Lincoln Wills: Volume 3, 1530-1532. Originally published by British Record Society, London, 1930.
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The testament of W. Stevenson [of Friskney].
3 December, 1530. I William Stevenson of Fryskney makes thys my last testament. My body to be buryed in the church yerde of All Halloys in Fryskeney. To my curat iijs. iiijd. To our Lady of Lincoln viijd., and to the church warke of Fryskney iiijd. To every gylde in the forsayd church iiijd. To every ordre of the frerys in Boston iiijd. To John and William my sonnys on ferme lying at the Cotesydes that I have by copy with the mosys and dalys therto belongyng, callyd Pynder toftes, for the terme of my yeres, payng by the yere to my lady Taylboys xs. To William my sonne my eldest cote for to make him a cote of. To every on of my doughters of my wyffes and myn. To my father my chamlet dooblet, [etc.], and all my see geare. To William my sonne on lytle chyste the wich was hys mothers. To my father my ferme callyd Damme house belongyng to my lady Taylboys for the terme of my yeres, payng by the yere to the forsayd lady Taylboys xxxvjs. To sir John Jeffrayson. To sir John Walys, vjs. viijd., whome I make the oversear. To Thomas Godfrey iijs. iiijd. for my testament makyng. The resydue of my goodes I will that my father have them to put them to the best proffyt for my chylder that he thynkes best, whome I make my executor. Wytnesses, sir John Walys; Arthure Cowtam; John Cok; and Laurence Wyetson.
The testament of John Harwyk [of Welton le Wold].
4 December, 1530. I John Harwyk of Welton next Lowthe makes my testament. My body to be buryed in the churche yerde of st Androy of Welton. I wyt to our Lady warke of the cathedrall churche of Lincoln iiijd. To the hygh alter of the churche of st Androy of Welton vjd., and to the warke of the same xijd., and to the alter of st Thomas in the sayd churche xxd. I wyt to Thomas Harwyk, my sone. I wytt to sir William Nutthaike. I wyt to Thomas Harwyk, my brother. I wyt to John Harcher the yonger. I wyt to Hewes Dowsse. The resydewe of all my goodes I gyff to Elizabeth Harwyk, my wyffe, whome I make executor. Thes men beyng wytnes, sir Thomas Beche, the parson; Wylliam Wytton; William Hyrll; with other moy.
The testament of Richard Granger [of South Ormsby].
5 December, 1530. I Richerd Granger of South Ormesby makyth my last will. My body to be buryed in the churchyerde of st Leonerde in Southormesby, with that that the lawe requiryth in the name of my mortuary. To the high altare of the same churche for forgottyn tithys xvjd. To the same churche xijd. To our Lady in our mother churche of Lincoln xijd. To our Ladys warke of the same iiijd. To the churche of st Margaret in Swaby vjd. To the churche in Calceby iiijd. To the churches in Brynkyll, Bagenderby, Somersby, Tetforthe, and st Margaret in Kettesby iiijd. each. To my doughtter Jenet vjs. viijd., [etc.]. To Alyson my doughtter a browne qwye, xs., [etc.]. I will yff one of my doughtters departe before the other or they cum to laufull age then I will that ether of them be heyr to the other, and yff they bothe departe or they cum to laufull age, I wyll that Malde my wyff be heyr to them. To George Irlande xs. to helpe my wyff in felde and towne in her nede. The resydue of my goodes I gyff to Malde my wyff, whome I make my executrix to dispose for the helthe of my soule, [etc.]. Thes wytnesses, Richerd Stapulforthe, preste; William Helvys; Richerd Helvys; with other mo.
The testament of Elysabet' Cammok [of Tattershall].
8 December, 1530. I Elizabeth Cammok of the parysh of Tateshall makes my last will and testament. My body to be buryed within the holy chyrch yerde of the Holy Trinite of the parysh of Tateshall. To the high alter for forgottyn tithys xijd. To the parysh alter iiijd. To the bellys iiijd. To the church of Byllyngay iiijd. To our Lady of Lincoln vjd., and unto the Red arke vjd. To the orphans of st Catheryns iiijd. To Henry Lyster. To the parysh prest xijd., with a lyn kyrchyff. To my yongest sonne Rolland iij dublers, [etc.]. To the parysh clerke iiijd. To Elizabeth my doughter in lawe. To Mawde Farom a kyrtle, with ij kyrchyffes vnto her chylderen. The resydewe of my goodes I gyff unto Jamys Burrell, my sonne, the wich Jamys I make executor. Thyes wytnes, sir John Monke; Mathew Pawstone; Robert Fysher; Richerd Burrell; Richerd Symys; with many other moy.
The testament of John Rayner [of Thorganby].
10 December, 1530. I John Rayner of Thurganby makes my last will and testament. My body to be buryed in the kyrkeyerde of All Halloys in Thurganby. To the high alter in Thurganby iijs. iiijd. To our Lady of Lincoln xijd. To our Lady warke of the same viijd. To the kyrke off Thurganby vjs. viijd. To the church of Hatclyff xijd. To the kyrk of Swynhope xijd. To Croxby kyrk xijd. To the nonnys of Irforthe xijd. To John Rayner, my sonne. To Alyson my doughter xls. To Margaret my doughter xxs. To Jenet my doughter xxs. The resydue of all my goodes not wyt nor bequethyd I gyff to Jenet my wyff and John my sonne, whom I make my executors, and Alice Wyndyll to be supervisor. Thys recorde, sir Robert Geill, clerk; Robert Panton; and John Ranyer; with other moy.
The testament of Robert Beytt [of Brant Broughton].
13 December, 1530. I Robart Bett, hole of mynd and reson, never the lesse takyn with bodyly infyrmite and sekenes, makes my last wyll and testament. My body to be buryd in my paressh churche yard of saynt Hellyn of Brantbrogton. To the hy auter xijd. To owr Lady warkes of Lyncoln viijd. I will that ij oxen and ij weders be solde to dispose for my sole helthe. To Rogar my yowngyst sone my best cow, my best why [etc.]. To John my sone. To William my sone. To William Brande, my sone in law, my part of on bond wayne. The resedew of all my goodes I will yt be devided to my said iij sonys and William Brande. Also I make the said William Brande and John my sone to be my executryxes. Thes beryng witnesse, sir Thomas Hyrd, paressh prest; Thomas Harber; John Cralle; with other.
The testament of J. Medlay [of East Ravendale].
14 December, 1530. I John Medlay of Estrandall makes this my testament. My body to be berryd in the churche yerde of sant Martyn of Estrandall. To our Lady of Lyncoln vjd. To our Lady warkes of Lyncoln vjd. To the hye altare of Est Randall for tythes and oblacyons forgottyn iijs. iiijd. To Wylliam Medlay, my son, ij yowys and ij lammys and a horse or elles a mere. To Issabell my dowghter one cowbert and vj yerdys of lyne cloth, [etc.]. To Edmund my sone iiij markes. To Thomas my sone one cowe and a horse. To John Medlay a calve. To Edward Medlay a qwye calve and a schepe hoke. To Robert Tymson ij yoyes and a lame. To John Huson a schepp. To [John (fn. 1)] Betterys Thymson ij lyne schettes, [etc.]. To John Thyne a qwye. To Anys Medlay vij yerdes of hardyn cloth. To Issabell Medlay a yowe. To John Thyne and Issabell Thyne a hoge schepp. To Xp'ofer Pynyng a lame. The resydew of my godes I gyffe to Androwe Medlay, my sone, whome I make my executor to dysposse for the helth of my soule. I wyll William Medlay, my sonne, to be my supervysor. Thes wytnes, sir Robert Westoby, curat; Robert Ravyn; Richard Butler; with other moo.
[The testament of Thomas Thornton of Beltoft].
14 December, 1530. I Thomas Thorton [sic] of Beltoft in the paryche of Belton in the Ile of Axholme seke of body makes my testament and last wyll. My body to be beryed in the churche ȝerd of Alaloys of Belton. To the hyght auter in Belton for tythes forgotten xxd. I wytt to ower Ladys warke in Lincoln iiijd. To the pariche churche of Belton vs. To the rode lyght in Belton iiijd. To plught lyght of the same iiijd. To evere lyght in the churche of Belton that here after inschewyth ijd., that ys to say ower Lady of Pitty lyght, ower Lady of Grace lyght, sanct Savyor lyght, sanct John lyght, sanct Margett lyght, sanct Antony lyght, and sanct Sonday lyght. I wyl that one trentall off masses be sayd for my sowlle in contenent after my dethe. To every one of my sone Robert chyld vjs. viijd. To every on of my sone John chyld vjs. viijd. To every on of the chylder of Robert Mody vjs. viijd. To John Talyour, the sone of Thomas Talyour, vjs. viijd. To Isabell Thekar iijl. vjs. viijd. I gyff xijd. toward makyng of a churche clothe, wyche cloth is to be occupyed at weddynges and churche sekyngs. To Wylliam Thorneton, son of John Thorneton, my sone, iiij selions of lande arabull the wyche I have mayd John Newland of Beltoft my attorney to delyver to the sayd William Thorneton laufull astayt for me and in my name as I were ther personally present what soo ever, and when my sayd attornay doth in the premises I doo admytt after tenor forme and affect of thys my wyll and dede. The resydew of my guddes I gyff to John my son and Elezabeth my wyff, whome I make my executores. In wittnes that this is my last wyll and dede, John Newland of Beltoft; Steven Walcottes; and Jamys Populwell; and other mo.
Proved at Belton, 27 March, 1530 (fn. 2).
The testament of John Sherman [of Boothby Graffoe].
15 December, 1530. I John Sherman makes my last will. My body to be buryd within the church yerde of Bothby. To the high alter vjd. and to the bellys vjd., and to our Lady of Lincoln iiijd. To my sonne Henry vjs. viijd. in sylver, [etc.]. To my doughter Adelyne vjs. viijd. in money, [etc.]. To my doughter Elizabeth vjs. viijd. in money, [etc.]. To my doughter Jane vjs. viijd. in money, [etc.]. To the iiij orders of frerys of Lincoln iiij strykes of barly, and to iij godchylder iij strykes of barly. I gyff xxd. to a preste to say v messys of the v woundes. And the resydue of my goodes I gyff to Alyson my wyff, whome I make my executrix that she may dispose or cause to be disposyd for my soule, my frendes soulys, and all crysten soulys. Thes wytnes, sir Robert Hamond, prest; John Borradale; and Thomas Thorpe; with other moy; and my brother, John Warde, supervisor.
The testament of John Coke [of Hougham].
16 December, 1530. I John Coke of Hougham make my testament and last will. My body to be buryed in the churchyerde of All Haloys of Hougham. To our Lady warke of Lincoln vjd. To the high alter of Hougham for forgottyn tithys di' quarter of barly. To the Trinite gylde of Marston xijd. To Isabell and Margaryt my doughters. To William and Richerd my sones. The resydue of my goodes I gyff to Jenet my wyff and to William my sone, whome I orden executors. Also I will that John Master be my supervysor, and he to have for hys labor iijs. iiijd. Thes wytnes, sir John Wymarke, parysh prest; Richard Lee; John Master; Thomas Lee; with other moy.
The testament of Robert Howson [of East Kirkby].
16 December, 1530. I Robert Houson of the parysh of Estkyrkby makes my testament. My body to be buryd in the church or churchyerde of st Nicholes in Estkyrkby. To our Lady warke of Lincoln xijd. To the high alter in Estkyrkby for tithys forgottyn xijd. To a light to be kepte afore the sacrament in Estkyrkby xijd., and the forsayd xijd. for to be takyn yerly of my housys in Estkyrkby so long as the forsayd housses standyth. To Thomas Houson, my cosyn, on new orege cote clothe and on kendall cote. To the parysh churches of Estkyrkby, Mynyngesby, Hawnby, st Laurence of Revesby, on cremysyn dooblet, and the sayd dooblet to be devydyd into iiij equall partes, and they iiij partes to be mayd into iiij corporak casys, and everyon of the iiij paryshes to have one. To the sayd Thomas Howson, my cosen, vjs. viijd. owt of my own landes in Anderby and Hawnby, and he and hys heyres to pay yerly to vj prestes ijs. for ever in Comberworth. To the fyndyng of a light afore the sacrament in the said church xijd., and the forsayd Thomas and hys heyres to pay the forsayd xijd. yerly for ever of the forsayd lande. To the forsayd Thomas Houson on sylver pees with iiij sylver sponys. To Elizabeth Carre, my servant, my housses in Estkyrkby duryng her lyff after the decess of my wyff. To Thomas Garnyt, my servant, on house in Gret Carleton with one pyngle namyd Mawkyn garthe of the condicion that he will be good and diligent to my wyff, hys awnte, or ellys not to have it. To every on of my servantes. To Libeas Richerdson. To Elizabeth Carre, my servant. To the parysh church of Mynyngesby xxd. To the parysh church of Hareby xijd. To the parysh church of Hagneby xijd. To William Ledale. To William Fysher my best orege cote. To Thomas Toly, parson of Mynyngesby, iijs. iiijd. I will that yff Isabell my sonnys wyff lyff that then she shall have all the hole stok of William my sonne, [etc.], and Thomas Housson to have kepyng and gydyng theroff to the use and proffyt of my sonnys chylde. And yff it fortune my sonnys wyff to decesse and dye that then my sonnys chylde to have the on halffe of my sonnys stok and Thomas Houson to have gydyng of my sonnys chylde. To Thomas Houson, my cosyn, hys heyres and assygnes, xviijs. yerly of my land in Gaton aftyr the decese of my wyff. To Rawffe a Grene of Parteney iijs. iiijd. I will that Agnes my wyff shall have the possession of all my houses and landes the terme of her lyff, and aftyr her decease for to be disposyd accordyng to my will. I will that on trentall be done for the helthe of my soule in the monastery of Revesby. To the parysh church of Cumberworthe vjs. viijd. The resydue of all my goodes I gyff to Agnes Houssen, my wyffe, and to Thomas Housson, my cosyn, whome I orden executors, and mr Gyles Heron to be supervisor. These witnesses, Thomas Toly, rector of Mynyngesby; Libeas Richardson of Toynton; Ambrose [blank] of Stykney; with many others.
[The testament of John Haukyns of Epworth].
19 December, 1530. I John Haukyns of Eppworth make my testament. My body to be byryed in the churcheyerde of sanct Andrew in Eppworth. To Elezabeth my doughtter. To Thomas Haukyn. (fn. 3) To Alyce my doughtter. To Roger Ratclyff (fn. 4) a yonge stagge, a flect qwye, vjs. viijd., [etc.]. To John Crovston. (fn. 5) To Myles Percey. To our blysyd Lady of Lincoln iiijd. To the hyght altar xijd. The resydew of my goodes I be sett to Robert my son and Myles Percey, whome I make my executores, by the supervisione of syr Thomas Thew, curat ther, whom I make my supervisor. Thes men beryng wittnes, sir Thomas Thew; Thomas Dyke; Thomas Rydar; with other moo. Also I wyll that my executores sell my ij oxone and dispose for my sowlle and my wyffes, parte in Eppworth churche (fn. 6) and parte in Dancaster at the gray frears there as the money [sic].
Proved 27 March, 1530 (fn. 7).
[The testament of Isabel Smyth of Cotes in the parish of Scotter].
19 December, 1530. I Isabell Smyth of Cottes in the parriche of Scotter makes thys my testament and last wyl. My body to be buryed in the churche ȝerde of sanct Petur of Scotter. To the hyght awter of sanct Petur for thythes forgotten iiijd. To the warke of ower mother holy churche of ower blyssed Lady of Lincoln iiijd. To Robert Wanman and Elezabet Wanman, the chylder of John Wanman. To Ales and Agnes my doughters. The resydew to James Smyth, my son, qwome I ordayn my executure for to disspose for the helth of my sawll and all my frenddes saulles that it may be to the plesure of God and to all the sanctes in heuen. I make sir John Hamond, Wylliam Rogerson, Tostyne Rogerson, my broder, and Wylliam Holand lawfull supervisures, and to be governores of the sayd James Smyth, my sone. Thes wyttness, sir Henry Brught, curatt; Wylliam Cogan; and Wylliam Holand, with other moo.
The testament of John Frow [of Cadney].
23 December, 1530. I John Frowe of Cadney makes my testament and last will and testament. My body to be buryed in the churche yerde of All Halloys of Cadney. To the hygh alter of Cadney for tithys forgottyn iiijd. To the churche of Cadney xijd. To our Lady of Lincoln iiijd. To our Lady warke of Lincoln vjd. To st Savior warke of Houson on bushyll of barly. I wyll that all my goodes aftyr my decease be devydyd in thre partes, my wyff to have on parte and my chylder to have a nother parte emong them all; and the thyrde parte of my goodes I will that my wyff have, the on halffe to bryng up her chylder with, and the other halffe to bere the chargys of my buryall; and the resydue that leffes to be devydyd [folio 326] emonges my chylder. To John Fraw the elder, my sone. To Robert Ottyngham xxd., whome I make supervisor. The resydue of my goodes I give to Jenet my wyff and John Fraw the elder, my sonne, whome I make my executors. Thes men beyng wytnes, sir Phylip Burton; Robert Cottyngham; John Maydynwell; Laurence Bell; with other moy.
The testament of Richard Liell [of Ashby in Bottesford].
25 December, 1530. Witnes that Richard Liell (fn. 8) of Askby makyth my will. My body to be buryed in the church of Peter and Paule of Botnesford. To the said church vjs. viijd. To the hye awter of the same viijd. To our Lady warke of Lincoln viijd. To the chapell of saynt Gyles of Askby xijd. To Robert Fuller a lame. I will have a trentall of messys donne for my saull and all criston saulles. I will that myn executors gyffe to Jenyt Liell and [folio 3] Esabell Liell, daughters of John Liell, when the come to lawfull age iiij markes of money or elles other guddes to the vallew therof. To Richard Liell, my sonne, xl. To Dorothe Liell my daughter, vjl. xiijs. iiijd. Residew of my guddes my dettes payd I giffe to Esabell my wiffe and to Robert Liell my son, whom I make my trew executors to dispose them to the helth of my saull. Thies beynge witnes, Richard Parkyn; John Fuller; Thomas Liell; with other.
The testament of W. Kepe [of Dry Doddington].
27 December, 1530. I William Kepe off Dodyngton makyth thys my testament and last will. My body to be buryed in the churchyerde of Westborow of All Halloys. To the high alter of Westborow iiijd. To Dodyngton chapell iiijd. To Dodyngton brygges iiijd. To our Lady warke of Lincoln iiijd. To William my sonne. To hys sone. The resydewe of my goodes I gyff unto Margret my wyff and John my sonne, whome I make executors. I make Richerd Jakson supervysor, and he to have for hys labor ijs. Thes beyng wytnes, sir Thomas Harmeston; William Hoyse; and William Kepe. I bequeth unto my godchylder every on of them iiijd., and to my doughtter Isabell a qwye.
[Will of Thomas Bacon of West Ferry].
28 December, 1530. I Thomas Bacon in West Fery of the pariche of Oweston (fn. 9), grettly and greuusly seke of my body, makes thys my last wyll. My body to be byryed in the churche ȝerde of sanct Marten of Oweston. To the hye awter of the same for tythes forgotten xijd. To Thomas my son one acar of medow, lying of the sowthe syde of new lane, for the space of xxti ȝeres next folowyng after my dethe. To Robert my son and to Margett my doughter my land in Gunthorpe (fn. 10) to be devyded by twyxt them. To my doughter Marion, and to Alis my doughter. To my doughters Johan and Margaret. To Robert my son, one horse callyd Morell. To my son Thomas. I bequethe for a trenttall of messes to be sayd for my soulle and all crysten soulles xs. To Thomas my son on half of a botte with hys brother Nicolas called a skawde. I wyll that Margaret my wyff have her thurdes the sextterschyp nott with standyng to helpe to bryng vp the thre smalle chyldren. The resydew of my guddes I gyff to Marget my wyff and to Nicolas Bacon, my son, whome I make my executores to dispose for the welth of my soulle, [etc.]. Thes wyttnes, Thomas Lawton; Thomas Snaw; John Deuyas; and Jamys Stanton; and I bequeth to every on of them iiijd.
Proved at Belton, 27 March, 1530. (fn. 11)
The testament of W. Bagott [of North Somercotes].
28 December, 1530. I William Bagot of Northsomercotes makes thys my hole and last will. My body to be buryed in the kyrke off Northsomercotes. I bequeth for my lying in the kyrke of North Somercotes vjs. viijd. To our mother kyrke of Lincoln to our Lady warke xijd. To the high alter of Northsomercotes for oblacions forgottyn iijs. iiijd. To the kyrke warke of Skydbroke iijs. iiijd. I will that a prest celebrat the space of on yere for the helth of my soule and all my benefactors soulys in the parysh kyrke off Northsomercotes. I will that Jenet my wyff haue all my housholde goodes, and she to wonne of the ferme to Mayday nexte, and she to haue to her fyndyng parte of the corne as she mysters. To Jenet my syster ij yowys. To Margaret West, my servant. To Agnes Weste. To euery on of my godchylder beyng in lyff iiijd.
Thys is the last will of me William Bagott of Northsomercotes of all my houssynges and landes tenementes and rentes that I haue within the countie of Lincoln. To John Bagot, my sonne, all my landes tenementes and rentes to hym and to hys heyres of hys body laufully begotten aftyr the terme and ende of iiij yeres. And yff it so happyn that the sayd John Bagot decease withowt heyres of hys body, then I will that all the sayd landes and tenementes with all the appurtennces shall remayn to the next heres of the sayd William Bagot for euer, and to ther heyres of ther bodyes; and then they to make a yerely obbyt in the parysh kyrke of Northsomercotes for the wele of my soule and my wyffes and all crysten soulys, and they to ware of the sayd obbyt vijs. The resydew of all my goodes not wyt I gyff and wytt to John Bagot my sone and to John Gonnelde of Northsomercotes the elder, whome I make my faythfull executors that they may dispose for the helthe of my soule as they thynke best, with the help and counsyll off Edward Madyson of Hull, merchand of the staple of Calys, whome I make supervisor, and he to haue for hys labor xxs. Thes wytnes, sir William Aylbe, vicar; Robert Dysney; Thomas Parnyll; with other moy.
The testament of Gerg Derse [of Ranby].
28 December, 1530. I George Derse of Ranby makes my testament and last will. My body to be buryd in the churchyerde of st German in Ranby. To the high altare in the churche of st German of Ranby for forgottyn tithys xijd. To our Lady of Lincoln xijd. To our Lady warke of Lincoln xijd. To the churche of All Halloys in Legborne ijs. To the churche of All Halloys in Scamylsby viijd. To the churche of st Andro in Donyngton viijd. To Elizabeth my doughtter and my heyr certan lande lying within the feldes of Legborne the whiche lande is one yere vjs. and another yere iiijs. To George Gybbon. To George Burne. To Margaret Burne. I gyff and resygne to Alyson my wyff the coppy of my house and lande lying within the towne and feldes of Ranby. The resydue of all my goodes I bequethe to Alyson my wyff, whome I make executrix. Also I make Thomas Bray of Ranby supervisor, and he to have for hys labor iijs. iiijd. Wytnes heroff, sir Thomas Nettylton, vicare; Thomas Bray; William Beysby; Robert Care; with other mo.
The testament of Steuen Hernes [of Leake].
28 December, 1530. I Stewen Hermes [sic] of Leeke makes my testament. My body to be buryd in the churche of Leeke. In the name of my mortuary that the law requireth. To the anowrmentes and gyldyng of our Lady in Leeke churche iijs. iiijd. To the anowrmentes of the hy awter in the said churche viijd. To every other awter in the said churche ijd. To our Lady of Lincoln for offring xijd. To st Kateryns withowt Lincoln iiijd. To the parsonys for forgoten tythis iiijd. To the byldyng of the new stepull in Leeke vjs. To the reparacion of Wrangle churche iijs. iiijd. To every on of my god chylderne on shepe. To sir John Scott for on trentale syngyng in Leeke churche for my sole and all crysten sollys xs. To on prest to syng halfe a trentalle in Wrangle churche vs. for my sole and all my frendes solles. To William Larkes the elder on shepe. To Richard Larkes on shepe. To Richard Hymlyn. To Robart Whetley. To Margret Larkes, Agnes Larkes, William Larkes the yowngar, Thomas Larkes, Hugo Larkes, Hugo Larkes, and Rose Larkes on shepe apiece. To Agnes Hernes on cow. To Alice Randull xxd. To Margret Larkes iijs. iiijd. To Margret Larkes and Syble Hernes on cow to be devided betueyx them. To Richard Horthrow. To Thomas Howson ijs. vjd. To Agnes Gray iiijd. To Jenet Armyn ijs. To Alice Armyn xijd. The resydew of my goodes I gyffe to William Larkes and Alice Hernes, whom I make executryx, and I gyff to other of them for there labur xxs. Thes witnesse, John Paynson; Richard Arthrow; and Richard Hymlyn; with other.