Henry VIII: March 1523, 2-15

Pages 1206-1222

Letters and Papers, Foreign and Domestic, Henry VIII, Volume 3, 1519-1523. Originally published by Her Majesty's Stationery Office, London, 1867.

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March 1523

Lamb. MS. 245. f. 271 b. Nero, B. VII. 34. B. M. (fn. 1)
2863. 14 HENRY VIII.
Knows by his letters from Venice, the last of which was dated 1 Feb. now past, the present state of affairs, and how he has succeeded in his commission. After long delay the Duke and Signory of Venice have at last determined to abandon France, and conclude a reasonable treaty, which is in good train, except certain points mentioned in the said letters, which will be easily settled by the King's mediation. Has shown the letters to the King, who thanks Pace for all he has done. The difficulties now consist in two things: 1, the money demanded by Mr. Jeronymo Adorno to be paid to the Emperor by the Venetians; 2, the assistance to be given by them for the defence of Naples. On receipt of Pace's letters, the King sent for the ambassadors of the Emperor and of Venice, and exhorted them, as they had no power to treat, to do all they could by writing, stating what was his advice for the weal of all parties. Supposes that they have done so; but lest such an important matter fail for any small difficulty, as the King would gladly be mediator between the Emperor and Venice, Pace is to do all he can to bring this treaty to a good conclusion. Is to show the Duke and Senate the following great and good effects which will ensue if they (whose neutrality has thus emboldened the French king to persist in sowing more and more discords in Christendom) were once fairly knit with the Emperor, and their declaration made against France. The French king has always endeavored to keep asunder the Emperor and Venice, using the latter for furtherance of his malicious purposes, and putting them to excessive cost to promote variance in Italy for his particular ambition. But when he is once expelled from Milan, and the Venetians allied to the Emperor, they and all Italy will prosper, being delivered from French tyranny, "the great power and strength of the Turks (enemies to Christ's Faith), and the extremity, debility and weakness of Italy by means of the said division, well and substantially pondered." On the other side, he is to insist with Messer Jeronimo, reminding him of the present state of the Emperor's affairs, the advantage it will be to gain the Venetians, and the danger if they again join the French. The Pope being unfurnished with riches, the duchy of Milan exhausted of men and money, the Swiss prone to lean to the French, and the other potentates of Italy not yet conformed to the Emperor's devotion, both Milan and Naples would be in great danger if the Venetians were lost. Considering the need he has to establish Naples, Genoa, Milan and all Italy from the French, the Emperor should "take the time offered without any sticking upon the said small points."
If they cannot agree with Pace's mediation, he is to make overture for a mean way to be devised and agreed between them, showing the Venetians that as they are agreed about Milan, Naples can be in no danger, so that the assistance required by the Emperor for Naples would be in no way chargeable to the Venetians; and if it were invaded by the Turks, Venice alone would not be called to its aid, but all Christian princes would be forced to put their hands to it. If there is no other remedy, he shall propose a mean way between both; the Venetians to send 20 galleys to the assistance of Naples; and if they cannot agree upon the sum of money, he is to "modify their extremities by good exhortation," moving the Senate to give at least 100,000 ducats in hand, and the rest at convenient days, considering the Emperor intends to employ it upon the invasion of Languedoc. He is also to exhort Jeronimo to accept it for the reasons before specified. The King has written to the Pope about the things which concern his interests and those of the duke of Ferrara, and hopes that he will agree to the treaty. Pace is to tell the Venetians that the King has discharged the arrest upon their galleys and the goods of their merchants (though against the advice of some of his council), giving express commands to his officers to permit them to pass as freely and quietly as they have ever done. This favor ought to be by them thankfully accepted and substantially regarded. After the enlarging of the said galleys, as the King was sending certain ships of war out of Portsmouth Haven, which lacked certain pieces of artillery, "I of myself, without any consent of their ambassadors here resident, or the patrons of the galleys, willing, for the love that I bore them, to show a confirmation of their good minds towards the King's grace, took upon me to borrow out of the said galleys six great pieces of artillery, that is to say, of every galley two pieces, trusting that the said Duke and Senate will be contented." 6 June 1522. (fn. 2)
Modern copies, pp. 4, 8. The following note occurs at the end of the Lambeth copy: This last letter was transcribed from Sir W. Boreman's copy of these negotiations, and was the only one wanting here.
2 March.
R. O.
Is delighted that Croke has committed Denton to his charge. Praises his diligence, talents and learning. He is with him day and night,—when he talks and jokes, when he studies Greek, and when he dreams. Croke's friends have not been able to this day to get the senate to meet and confer upon him the distinction they intend. Arthur begs you will remember his business. It is reported Rhodes has been taken by the Turks. Cambridge, vi. non. Martii.
Hol., Lat., pp. 2.
2 March.
Vit. B. v. 154. B. M.
On the last of Feb. cardinal Colonna was appointed in the consistory legate to Hungary, and the see of Catania in Sicily was given to him. He will not start immediately, for Hungary requires other assistance. The appointment of legates to other princes cannot be delayed any longer, especially now it is reported that Rhodes has surrendered. Every one is very anxious; for if it has not yet surrendered, it must do so soon. Heard yesterday, but not from a trustworthy source, that French assistance had arrived and had gained the harbour. A treaty is nearly concluded between Venice and the Emperor. The chief conditions are that they shall pay him money, abandon France, and give aid to Milan and Naples. The Emperor's troops wintered in Milan. Rimini is recovered for the Church. Nearly all the cardinals are here, and the courts are crowded. The pestilence still rages, but the Pope is in good health. Wolsey is expected to turn Henry's mind to peace. Rome, 2 March 1523.
Was grieved to hear of the death of the bishop of Durham. Signed.
Lat., pp. 2.
3 March.
R. O.
2866. JU. CARDINAL DE MEDICI, Vicechancellor, to WOLSEY.
Is compelled to love the bishop of Worcester, were it only because he stood in favour with Leo X. For this cause had resigned to him the bishopric; and some months later, being empowered by the King's letters, gave him all the fruits from the feast of Annunciation, 1522, and all arrears that had not been paid to his secretary, Jo. Matth. Giberti, during the time he himself held the see. Requests, therefore, that the sums due for fruits received by the procurators appointed by Wolsey may be paid to Ant. Vivaldi, to whom they have been assigned by the bishop in reduction of a debt. Florence, 3 March 1523. Signed and sealed.
Lat., p. 1. Add. and Endd.
R. O. 2. Duplicate of the same letter. Signed, Add. and Endd.
Vit. B. v. 155. B.M. 2867. NEWS of ITALY from the DUKE OF MILAN. (fn. 3)
[The viceroy of] Naples and the duke of Sinuessa have been treating with the Pope, in the Emperor's name, for the security of Italy. We have advised, through our ambassadors, to treat: (1.) Of the defensive treaty.(2.) That the Pope should, by means of his nuncio, urge on the peace between the Venetians and the Emperor. (3.) That an agreement should be made between the Pope and the duke of Ferrara, about Modena and Reggio. (4.) That he should send the bishop of Veroli as nuncio to the Swiss. (5.) That a means should be found for the princes and states of Italy to contribute to an army for the defence of Italy against the French. * * * vicerex nec dux Sinuessanus ausi sunt pup[lice] loqui, sed scripserunt ad nos ut haberemus illud pro jam inito et firmato," for the Pope has declared that he will not fail in anything tending to the safety of Italy; but, in order to repress the French and keep a hold on the confederates, it is of the greatest importance for the King and Wolsey to urge the Pope to the publication of the truce. As to the peace with the Venetians, the Pope was much concerned that it had not been concluded, and sent thither the bishop of Feltri, Campeggio's brother, as legate, who, it is said, will soon bring the matter to a close. One difficulty was, that they demanded the comprehension of the archduke of Austria as a principal "qui suasu [aliquorum consulentium (fn. 4) ] * * * cunctabatur id agere." Hearing of this, the Pope sent him word that he ought to comply with the wishes of the Emperor and the King, especially in matters tending to the common good; and the duke of Milan (nos) and Prosper Colonna wrote to him to the same effect; to which he replied that he would do as the Emperor wished, and wrote to his ambassadors at Venice to abandon the suit they were to make privately, and follow Adorno's instructions till an ambassador came from the Emperor, and, in case an immediate arrival of the French was expected, conclude the peace without waiting for fresh orders. "Nunc vero * * * Fonterabia, et intelligamus ex diversis nuntiis a Parisiis, a Logduno et a Savoya, parare sese ad invadendam Italiam." Has again sent to the Archduke to ask him to charge his ambassadors to swear to the peace immediately. Doubts not he will do it, but wishes Henry to exercise his influence for the same purpose.
The Pope has referred the affairs of the duke of Ferrara to the cardinals Sodorini, Monte, Accolti and Jacobatio. The cause will be much advanced "si iste serenissimus et invictissimus [Rex] * * * expeditionem ipsam urgeret, nam tantæ ... abductus ipse dux a Gallicis partibus ad nostras mult[um] profuerit," whether the war be in Italy or France.
The Pope has sent the bishop of Veroli to the Swiss, to treat first of a universal peace, and secondly to separate them from the French and induce them to serve the Emperor and the King. While consulting with the Duke about his proceedings, Doctor Pranter arrived with 50,000 ducats from the Emperor for this business, and Richard Pace, "cum non minore ut nobis * * * ...eo ipso intelligere," for the Bishop would have been driven away without doing any good, if he had gone without money.
Nothing has yet been done about the contribution. None but the Duke and Genoa will continue the agreement between them, the Florentines, Siennese and Lucchese. They leave the whole expense of the army to the Duke and his subjects, who are very poor. The infantry, who are unpaid, live upon them, and are accompanied by those brought by the Pope from Spain, whom he dares not keep out of his territory. Fears that a time will come "in quo mihi mei * * * illas respublicas et eos qui principatus (?) in eas ... ne committatur ut hic exercitus dissolvatur et ad Gallorum stipendia transfugiat." Wishes the King to advise or compel, if necessary, these states and the Pope himself to contribute what is needed to support the army. Advises an invasion of France from this side, about which Colonna has already written to the Emperor. * * * "dehortari Gallum ab Italiæ turbatione, sed maxime conatur et intendit de pace aut induciis faciendis." If this succeed, the King and Wolsey must be entreated to procure Milan and Cremona for him, and to provide that the French do not profit by the truce. Expects Milan will be forced to surrender to him in a few days from want of provisions.
Hears that the French treasurers in Switzerland have not money to pay half what they owe there; but the French still boast they have enough to enlist a large number of Swiss.
* * * et authoritate Helvetiorum inducti, partim pr[œmiis] corrupti, in quibus oratores nostri superati sunt." Had ordered them to try to bring the nation to the side of the Emperor, or, if not, to allow Almain troops to pass through their country. When the day for payment arrived, the French could not offer a halfpenny; so he hopes the Grisons will not cost as much as he thought.
Does not believe the French will invade Italy this year, especially if the king of England, as you write, is preparing such a large army, and the Emperor has determined to invade with all the power of Spain. However, as he hears from several places that they will try their strength against him, and that they have money enough in Switzerland "ad conducendam magnam [manum] * * * [P]rovinciam se contulisse et Delphinatu[m] ut se cum Helvetiis conjungerent, non possumus non timere illorum audaciam." In such an event, commends himself to the King, who will not allow him to contend alone against the common enemy.
Lat., mutilated, pp. 10.
3 March.
Add. 21, 382. f. 83. B. M.
For reasons stated in his letter of 21 Feb., has detained the bearer, her archer, till now; but the news of the French king's death is not confirmed. The King and Legate were very glad of the intelligence, and if it had been true, would have used every effort to abate the pride of the French. Henry would have sent three great armies to invade Picardy, Normandy and Guienne.
"L[e Roy] fait grosses ... pour faire a la part aux Escossois ... vers leur frontiere, Messieurs le ... tre illec toutes choses en ordre et aussi lever jusques a la nombre de trois mil chevaulx legiers du pays pour commencer faire la guerre gueriable jusques a l'Aoust prouchain que le Roy entend lors faire invahir ledit royaulme par ledit sieur Grant Tresorier, son lieutenant general, sur ... frontiere, et suyvre en parsonne avec une aultre armee ... ensuyvant la resolucion que nagueres vous [avon]s [avertie par] noz lettres du xxije de Janvier.
Beg for speedy information of the conclusion of the estates of the countries ..., on which they will ascertain what assistance the King will give. London, 3 March 1522. Signed.
Fr., pp. 2. Great part of the writing injured by damp. Add.: A Madame. Endd.: D'escripre a Mons. de Nassau.
4 March.
Galba, B. VII. 251. B. M.
Wrote last, on the last day of the month, from Malines. Spoke this morning with Howstrate, who said he learned from spies that the French king was at Rouen, and 14 days ago Albany was at Paris, who, with Ric. de la Pole, had taken leave of Francis, and was going to embark in Brittany; that the French were about to assemble on the frontier of Hainault, but only to set garrisons there, for the waters were so great they could not easily stir; and that although it was known in France that the Emperor had obtained Fontarabia, they were burning fires of joy in Paris for its reinforcement and that of Terouenne. It is strange there is no news from the Emperor. Last night a merchant of Antwerp told Howstraate that two ships of Biscay, laden with iron, had arrived in London, showing for certain that Fontarabia is won. Tomorrow or next day the post, which arrived three weeks ago, will be despatched to Spain through London. The Estates here will make no difficulty in granting the aid. Hoowstrate has those of Holland in good train; Berghes and Fiennes, those of Brabant and Flanders; for which purpose Fiennes has gone to Flanders, and Berghes to Antwerp. They will be here again by the 16th, when the answer is made, and it is thought the earl of Bure also; for Bure "his officer of arms" was here two days ago to know if I had any news from the King for the provision of horsemen. "And likewise I had one from the earl of Horne, also from the lord Myngovall," who spoke to my brother, Sir Richard, offering his services to the King; and at lord Myngovall's desire, I wrote to my brother. Malines, 4 March 1522.
P.S.—I have just received a letter from a friend at Antwerp stating that he had news from Venice of the 13th, that during December Rhodes was not thought to be in peril; also that Gothia has rebelled against the King of Denmark; so that it seems he has tow enough upon his rock to spin; though it seems, by an officer of arms named Lommysdale, lately sent by him to France, that the French king has sent him money. It is said he has also sent 4,000 ducats to the Swiss, 30,000 to Gueldres, 30,000 to Robt. de la Marche and 30,000 to Francis Seken. "I pray God grant that all the before-named, with the great Turk in their company, may either be converted to good men shortly, or to their everlasting home, every as he hath deserved."
Pp. 3. Add. and Endd.
4 March.
Vit. B. v. 160. B. M.
2870. [PACE] to WOLSEY.
By recent letters from the French [cour]te it appears that the King has sent the Admiral to Normandy to provide ships for Ric. de la Pole, and to transport soldiers to Scotland; that Albany has secretly left the court, having obtained 150,000 cr. from the French king, which was 50,000 cr. more than he demanded. The letter does not mention whither De la Pole is sent, nor where he shall land, but it states that Francis intends to invade England in [divers] places with 60,000 foot, and a good number of men of arms and artillery. Venice, ii[ij.] March 1523.
Hol., p. 1. Add.
5 March.
Vit. B. v. 162. B. M.
Exhort him to show the same zeal against the Mahometans as against Luther. The Pope's letters will have informed him of the capture of Belgrade and Rhodes, and the danger of Christendom. Beg him to withdraw his troops from France, to make a peace, or at least a truce of three or four years, and to send forces to their assistance. Rome, 5 March 1523.
Lat., p. 1, mutilated. Add.
5 March.
Vit. B. V. 163. B.M.
Has written by the courier who is charged with the expedition of the see of Meath, but sends this by the bearer, who is despatched by the Pope about the truce. Letters are sent to the Emperor, the king of England, Wolsey, the kings of France and Portugal, to induce them to make a truce, with the addition of threats to Francis and the Emperor, but not to Henry, as he has only taken up arms to preserve peace. Thinks Wolsey ought to know that the matter is supposed to be in the power of himself and the King. The see of Meath has been expedited. Has managed to procure the retention of the priory of St. Nicolas of Drax and other benefices, according to the King's letters, but this clause is omitted in the letters, because those who were soliciting the matter said they did not require it. Rome, 5 March 1523. Signed.
Lat., p. 1.
5 March.
R. O.
A few days ago wrote to him about the report of the capture of Rhodes by the Turk. Writes further particulars, which have arrived at Rome, to Silvester Darius, who will communicate them to Wolsey. The danger of Christianity is imminent. Wishes this calamity would make Christian princes unanimous. Every one knows how much Wolsey could do to effect this. Rome, "ex Palatio Apostolico," 5 March 1523. Signed.
Lat., p. 1. Add. Endd.
5 March.
R. O.
2874. GUISNES.
Receipt, dated 5 March 14 Hen. VIII., by Sir Wm. Sandes, for 100l. received from Sir John Daunce for fortifying the castle of Guisnes, according to the Cardinal's warrant of the same date. Signed.
6 March.
Commission of muster and array against the French and Scotch to "A.B.C." and the sheriff of Kent. (Date illegible.)
ii. Similar commissions for various counties and towns.
Rym. XIII. 781. iii. Appointment of Thomas earl of Surrey, treasurer and admiral of England, K.G., as lieutenant general of the army against Scotland. Westm., 26 Feb. 14 Hen. VIII.
Pat. 14 Hen. VIII. p. 2, m. 28.
iv. Commission of array to the same in cos. Salop, Staff., Derby, Notts, York, Northumb., Cumb., Westmor., Lauc. and Chester. Westm., 26 Feb. 14 Hen. VIII.
Pat. 14 Hen. VIII. p. 1, m. 1.
Rym. XIII. 782. v. Appointment of Thomas marquis of Dorset, K.G., as warden or lieutenant of the East and Middle Marches towards Scotland, with power to punish all offenders, &c. [Westm., 26 Feb. (fn. 5) ] 14 Hen. VIII.
Pat. 14 Hen. VIII. p. 2, m. 28.
vi. Commission of array to the same. Westm., 26 Feb. 14 Hen. VIII. Pat. 14 Hen. VIII. p. 1, m. 1.
Rym. XIII. 782. vii. Appointment of Sir Wm. Bulmer as lieutenant of the East Marches towards Scotland; with power to hold diets and conferences. Westm. 6 March 14 Hen. VIII.
Pat. 14 Hen. VIII. p. 2, m. 28.
viii. Similar appointment of [Sir William Evres (fn. 6) ] as lieutenant of the Middle Marches. Same date.
Pat. 14 Hen. VIII. p. 2, m. 28.
6 March.
R. O.
* * * Wages of Sir Marmaduke Constable and his custrell for 7 months, 21 March to 2 Oct., at 4s. a day; 93 men, 5 months at 8d., 2 months at 6d.; 603l. 4s. Conduct money, 9l. 4s. Wages of Sir Wm. Bulmer and 198 men. Sir Wm. Constable and 93 men. To lord Rosse, warden of the East and Middle Marches. Wages of Sir Wm. Paston, Sir Rauff Ellarker, Nic. Harvy, Musgrave and 192 men.
4 months' wages, 16 June to 6 Oct.—Sir Ric. Tempest, 98 men. Sir Arthur Darcy, 98 men. Sir Wm. Evers, 98 men. Rauff Fenwyk, lieutenant of the East and Middle Marches, for keeping Tynedale in subjection. Wm. Ellarker, captain of Wark Castle, and 48 men, 11 July to 4 Sept. Edw. Grey, capt. of Wark Castle, and 93 men, 1 Sept. to 19 Sept., when peace was taken, and Grey undertook to hold the castle without wages. 3 gunners who remained after the garrison was discharged, 6d. a day. Total, 4,682l. 5s.
Richard Caundishe and 20 gunners at Berwick, 13 April to 15 Oct. Thos. Herte, master gunner, viewing Berwick and other fortresses, 2s. a day, 6 Nov. to 24 Jan. Repairs at Berwick, 187l. 11s. 3½d. 330 qrs. of wheat for Berwick, 132l. 2s. 4d. To Thos. Bellyngton, clerk of the ordnance, for making beer, 33l. 6s. 8d. Wages of 50 men for 2 days, at 6d., who were taken into Berwick when Albany was approaching, Sept. 14 Hen. VIII. Wages of 11 posts between London and the Marches, from 4 April 13 Hen. VIII. to 5 Feb. 14 Hen. VIII., 12d. a day. John More, clerk of the Check, 12d. a day. Total, 755l. 2s. 10½d.
Total of all the above payments, 5,437l. 7s. 10½d. Remaining in Dacre's hand, 99l. 9s. 9½d.; for which sum there is attached Sir H. Wiat's receipt, dated London, 6 March 14 Hen. VIII.
A roll. Commencement lost.
6 March.
R. O.
Has appointed him escheator of the bishopric of Durham, which the King has granted to Wolsey during its vacancy, and has also obtained his appointment as lieutenant deputy of the Middle Marches. Sir Wm. Bulmer will give him the patents for the latter office; and Mr. Frankeleyn, chancellor of Durham, those for the former. Westm., 6 March. "Vera copia."
7 March.
Vesp. C. II. 94. B.M.
Has advertised him in his former letters what knowledge he has gained, from Delaroche and John Almayne, of Wolsey's pension assigned on the archbishopric of Toledo. They recommend a proxy. He and Boleyn have contradicted a rumor that Wolsey was unfavorable to the Imperial alliance. Begs his favorable consideration. Things are so dear he will not be able to continue here. If he had a more agreeable and liberal colleague, could get on better. ("Quod si mihi evenisset paulo benevolentior collega, multo facilius transegissem; cujus tamen mores ita fero constanter ut simultati locus alicui non pateat. Neque tam illibenter sentiret me affore ita rerum omnium inopem, ut nihil non egerem ope sua: neque res alia mihi obtingeret ingrati[or].") Has not received the instructions promised him. Valladolid, 7 March.
Hol., pp. 2.
8 March.
Vesp. C. II. 106. Harl. 295. f. 133. B.M.
On the 13th Feb. the Emperor's post arrived here with letters from Wolsey for them, without date; a copy of the Emperor's letter to his ambassadors there; letters to Mr. Hannyball, with copies of letters and instructions to him; a copy of Wolsey's letter to the Pope, and a memorandum for iron guns to be provided in these parts, for which they sent an English merchant the next day. On the 14th, declared their charge to the Emperor and his council, first congratulating him on his prudent demeanor, and on the prosperous state in which he had found the isles and countries, and thanking him for the observation of his promises, and his towardness against France, touching Fonterabia; for all which he sends his thanks, and will continue to act as he has done. As to the third point, read it from Wolsey's letters in French, as the words were so well couched that it could not be declared so substantially otherwise. He answered that Henry should have an army ready to invade France early in May, as he intended to have one ready, consisting of 20,000 foot and 4,000 light horse, and that he would probably be with them in person. Touching the 4,000 men to be sent by sea, he would confer with his council, but he had much sea coast to defend. Showed him the advantage and honor of being master of the sea. Perceived, at the despatching of Blewmantell hence, that the Spaniards were very cold to the war, but since the trust of Fontarabia is past, not a little to their dishonor, the nobles and commons have offered very large sums for its advancement; and after the revictualling of Fontarabia the great lords have been daily with the Emperor, some offering 500 men-at-arms, at their own charge; and this town, Burgos, Medina, and many others have offered 2,000 footmen for six months, or 1,000 for a year, so that he will not want for men. He has also provided 1,200,000 or 1,400,000 ducats, for Almains and other horsemen, at his own charge, to be levied from certain of his revenues, which he is selling to some great person. The Chancellor says that he will so dispose of them to the said person to the sum of 50,000 ducats, that he shall redeem them when he has money, losing five per cent.; the said person, in the meantime, to enjoy the revenues. He trusts to have the money to redeem them within four or five years, from a crusado which the Pope will grant him, and by other means.
He liked very well the letters and instructions for the Pope; but on the 15th, Sunday, when they were with him again, knowing that he was about to despatch a messenger to Rome, he thought each party might be suffered to comprise his allies in the same truce, for he would comprise Milan, and other his friends, and so he desired them to write to the King's ambassador at Rome, which they did. A gentleman left on the 16th for Rome, with Henry's letters, and others from the Emperor. He has sent sufficient power to his ambassadors there, and advises Henry to do the like, as his ambassadors will do nothing, except jointly with Henry's. They marvel here that no mention is made of the duke of Bourbon in the last letters. Said they thought the reason was, that Henry was expecting an answer from him, by the express messenger sent thither. The Emperor says things are in better train than before. "Yet in France now it is detected." Bourbon came to Paris, and going to the court at dinner time the Queen commanded him to sit at her board, for the King and she dined apart that day. "The King, hearing of his being there, the more shortly ended his dinner, and came to the Queen's chamber. The Duke, seeing the King, was rising to do his duty. The King commanded him to sit, and not to rise from his dinner, and then saluted him with these words, 'Senyor, it is shewed us that you be or shall be married; is it truth?' The Duke said it was not so. The [King] said that he knew that it was so; moreover saying that he would remember it, and that he knew his traffic with the Emperor, eftsoons repeating that he would remember it. The Duke answered and said, 'Sir, then you menace and threat me; I have deserved no such cause;' and so departed; and after dinner the Duke went to his lodging, and all the noblemen of the court with him," and the next day went home.
Wonder the King let him depart. The Emperor says he dared not do otherwise, as all the great persons favored him. He says also that Francis has no design against the Low Countries, but only to invade Milan, especially since the revictualling of Fontarabia. On the 18th, sent to the Chancellor, asking him to have the expedition of these matters in remembrance, which he said he would do. On the 19th, saw Mons. de Nassau, showed him how the King trusted him, and had a kind answer from him. He granted that there was delay in despatching Blewmantell, and that now they repent the loss of time. Know no more of the reasons for it. The great lords of Spain are every day with the Emperor. As Nassau says, they make long tales and little speed. The truth is, that before this they were never called to council, except Fonseke and Hernando Vego. There is not much love between the noblemen of Flanders and Spain. On the 22nd, asked the Emperor to remember the ships, as the time was so short, and damage might ensue if the French were masters of the seas. He said he would send for them the next day, and dispatch everything. The Great Master and De la Roche both said that matters were well concluded, and should be with diligence put in execution. Notwithstanding this is the 24th day, and yet they have no knowledge. The Emperor has today been running and casting the cane, with about eighty horses on both sides. The 26th day the ambassador of Milan, Thos. Mannis, the Duke's kinsman, was with them. He delivered letters from the Duke, and asked for money for the defence of Milan. On the 27th, were with Nassau and the Great Master, and had good words from them.
On the 28th, were with the Chancellor, who said that all things were in writing, ready to be put in execution, and that the Emperor was determined to have an army in France on these parts, and out of Arragon also, 7,000 or 8,000 foot, with 4,000 or 5,000 men-at-arms, on that side. For the defence of Italy, he has already sent 50,000 g. fl., and will send 100,000 ducats, and is also sending to Flanders 100,000 ducats, thinking that will encourage them to contribute an army sufficient to defend those parts. They think the advice for the Emperor's brother of none effect, except he have money to levy some men there for a visage of war, which must all come from the Emperor. The Chancellor says that some Spanish ships will be joined with others of Jeane, for the defence of the Mediterranean, and the succor of Milan, if need be. The 3,000 men for the sea service shall be speedily ready, but will stay on these coasts, and not join the English ships in the Channel. Could not persuade the Chancellor to send any men to those parts, though they said that Henry would be much surprised at their refusal of so little aid "in the comparation" of the 7,000 he is to have for the same intent. They say that each power should keep their own coasts. The Chancellor said that Henry does not employ his forces against the common enemy, but for his private profit, against the Scots, "shewing us in this behalf much more than we knew," viz., that the King had 40,000 men, the Admiral 30,000, the duke of Suffolk 25,000, and that the 7,000 at sea were also for use against Scotland. Showed him that Henry had also an army to be sent over the sea to join the Emperor, and that it was verily thought that the Emperor would make no war this year; but they hold to their determination. Know not why this is, but since the coming of Mons. de la Sauche have perceived no small change. One cause, perhaps, is the refusal of the 50,000 fl. for Swiss or Almains for the defence of Milan.
On 1st March were with the Emperor, who said that he might hear daily from Henry by "sabars," or other little ships; and, if necessary for any good enterprise, he would be content that the 3,000 men join the King's fleet; though it would be dangerous to send them away lest the French make a descent. He thought it would be far in April before these men would be ready. As he is now determined to set these armies forth into France, he wishes Henry to do likewise, and said that, notwithstanding the expedition against the Scots, he might send the army under Suffolk into France. Answered that Henry did not yet know the Emperor's determination, but had, of his own mind, offered an army to join his in Flanders. They think Henry "sometimes very sore in words" to the ambassadors there, which they do not take well. Nassau told them that Wolsey had said he wished the Emperor would show the money in hand for the great expedition, as the King would do for his part, else he would believe nothing the Emperor would do. The Chancellor also told them he had said the Emperor did not keep his promises, (fn. 7) which they take ill. They will not hear of the Emperor being unable to do anything.
Sent into Biscay for the iron guns, as they wrote, but none can be ready till the end of April. Have no money to pay for them if they could be had. They would cost about 700 ducats. The English merchants say they have no money in store, and have not been repaid the money lent for revictualling the ships at La Redo, and 700 ducats lent to Hannibal, (fn. 8) and the merchants here have no intercourse with England, on account of the war. On the 1st and 2nd March were with the Emperor, and told him they were going to send the herald to England with letters. He complained that Henry had sent no zabars or ships with letters all the winter, but that they all were his, except one ship, sent with Blewmantell, of which he had to pay the half, more than for a whole zabar going and returning. Have written of this before. The Chancellor also mentioned it. (fn. 9) Henry had better provide for those he sends. The Emperor said that Henry has now asked for two or three zabars. Told him they were wanted for the 3,000 men and the other ships, if he pleased to send them. He then said that perhaps he would send them with the 3,000 men to join the King's fleet. Asked him "to know his pleasure in that, for according to his words the day before we had written the contrary, and now we should change our letters." He said he had written to his ambassadors not to send them into the narrow seas, but now had changed his mind, and would refuse nothing. He says he is not bound to do so much by the treaty, but will never "debate the extreme words" with the King. He cannot tell when the ships will be ready, or promise absolutely to send them, but intends to do so. If he go to the war this year he must have 10,000 Almains for the defence of Milan, and other great expense in Flanders, and more Almains in these parts, and hopes Henry will also have a powerful army. Some time in May he will have 8,000 or 10,000 Spanish infantry, with his Almains, and 2,000 or 3,000 men-at-arms, with 1,000 light horse, to invade France on this side. The Spaniards offer more than he can want to have. He thinks it would be well to have some person in each army authorized to treat with the French, if any offers are made by them. The Treasurers here have assured him of 2,500,000 ducats from May to September. His army will consist of 20,000 foot, 4,000 men-at-arms and 2,000 light horse, but in this and all other affairs he will have Henry's advice. Ask for letters of thanks to Nassau and the Great Master. Mons. de Beaurain has landed in Spain, and will be here in five or six days. Did not keep the herald for that, as the Emperor will send another post. Valladolid, March 8. Signed.
In Sampson's hand, pp. 19. Part in cipher, deciphered by Tuke. The Harleian copy is in Tuke's hand. The leaves of the Cottonian MS. are transposed.
8 March.
Vesp. C. II. 95. B.M.
Cannot do without Windsor. Have written at length to the Cardinal of their last charge. Notwithstanding some sinister report (happily got over), the Emperor is as favorable as ever. In their displeasure at the revictualling of Fonterabia, the nobles and the towns have offered the Emperor more aid than he would have of their own charge. Propose that Nassau and the Grand Master should be thanked for their services to England. The Constable of Castile desires his recommendations. The Emperor is sending certain horses to the King. Valladolid, 8 March. Signed.
In Sampson's hand, pp. 3. Add.
8 March.
Vesp. C. II. 97. B.M.
2881. CHARLES V. to [the BISHOP OF HELNA].
Received his letters of the 20th, in answer to his of the 31st Oct., 1st and 17th Nov. Wrote to him by Francisco de Fyaz. Thinks it impossible that a truce can be concluded satisfactory to all parties without the comprehension of Scotland and the allies on both sides; otherwise he must himself be subject to a war with Gueldres, Albret's son and Robert de la March. Has written to his ambassador at Rome, the duke of Sessa, only to accept the truce conjointly with England. Objects to the proposal that if the truce be not suitable he is to raise an army for such purposes in common as the king of England may require, as not in accordance with their treaty. His brother the archduke cannot take up his residence at Ferret or Wirtemberg, to prevent the Swiss and Almains serving in France, without money at their common expense. Is to represent the difficulties of France, the advantage and economy of striking a blow now when it is popular with his subjects, the danger to Naples and Milan of delay. This will be in conformity with the spirit of the treaty. He shall demand information of the preparations made against Scotland, and give reciprocal information of those set on foot in Spain; sc. the strength and routes of his army,—the fleet at Carthagena under Don John Emanuel and the marquis of Pescara,—annoyance of France,—succor of Rhodes,—Languedoc or Provence the point of operation,—Almains to be sent into Lombardy under the command of Prospero Colonna. If Henry will attack Guienne, will give him assistance. To induce his Flemish and German subjects to assist readily in the war, has sent bills of exchange for 100,000 ducats to the fair at Antwerp, for the payment exclusively of men of war. Has arranged to have at his disposal, if necessary, 1,500,000 ducats. Has given notice of this to the English ambassadors. Hopes Wolsey will second his efforts, and, as the Scotch expedition is not so important as that of France, that the King will send a puissant army under some good leader, if he cannot attend in person, and order Suffolk to cross the sea. There will be nothing to fear from the Scotch or the King of Denmark when they see France pressed on all sides.
As to Wolsey's reproach that he had not fulfilled a single promise he had made, is not aware that he has failed in anything, except in deferring the indemnity, which Wolsey told him at Bruges was a mere form to satisfy the council. If the King will borrow the money for a year of some merchants, the Emperor will repay it, principal and interest. Has written to the King and Cardinal with his own hand. He shall answer the Cardinal's objections against giving aid in the affairs of Italy, by saying that the interest of Spain is the interest of England,—and against entering on this enterprise till he has shown them the necessary funds (coffres), by explaining the ample means (le bon fondement) he has for executing the enterprise this year. Touching the Venetians, the Cardinal is badly informed; he has not treated them so rigorously as alleged. Their demands are exorbitant. If Beaurain have left England without succeeding in his charge, his packet, &c. is to be returned to the Emperor. The affair has already been so badly managed that it has come to the ears of the king of France. Bourbon has retired from the court. As it would be dangerous to negotiate further, thinks it would be better to manage the affair here, and England to negotiate the terms by his ambassadors. Valladolid, 8 March.
Official copy, Fr., pp. 14.
9 March.
Calig. E. III. 47. B.M.
2882. BERNERS to [WOLSEY].
* * * ther wer a good pease be ... Sir, quod he, whatsoever plese the Kyn[g], ... be content ther with and woll be well, quod ... not possyble to have a communicasyon for a p ... I have rothynge to do with such matters I can ... on thynge nor odyr. Yet, quod Mons. Dubus (du Biez) n ... at my desyr. Sir, quod he, yff I may do yt I shall ... I requyr thee recommand me to my lord Depu[ty] ... say how that Mons. Pount Remey and I desyr ... be that he and som odyr off the Kynges consell ... mett with Mons. Pount Remey and with me at sum [convenient] plase, that we myght comon to gedyr, wher by I [trust no harm] nor ill shall ensew theroff. Sir, quod Rysbanke, I sh[all perform your] message. Well, quod he, I pray the so do. Rysbanke at h[is coming] schewyd me thys mater, and the next day after he rod[e] ... [t]o Boloyn with certen prisoners, and I commandyd hym, yff Mons[ieur Dubus d]emandyd yff he had done hys message to me, that h[e should say y]ee, and how that I dyd recommande me to him, but a[s touching t]he mater that he sent to me, that I wold nodyr speke [nor write e]ney thynge ther in without exprese commandment off [the King's g]rase my mayster, and also that he shuld shew hym th[at I gave no] lytyll regarde to the mater, to the entent that he sh[ould thi]nke that I wold be delygent to fowlow hys desyr. And ... [wh]en Rysbanke cam to Boloyn ageyn, Mons. Dubus demandyd [of him] yff he had done hys message, and what answer he had bro[ught. And th]en Rysebanke schewyd hym as I had commandyd him before. [Then, quo]d Mons. Dubus, syn my Lord Deputy woll do no thynge witho[wt the] commandment off the Kynge hys master, zett I requyr the de[puty] in our behalves to send thyselff over to the Kynge and t[o a]dvertyse hym off thys our desyr, but yff thou goest over, [speke no]tt in the Kynge our master's name, for thys ys but a mes[sage] * * wer redy and delygent ... nott sent over Rysbank, for yff ... [wo]uld have had knowledge theroff and th ... ldnes to se that I wer so redy to fulfyl ... and yt lyke the Kynges grase and you to have Rys[banke sent unto you, your] plesure knowyn I shall send hym over with all del[ygence] ... have wrytyn to the Kynges grase and to your grase [the substance] off all their communicasyon, and what yt shall pl[ease the King]s grase and your grase to command me further I shall [perform it] to the best off my power."
Will send Rysebanke now and then to Boulogne that Dubus may see Berners has not sent him to the King, and will bid him say, if asked whether Berners has sent any one else, that he cannot tell. "By the ... [they] wold gladly have pease, but I thynke rather yt be ... brewtyde a brode that they were in a communycasyon with the ... se peradventure to ateyn thereby sum odyr porpos." Calais, 9 [M]arch.
Hol., pp. 2, mutilated.
9 March.
Vesp. C. II. 115 b. B.M.
The ambassador of Portugal is leaving. The King is said to have married the Emperor's sister, who is pregnant. Valladolid, 9 March. Signed.
In Sampson's hand, p. 1. Add.
10 March.
R. O.
2884. CHARLES V.
Ratification of the treaty made with England, 17 Jan. 1522, touching the price and the weight of wools at the staple of Calais, and the money equivalents for the same. Mechlin, 10 March 1522, 4 & 7 Charles V. Signed by Du Blioul. Great seal attached.
Lat., vellum.
11 March.
R. O.
2885. ALEXANDER KYNGORNE, Ambassador of the King of Denmark, to WOLSEY.
Thanks him for having procured him access to the King, and for the gentleman sent to conduct him in such a splendid barge. The King, whom he found to be such as his fame everywhere proclaimed him, promised him a favorable answer. Begs Wolsey to consider the furious wars with which his master is troubled by sea and land, and to let him know when he may further confer with him. "Ex conclavi meo," v. id. Mart. '23.
Hol., Lat., p. 1. Add.
R. MS. 13 B. II. 314. B.M. Ep. Reg. Sc. I. 337. 2886. JAMES ARCHBISHOP OF GLASGOW, Chancellor, to CHRISTIERN II. KING OF DENMARK.
Has received his letters by Dr. Alex. Kingorne, dean of Roschild, who, though the Archbishop's cousin, was much dearer to him when he understood that he had so zealously performed his Majesty's command. Wishes the times had not prevented his sending Denmark the required auxiliaries. England attacks the kingdom of his young nephew by sea and land in the absence of Albany. This summer he is preparing a greater force than ever. The ambassador can bear witness to the almost daily incursions made,—to the fact that the country is laid waste, and to the slaughter on both sides. Is sorry to hear that Denmark is troubled with rebellions. The merchants say it is not safe to remain there. Urges him to be prudent in time. Desires credence for his ambassador the bearer. Edinburgh,—April 1523.
Lat, copy.
12 March.
Vit. B. V. 164. B.M.
Commission to John [Clerk], bishop elect of Bath and Wells, to conclude with Adrian VI., Charles V., the duke of Milan and the Swiss, a defensive and offensive treaty against those who attack their allies and the enemies of the Christian religion. London, 12 March 14 Hen. VIII.
Lat., pp. 3. Draft, with Clerk's name inserted, and other corrections made. A marginal note states that a similar commission was sent to Pace on the same date.
12 March.
Nero, B. VII. 40. B.M.
Commission to Pace to act as mediator between the Emperor and the Venetians, with power to treat with both sides in adjusting their difference. London, 12 March 14 Hen. VIII.
Lat., corrected draft, pp. 3.
R. O. 2889. HENRY VIII.
Appoints _ to be his commissioners for concluding a defensive league with the Pope, Charles the Emperor elect, and others, as he is desirous of opposing the Turks, and putting an end to the Lutheran heresy.
Draft, Lat., pp. 6. Endd.
14 March.
R. O.
Encloses copies of two letters taken from a fellow of Canterbury coming to England, in consequence of a recent order to intercept messages to and from English gentlemen in France. They are from lord Leonard Grey and John Arundel's wife to Arundel. Opened them, and found they contained nothing but exhortation for the speedy return of Arundel. Thinks the bearer should be suffered to pass into France with them. Calais, 14 March. Signed.
P. 1. Add.
14 March.
Vit. B. V. 169. B.M.
Wrote by the courier who left Rome on the 14th Jan., and sent Wolsey's "delegacy" and the confirmation of his faculties sub plumbo. The Pope will not grant it for life, but Wolsey can have it for ... more years if he choose. The Pope has more confidence in him than in all the other prelates in the world. He expressed a great wish to see Wolsey, and to confer with him about the state of Christendom. Wolsey may be as sure of him as any Cardinal ever was of a Pope. He considers the King not only as the defender of the Faith, but as the protector of his own person, and said that in his last brief he used certain sharp words, not to displease him, but because he wished pungere principes contra Mahumettanos. Hannibal said the Pope knew well enough who was the cause of all this business; to which he answered that if it were not for the Turk, he would make such demonstration against the said person that all other princes should take example by him.
As to Rhodes, the Pope said on the 2nd that the succors had arrived; but yesterday word came that it was surrendered, and that the Lord Master and his knights are coming towards Sicily. There was treason and discord among the officers; and the seneschal and others are blamed for not providing victual beforehand. The tidings are so contrary that the Pope cannot tell what to believe, but he thinks if it is not taken now, it will be shortly.
On the 28th of Jan. the viceroy of Naples, the duke of Sesa, and Ascanius de Colonna, great constable of Naples, came to Rome, and were honorably received. The Duke will stay as the Emperor's ambassador, but Lupus Hurtado, "surrogate in the place of Monsignor de la Chaux, he meddleth with the secret affairs of the Emperor's." On the 29th, the ambassadors being in public consistory before the Pope and the Cardinals, Theodoricus, the Pope's principal secretary, read a letter from the king of Hungary, complaining of the Turks, and asking aid from the Pope and Cardinals, and from all Christian princes. The Pope then made an clegant speech, deploring the state of Christendom; and the Hungarian ambassador, in a speech more tedious than profitable, asked the Pope and Cardinals for money. This will have little effect, as the Pope is poor and the Cardinals beggars; and no wonder, for they gave all their money, some 40,000, some 50,000 ducats, to be made cardinals. Spoke to many of them about Wolsey's honor and good qualities, but many will not believe it. Wishes he could come to Rome that they might see what they never saw. It is the nature of Italians to believe nothing except they see it, and to despise other nations though they are themselves the most miserable. Rimini is given to the duke of Urbino, who was captain of the expedition.
On the 5th Feb. the ambassadors of the archduke of Austria came to Rome, the chief of them being the count de Capra, brother of the duke of Sesa, and Jeronimus Balbus, bishop of Gurck. On the 9th the Pope gave them audience in a public consistory; and Jeronimus exhorted the Pope to send legates to Christian princes for peace. The next morning he told Hannibal in private that he intended to send legates to the Emperor and the kings of England and France. Said there was a legate in England already; and he replied he would send briefs to Henry, the Queen, Wolsey and certain other prelates, by Bernardin, who is a faithful servant to Wolsey, to judge by the relation (fn. 10) he made of him to the Pope and Cardinals. Campeggio is a true servant of the King, and a friend to Wolsey. Prays God to send him some promotion, for he has nothing from the Pope but the signature of Justice and a pension of 500 ducats lately given him. All who come from England are much indebted to him. Has spoken to the Pope several times in his behalf. The bishops of Worcester and Cunsentia and the Datary have the most influence with the Pope. Has spoken to him about the matter of John Mattheo, secretary to De Medicis. He is willing to pay him, but has no money, so Matheo must wait. If the Pope had money he would content every man. Had much trouble with the archbishopric of Dublin. The Cardinals would do nothing in three consistories, but Hannibal spoke to the Pope, who arranged in the fourth that no more should be paid.
There is a rebellion in Sicily against the Emperor, and many have gone to the Turk. "Italy .. (a line lost) .. told me of all things, and delivered me the true tidings, with a letter of the quondam lord Master." Sends a copy. If the Turk come to Italy he will have it without resistance. The strangers and the principal men of the town are preparing to leave Rome. The Pope is in a great agony, "and so we be every man." When Hannibal came to Rome in time past, there was not half the trepidation in Italy, for they have to do with the greatest man of the world. Is preparing for a transmigration, of which those about the Pope speak openly. The Pope has excommunicated the duke of Genoa and John Emanuel for retaining the goods taken from the cardinal of Haux (Auch), legate of Avignon and ambassador of France. Manuel cares nothing for the excommunication, and the Pope is grievously set against him, and will not cease till the goods are restored. The duke of Sesa spoke sharply to him about it, but he said he must administer justice equally. Hannibal told him his demonstration against the Imperialists would encourage their enemies. He replied that he loved the Emperor, but was not pleased with certain of his servants,—that he could agree well enough with those the King had in Rome, but not with the others. The Spaniards have such conditions that few nations can agree with them, and they are not liked in Italy; "therefore it is great jeopardy to the Emperor's land here, for if the Emperor's great enemy pass the mountains the state of Milan .. (a line lost) .. taynes, if he co[me] all Italy is in peril. The ambas[sadors of the Emperor], and they of the archduke of Austria, have managed so with the Venetians, that the matter is likely to have an evil conclusion. Both the Pope and the Imperial ambassadors here are displeased with them for refusing the offers of the Venetians. Sends "certain miracles that it hath pleased Almighty God to show contra Lutheranos." Thanks the King and Wolsey for creating him archdeacon of Cleveland.
The Pope has sent several times to Florence for the cardinal De Medicis, but he has not come. He left Rome in November, and his absence has hurt some expeditions that came out of England, as Meath and St. Davies. Cardinal Vulteraro, a mortal enemy to De Medicis, is daily with the Pope. Is afraid he will injure Medicis. The Pope is daily expecting the duke of Urbino with 200 or 300 horses. He is in great favor with the Pope, and is the King's servant with all his might. Wrote before about the Garter for the duke of Ferrara. "He would full fain be the King's knight." Rome, 14 March.
Hol., pp. 4, imperfect and mutilated. Add.: R. &c. car. Ebor. Angliæ primati et ap'licaeæ sedis legato.
Ibid. f. 166. 2. Copy of the above by Tuke, omitting Wolsey's private affairs. Pp. 5, mutilated.
14 March. 2892. GOODS OF SCOTCHMEN.
Commission to Sir John Marny, Sir Thos. Tirell, Sir Thos. Tey, Edw. Tirell and Anth. Darcy, to make inquisition in Essex concerning the lands and goods of subjects of the king of Scots, and to take the same into the King's hands, &c. Westm., 14 (?) March.
Pat. 14 Hen. VIII. p. 2, m. 12d.
15 March.
Vit. B. V. 172. B. M.
On the 15th March, the French in the castle of Milan agreed to give up the castle and stores to the Duke in 30 days. They were compelled to this, because the townsmen had introduced putrid water into the castle by subterranean passages. The surrender of Rhodes is confirmed. The Great Master and knights are in Candia. The Turk has kept all the conditions, with the exception of retaining 2,000 brazen guns. Eighty ships of the Turkish fleet were destroyed on their way back to Constantinople. He is preparing a new fleet, it is feared for Italy.
Rome, 15 March.—The Turk has invaded Cornacia, and attacked a town. On account of this the Pope is holding a consistory, but it is not known what is determined. It is said the Pope wishes to appoint the duke of Urbino captain of the Church, saying that the marquis of Mantua is too much of an Imperialist. The Duke has come to Rome, and was honorably received. It is said the Pope has determined to use his services in the expedition against the Turk, but nothing has been as yet prepared for it. The Pope is very angry, and treats "illos mercatores" very badly, extorting money from them by force. He is selling bishoprics and offices, saying he can rightly do so for the defence of Christendom, and is so oppressed with care that he almost repents having undertaken the office. Venetian affairs were delayed by the illness of Hieronimo Adorno, whose recovery was waited for. Now that he is dead matters are in suspense. The Pope is thinking of reassuming all offices, so that there is great tumult in the court.
Lat., pp. 2. In Vannes' hand.
15 March.
S. B.
2894. For BRIAN TUKE.
To be secretary for the French tongue, vice John Meauties, with 100 marks a year. Del. Hampton Court, 15 March 14 Hen. VIII.
Pat. 14 Hen. VIII. p. 2, m. 27.


  • 1. Other modern copies will be found in Harl. 6260, f. 215, and 6345, f. 123 b, and in Lansd. 258, f. 254.
  • 2. Thus dated within parentheses in Lansd., 258.
  • 3. 3 March according to a note in the margin.
  • 4. Supplied as catchwords at the foot of the page, in a modern hand.
  • 5. Supplied from Patent Roll, the Signed Bill being much defaced.
  • 6. Supplied from Patent Roll, the Signed Bill being much defaced.
  • 7. Note in the margin of Tuke's copy: "And truly."
  • 8. Note in the margin of Tuke's copy: "They be paid."
  • 9. Note in the margin of Tuke's copy: "His own folks went in it, and was hired by them."
  • 10. The original ends here.