Emperor and French king, as Mr. Brian has advertised, you shall learn from Mr. Brian the whole state of that affair, so as to be the riper to commune with the Emperor or his Council, who will probably confer with you therein, because, by the 24th article of the treaty, neither prince shall treat without the other's consent. The King refused to hear the French ambassador before his departure hence because his overture was not communicated to the Emperor's ambassador, and therefore you shall learn how they have proceeded there and all their occurrents of Italy, Spain, France and Almayne.
Finally, where it is covenanted between the King and Emperor that either prince should send certain ships to the seas, wherein the King has "all this year long" performed his part, but the Emperor has not accomplished his (notwithstanding that both you and Sir Thos. Seymour, to the Regent, and the bp. of London and Sir Fras. Brian, to the Emperor and Mons. Grannevill, have eftsoons moved the same), and for answer has always "shifted the fault unto his ministers, using still a redubbe therein"; in case the Emperor do not forthwith furnish his navy upon such motion as the bp. and Brian at their departing shall make therein, you shall eftsoons solicit the same again.
Modern copy made (apparently from the original in the Tower) for King Charles II., pp. 3.
Harl. MS. 297, f. 60. B. M. 2. Another modern copy.
Pp. 6.
Add. MS. 5,935, f. 80. B. M. 3. Another modern copy.
Pp. 5.
24 Nov.
R. O.
421. Heir of Richard Leftwich.
Record of proceedings in the Court of Wards and Liveries upon an order to Kath. Leftwiche, late wife of "the said" Ric. Leftwiche, dec., to deliver her son and heir to the feodary of co. Chester. She answered that her son and heir was dead leaving a daughter and she had only a younger son called Rauffe Leftwiche; who came into this Court, 24 Nov. 35 Hen. VIII, and showed his title (described) to certain lands (named); and, being 29 years of age, was dismissed. Margaret, the daughter and heir general of Ric. Leftwiche, the younger, is within age and entitled to lands in Awsyng, Chesh., after Eliz. Bulkeley, widow.
Large paper, pp. 3. Mutilated.
24 Nov.
Add. MS. 32,653, f. 99. B. M. Hamilton Papers, II., No. 114.
422. Wharton to Suffolk.
This 24 Nov., met Robt. Maxwell and declared the coming of the money to Angus and the rest, and the advice contained in Suffolk's letter of the 19th. He said they would have done things ere this had they had money to keep their men together; and, unless they could assemble their men before the Parliament (appointed for Monday, 3 Dec.), it would "let their great purpose." Wharton asked what was done for his father's liberty. He answered that the Governor required his father to be bound to leave his bond to England and lay his son Robert in hostage; which he refused to do. And Robert Maxwell added that, if they would refuse England, they "might have enough," and he trusted England would not refuse them. Wharton said that, if they stood to their promises, they need not doubt to have aid. He answered that he would never break promise; he had seen the Governor's charge, in writing, to Angus to put away Mr. Sadlier, who (it stated) was there to adhere Scottishmen to the King against their duties; and he gave news such as contained in the laird Dunlangrik's letter which Wharton forwarded yesterday, save "that he thought the ships would shortly depart," and said that the Governor had commanded him and other gentlemen on the Borders not to meet Wharton or any other of England without leave. Since the laird Johnston did not come with Maxwell, as appointed, Wharton will send for him; and has told Maxwell that if this is refused Johnston shall suffer. Hears that Johnston has great offers from the Governor and Cardinal. Like others there he is "needy and covetous." Will know in four days what he will do. Maxwell desired Thome the Laird and another of the head of the Armstrangis to be sent to him to-morrow at Langhollm. Has appointed the Laird and his son, "a proper man," to go. Continued the assurance to 16 Dec. and parted, Maxwell again desiring him to write to Suffolk to hasten the money.
The Armstrangis and other riders who serve the King complain that those within Angus's assurance resett the enemies, both bodies and goods. Has written of this to Angus, for here are many proper men to annoy the King's enemies.
Describes raids by Elwads and Armstrangis on 19 Nov. upon John Dawson's house of Over Howden in Lawderdaill, on 21 November at Over and Nether Crissope in Ettrick Forest belonging to Michael Scott, Bukcleugh's chief counsellor, and on 23 Nov. upon the laird of Sesfurth's town of Newtoun in Tividale. Carlisle, 24 Nov. Signed.
Pp. 3. Add. Endd. : 1543.
25 Nov.
Add. MS. 32,653, f. 97. B. M. Hamilton Papers, II., No. 113.
423. Suffolk and Tunstall to the Council.
Sir George Douglas here complained much of attemptates done to his friends assured by the lord Warden; and, thereupon, Suffolk commissioned Sir Thos. Hilton and George Bowes to go to the Borders for redress of harms done both to and by the persons assured. Gave this commission to them rather than to the deputy warden, because Sir George thought he would be partial, the harms being done by the men of Berwick and other garrisons under him. The commissioners have met, and both they and Sir George have written to Suffolk what they stick at (letters and copies of the answers enclosed). Suffolk has also written another to Sir George apart, to move his friends to be more reasonable; but if they still "look to have credence given unto them against a plain truth," the commissioners are to take day to the 4th of next month. Suffolk asks what to do in case they cannot agree; for Sir George says it is impossible to induce his friends to lay hostages, although they would hinder no English exploits against the King's enemies and his, and that his brother wrote to him that, if they broke their assurance, they should both lose it and make redress.
Enclose a letter from Sadler to them, with copy of one from Angus to Sadler, in cipher, with the "unciphering"; also a letter from Wharton and one from Donelangrig to Wharton. Darnton, 25 Nov. Signed.
P.S.By Donelangrig's letter and otherwise, it appears that many in Scotland would join the King's friends if they might perceive that the King meant only the peace and marriages, without conquest of any part of the realm, to which few will agree.
Pp. 3. Add. Sealed, Endd. : 1543.
25 Nov.
Add. MS. 32,653, f. 101. B. M. Hamilton Papers, II., No. 115.
424. Sir Wm. Eure and Others to Suffolk.
This Sunday afternoon, Sir George Doglas said before them that he had message forth of Scotland, on Saturday night, that, if he would meet the Governor or Cardinal, with four with them, and refuse England, he should have an abbey to him and his heirs, 20 score crowns out of another abbey, and a pension of France; also he said that Scotland would "not be won but with great strokes and many of them," and all Scots favour France better than England, but "if all his friends refuse him he would serve the King with himself and a boy." He said he had advertised the King of these sayings. Berwick, 25 Nov., 8 p.m. Signed : Will'm Eure : Thomas Hylton : George Bowes.
P. 1. Add. Endd. : 1543.
25 Nov.
Add. MS. 32,653, f. 104. B. M. Hamilton Papers, II., No. 116 (1).
425. The Laird Of Brunston to Sadler.
Since he last wrote, the Cardinal and Governor have been in Dundee; where they sent for lord Gray and his company. They came, but would in no wise speak with the Governor, except he put the Cardinal and Bothwell out of his company, which he would not do. The Cardinal, thereupon, by rewards and other false means, "dressed" most of the gentlemen who were with Gray to his purpose, and caused the Governor to appoint a new tryst; which they accepted and were betrayed. Gray, Rothers and Mr. Bannaves, one of the last ambassadors, are taken. The Cardinal desired the custody of Bannaves, "because he loved him worst of all"; and Rothwes is in the Governor's house of Cragnetham, and Gray in Dalkethe. John Chartors, a friend of Gray, escaped; and no man in Scotland is more able to trouble them. The King should write to Charters promising friendship. Has convened the laird of Calder and 12 or 16 of his neighbours, and induced them to refuse the money they might have to be friends to France, with the promises of pensions ("which I believe should have been evil paid,") and be the King's friends; and thinks the King should write to Calder thanking him for his willingness to join the King's friends, as reported by Brunston. Albeit the King has been beguiled by untrue men, he must not repute less those that are true, for, surely, if he "bide not the better by those that be his friends" they cannot prevail, and there was never greater appearance of trouble than now. The Cardinal and Governor took 7 or 8 of the honestest men of Dundee, on 21 Nov., for pulling down the Friars, and departed to Stirling. This 24th (sic) Nov. they sent Bothwell to Edinburgh (with proclamations for the town, castle, town of Leith and country to obey him, but Brunston thinks "he will be evil served") to keep the town until the Parliament. Believes that Lenoux is gone again to the Earl of Angus. Will certify further occurrents, and begs to know the King's pleasure. Brunstone, 25 Nov.
P.S."The Cardinal hath the Governor's son in pledge that he shall bide at his counsel."
In cipher, pp. 3.
25 Nov.
R. O.
426. Wallop to the Council.
Describes the difficulty of the bringing home the ordnance and munitions. In Hennault and Cambresis the ways were so foul that a double number of beasts could hardly draw half a carriage weight; and they were further hindered by the breaking of wagon ropes, which were rotten by "long lying in the fields." At Douay, considering that the ways of Artois and Flanders were still worse, and their beasts weak and faint-hearted from living only on foggage and stubble, it was decided to leave all except the bows and arrows, which were wet through their chests. By advice of George Browne, master of the Ordnance here, left three gunners, two smiths and two joiners at Douay to dress and mend the ordnance, morysche pykes, bills and other munitions, which may either remain there all winter or come by water to Antwerp and England, or by land to Calais if the ways be dry. To provide for conveyance of their carriages, the Emperor at their departure appointed Mons. de Vandeville, captain of Gravelines (who had met them at Fynes at their first entry into France and gently conducted them to Mons. du Rieux at Arras), who now, in their passage homewards, was very attentive in mending ways that were spoilt by frost and snow and in escorting them with the garrisons of Ayre and St. Omer's along the dangerous frontier by Turwayn. At St. Omer's they had to unload and carry the munitions in boats to Gravelines, and thence in wagons to Calais. Wallop, Sir Robert Bowis, treasurer of the wars, Sir John Raynesforth, George Browne and his company, Ralph Bulmer, Peter Meotas and 200 horsemen and as many footmen accompanied the munitions; so that, although the rest of the army was at Calais ready to be transported on 19 Nov., they did not arrive there until Thursday, the 22nd, at night. Lodged every night in good towns and were gently entertained with suppers and banquets.
Upon examining the munitions, at their arrival, George Browne advised that two bowyers and two fletchers should remain for a month drying, setting and seasoning the said bows and arrows; and Wallop caused Bowis to give them wages, as well as those left at Douay, for one month, after which the eight artificers shall depart to England and the King be charged only with the three gunners at Douay. Calais, 25 Nov. Signed.
P.S.This 25 Nov., at 1 p.m., received their letter directing that the ordnance at Douay be brought to Calais. It is impossible to bring it by land until the ways dry; and by water it must go by Gaunt, Antwerp and the sea, which is a great circuit, and there is danger of frost freezing the river and also of stealing from the boats. Respites its conveyance until he hears the King's further pleasure. If it is to be brought, requires them to appoint who shall convey it, and money for its conveyance, for the Treasurer* of the Wars will be departed to England before their answer comes. Commends the said Treasurer highly, who was much esteemed by Arschot, the Great Master, and others. In presenting the Emperor's reward to Wallop, the secretary presented also a letter of recommendation from the Emperor to the King written with his own hand. Intended to present it himself, but, as his coming to Court will not be so shortly as he thought, sends it to them to deliver.
Pp. 7. Add. Endd. : 1543.


  • 1. Blackness. See No. 379.
  • 2. Hermann von Weide
  • 3. In this paper the final "e" where meant to be sounded is marked with an accent, thus "e."