City of London Livery Companies Commission. Report; Volume 1. Originally published by Eyre and Spottiswoode, London, 1884.
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During the session, commencing Oct. 3rd, 1881, Professor Armstrong, Ph.D., F.R.S., and Professor Ayrton, F.R.S., will continue their tutorial and laboratory courses of instruction in Chemistry and Physics as applied to the arts and manufactures, at the Cowper Street Schools, Finsbury, in rooms rented from the Middle Class School Corporation pending the completion of the City and Guilds of London Technical College, Finsbury.
The Chemical Laboratory will be open daily (Saturdays excepted) from 10 a.m. to 5 p.m., and on Monday and Friday evenings from 6.30 to 9 for students desiring individual instruction. Fee (inclusive of apparatus and materials (fn. 1)) for day students attending six hours a week, 5s. for the term, or 12s. 6d. for the session; 12 hours a week, 7s. 6d. for the term, or 1l. for the session. Fee for students attending one evening a week, for the term, 3s. 6d., for the session, 9s.; two evenings a week, for the term, 5s., or for the session, 12s. 6d.
Day Classes and Lectures.
Evening Classes and Lectures.
This course is principally intended for distillers (including coal-tar distillers and spirit rectifiers), and will be suited for candidates in subject 4 at the technological examinations; but it is hoped that students who have attended a previous course on the chemistry of brewing may be able to continue their attendance, and that new students of this branch of Organic Chemistry may also present themselves. Students desiring to obtain a knowledge of the chemistry of bread-making should attend on this evening.
On the same evening, at 6.30 to 9, Mr. Evans, chief assistant in the Chemical Laboratory, will give a course of laboratory and lecture demonstrations on the properties of the more important metals and metallic compounds, with reference to their practical applications and their analytical determination and estimation. Copper, iron, lead, silver, tin and zinc will be the metals principally treated of, and the wants of plumbers and metal workers generally will be as far as possible considered.
Dr. Armstrong will commence, on Friday, October 7th, a course of lecture and laboratory demonstrations on fuel, with special reference to coal gas as a heating and illuminating agent. Laboratory class, 6.30 to 8.30; Lecture, 8.30 p.m.
In this course, the principles on which combustion depends will be fully explained and illustrated; also the methods of determining the heating power of fuels. The properties of the several fuels, their composition, and their heating powers will be demonstrated; and the relative advantages of various fuels and the different modes of applying heat will be discussed. Subsequently, the determination of temperature, the temperatures required for and obtained in various technical operations, and the circumstances affecting the combustion of fuels will be considered. Illuminating agents will form the subject of the latter part of the course, but it is important that students who may desire to specially devote their attention to this subject should attend the earlier part of the course.
In the laboratory course, the students will have the opportunity of experimentally studying the laws of combustion, the properties of fuels, and the method of determining their composition and heating power, and of instituting various experiments with fuels. Later on they will take up the subjects of illuminating agents.
The Physical Laboratory will be open daily (Saturdays excepted) from 10 to 5 p.m., and on Monday and Wednesday evenings from 6.30 to 9.30, for students desiring individual practical instruction in technical physics. Fee (inclusive of apparatus and materials (fn. 2)) for day students attending six hours a week, 5s. for the term, or 12s. 6d. for the session; 12 hours a week, 7s. 6d. for the term, or 1l. for the session. Fee for students attending one evening a week, 3s. 6d. for the term, 9s. for the session; two evenings, 5s. or 12s. 6d.
Evening Classes and Lectures.
Professor Ayrton will continue on Monday evenings, from 8.30 to 9.30, commencing October 3rd, the course on Electrical Instrument making, and give practical instruction in the scientific principles underlying the manufacture and testing of condensers, induction coils, and telephones. The students will have the opportunity of performing themselves the experiments suggested at the lectures, as well as of obtaining information from the Professor regarding technical difficulties, by attending a special laboratory course, to be held on Monday evenings, from 6.30 to 8.30, commencing October 3rd.
Syllabus of the Course on Electrical Instrument Making.
Condensers.—Construction of; materials employed. Necessity for drying the insulating compounds. Injury done by overheating a dielectric. Modes of purifying paraffin, shell-lac, &c. Capacity of a condenser depends on the area of the conducting coatings, the thickness, nature and temperature of the dielectric. Absolute condensers with calculable capacity, construction, and practical use of, &c. Practical methods of measuring the insulation, resistance, and capacity with a galvanometer or with an electrometer. Choice of method depending on the kind of condenser tested. Adjustment of capacity. Effect of residual charge, how to diminish. Manufacture of condensers to be used with very high electromotive forces. Outside of condenser boxes; proper mode of making the terminals, &c.
Submarine Duplex Telegraphy.—Principles of. Artificial cables, use and construction of. Special method of testing the capacity, the insulation of the dielectric, and resistance of the conductor. How to adjust each, &c.
Induction Coils.—Fundamental principle of. Use of iron-wire core. Time of magnetising and demagnetising of iron. Quantities of electricity induced on making and breaking the primary circuit equal to one another, but the electromotive forces of the two induced currents very unequal. Proper resistance to give to the primary and to the secondary coils. Mode of winding the wire to secure high insulation, and to obtain maximum effect; shape of coils; actual results obtained with ring-shaped core. Contact makers; usual forms; modes of varying speed of making and of breaking the circuit. Improvements that can be effected by using automatic current reversers. Use of condenser with primary circuit and with secondary circuit. Experimental determination of the efficiency of induction coils. Employment of induction coils in electric lighting, and in chronographs for measuring very small intervals of time. Duration of the spark discharge, &c.
Telephones.—Principle of small recurrent effects. Early forms of telephones. Improvements introduced by Prof. Bell. Dead-beat effects produced by lightness and rigidity of iron membrane. Reason for using a flat-coil wire. Edison's telephone, use of induction coil, details of construction. Ader's simple wire telephone, principle of. Gower-Bell telephone; construction of the horse-shoe permanent magnet, and kind of steel employed. Hughes' induction balance; theory of its action; mode of construction. Connection of its indications with the resistance and self-induction of the substance experimented on, &c.
On Wednesday evenings, from 8.30 to 9.30, from October 5th. Professor Ayrton will continue the course on the electric light, especial attention being devoted to the construction of the various forms of generators and to the laws governing their action and efficiency. The practical application of the principles of the electric transmission of power to electric railways will be entered into, and a critical examination made of the various systems of electric lighting at present employed in London.
A special laboratory class, for students attending this course, will be held on Wednesday evenings, from 6.30 to 8.30, in which students will be taught to make exact measurements of electric currents, electromotive forces and resistances, and to practically use absolute instruments when very strong electric currents have to be measured. They will then practise making measurements of the illuminating power of electric lights produced by various strengths of electric current, generated by dynamo-electric machines driven by a 6-horse power gas engine in the laboratory, fitted with suitable gearing to enable the dynamo-machines to be run at any desired speed; and they will compare the relative illuminating powers with the energy absorbed in the arc in each case so as to determine experimentally the relative efficiencies of different forms of electric lighting. The students will also experiment on the sensibility of the various lamps as regards their automatic adjustment, and on the efficiency of dynamo-electric machines relatively to one another and to batteries for the production of the electric current. Experiments will also be carried out regarding the practical efficiency of electric transmission of power under various conditions.
Syllabus of Course on the Electric Light and Transmission of Power.
General principles of electric transmission of power. Every electrometer acts as a generator. Energy expended in any portion of a circuit depends on resistance and electromotive force overcome, and on the strength of the current. Dead-beat absolute galvanometers for strong currents. Ayrton and Perry's multiple wire galvanometer. Calculation from current and difference of potentials of horse-power expended. "Arc horsepower measurer," &c.
Generators of electric currents; batteries, description of the more important and their defects. Great efficiency of constant batteries. High price per pound of fuel consumed. Direction in which improvements may be looked for in batteries. Magneto and dynamo-electric machines; fundamental principles of the more important,—Wilde's, Holmes', Siemens', Gramme's, Lontin's, Burgen's, &c. Constant current; improvements to be made in the commutators, reverse current producers. Measurement of efficiency of current generators. Force dynamometers,—Morin's, Alteneck's, Ayrton, and Perry's; dynamometer-couplings; actual efficiencies practically obtained. Connection between the electromotive force set up, the current generated, the resistance in circuit, and the speed. How the results are effected by using a separate exciter. Coercitive force of the revolving iron armature. Self-induction of coils. Delay in induced current, and necessary shifting in adjustment of brushes. Saturation of inducing magnets. Direction in which improvements may be looked for in magneto and dynamo-electric machines. Proper employment of the electric light, possibility of subdivision. English patents regarding dynamo and magneto-electric machines, &c.
Electric Railways.— Inapplicability of present method to long lines. Modes of improving the conducting system. Automatic electric block system. Use of the electromotor under carriages as a brake. Storing up the kinetic energy of train on stopping, or on descending inclines. Efficiency of electric transmission of power; actual results obtained. Conditions for maximum efficiency. Electric reservoirs; use and practical efficiency of, &c.
On Friday evenings, from 7 to 8.30, commencing October 7th, a course of lectures will be given on the classified series of electrical experiments which have been arranged in the laboratory to enable students to verify the fundamental principles and laws in electricity and magnetism. It is desired that all students who have not already passed through such a course will attend it, as their laboratory work will be thereby much facilitated. The experiments that will be lectured on are given in detail in the Syllabus. Fee for the term, 5s., or 12s. 6d. for the session.
Syllabus of the Course on Electrical Laboratory Apparatus.
Electrification, Conduction, Insulation. — Leakage through the insulating material; surface leakage; laws of leakage in artificially dried spaces; modes of effecting such artificial drying. Insulating supports; how usually made; their faults; how they should be made. Positive and negative electricity; equal quantities of the two kinds always produced simultaneously. Quantity and density of electricity; mode of measuring each. Induction. Electroscopes; ordinary method of constructing; faults usually existing; proper method of constructing. Electric potential; analogy with level or pressure. Electroscopes indicate, and electrometers measure, differences of potential. Electromotive force. The volt. Calibration of electroscopes. Density varies over a conductor, potential remains constant. Amount of work stored up in a charged body. Electric capacity; measurement of; Leyden jars. Farad. Specific inductive capacity; measurement of. Condensers. Absorption of charge; residual charge. Leakage from a Leyden jar; how to reduce to a minimum resistance of different substances to conduction or to disruptive discharge. Frictional machines; electric energy only equivalent to a small part of work done; reason of inefficiency. Induction machines. Electrophorous. Bertsch's replenisher, Holtz's. Great difference of potential, but small current.
Meaning of an electric current, and the direction of flow. Action of currents on magnets, magnets on currents, and currents on currents. Current proportional to chemical decomposition. Amount of decomposition compared with simultaneous deflection of magnet in Tangent, Sine, and other galvanometers. Measurement of strength of magnetic field from time of vibration, or from deflection, of small magnet. Distribution of magnetic force in field produced by a current in a large circular coil. Strength of field produced by a solenoid with or without iron core. Measurement of heat generated by a current. Resistance proportional to heat generated by the same current in different conductors. Calibration of a galvanometer by comparison with a standard instrument, and without using known resistances. The Ohm, Veber. Ohm's law. Distribution of potential along a conductor traversed by a current. Resistance coils. Measurement of resistances. Wheatstone's bridge. Differential galvanometer. Construction of rough resistance coils. Change of resistance by heating. Measurement of battery resistances. Calibration of a galvanometer without using a standard instrument. Amount of magnetism produced in iron core by a current flowing through the separate layers of the surrounding bobbin. Amount produced in iron core by a current flowing through a coil placed at different positions along it. Force produced by an electro-magnet for different currents. Saturation. Residual magnetism. Best mode of arranging batteries to obtain (1) maximum current, (2) maximum magnetic effect, (3) maximum heating in any portion of circuit. Proper resistance to give to an electro-magnet, &c.
Day Classes and Lectures.
The preliminary course of lectures on Electricity and Magnetism, fully illustrated with experiments, will be delivered on Tuesday and Thursday afternoons, from 1.45 to 2.45, commencing October 4th. This preliminary course, although a continuation of the one commenced at the beginning of this year, will be so arranged that it may be joined by new students desirous of obtained such preliminary training as should be possessed by students proposing to study any branch of electrical engineering.
Students attending regularly any of the chemical or physical courses during the entire session, and passing a satisfactory examination, will receive a qualifying certificate, entitling them to the full technological certificate of the Institute on passing the technological examinations in allied subjects.
Provided sufficient merit be shown, the Institute's silver medal will be awarded, at the close of the session, to the first student, and the Institute's bronze medal to the second student, in each of the several sessional courses.
Trade Classes Transferred from the "Artisans' Institute."
Apprentices will be admitted to any one of the classes without further charge, for the whole term of eight months, on payment of a registration fee of 2s. The parent or employer of any apprentice joining the classes is requested to write to the teacher and state what trade the youth follows. The teachers are authorised to remove from the register the names of apprentices who are incapable of making progress, and to return the fees.
Geometrical Pattern-Cutting as applied to Metal Plate Work.
Elementary.—Problems in plane geometry; scales; methods of describing ovals, &c.; introduction to solid geometry, and its application to pattern-cutting; sections; elbows; construction of patterns for round, oval, oblong, and other tapering articles; oval canister top, tea-bottle top, &c., &c.
Advanced.—Areas of plane figures; oval, oblong, and equal end patterns of unequal taper; [T] elbows, &c.; vase and bath patterns; conic sections, their development and application to various patterns, as cowls, talboys, and spout patterns; cone penetrated by a cylinder at right angles and obliquely to axis, &c., &c.
Section II.—Preparing foundations and concreting; setting out work in general; face and sectional bond; fire work; tunnel and sewer construction; bridges, groined arches, domes, and gauge work in general.
Carpentry and Joinery.
The treatment of woods with regard to shrinking and warping; practically setting out and working from drawings. The application of geometry to carpentry and joinery as required in enlarging and diminishing mouldings; the construction of hip-roofs, skylights, groins, niches, bracketing for coves and cornices, soffits in straight and circular walls, domical roofs, staircases, &c.
Part I.—Description of the details of construction in the various branches of the building trade; the application of correct principles in the erection of dwellinghouses, &c.; the preparation of working drawings, &c.
Part II.—Mensuration as practically applied in the measurement and valuation of builders' work in the various branches, including the principles of taking off quantities from drawings, and measuring up executed work.
Plane Geometry.—Definitions, lines, triangles, quadrilateral figures and polygons; use of the protractor; angles and their applications; scales; construction of scale of chords; methods for drawing lines perpendicular to a given line; construction of triangle, polygons, &c.; properties of the triangle, polygon and quadrilateral figures; proportion of lines; areas of plane figures; and general application of plane geometry to mensuration, &c., &c.
Solid Geometry.—Introduction, lines, points, &c.; oblique planes; projection of oblique surfaces; problems on the line and plane; intersection of planes; plan and elevation of the cube, tetrahedron, octahedron, cone, &c., in easy positions; sections; plan and elevation of solids by means of change of ground line; plan and elevation of solids, with the inclination of a face and one edge in that face given, also plan and elevation with the inclination of two adjacent edges given, &c., &c.
Classes for modelling meet every night from 7 o'clock till 9.30, except Saturday, commencing October 3rd. The fee for the life classes is 5s. per month, or 2l. for the session of 10 months; for the ornament classes 2s. 6d. per month, or 1l. for the entire session, payable in advance.
The course of instruction is arranged to meet the wants of all persons working at plastic art, such as carvers in wood, stone or marble plasterers, die sinkers, potters, modellers for potters, silver and goldsmiths' work, architectural carvers and decorators, sculptors and others.
The course will consist of: (a) lectures on decoration, especially the treatment of panels, spandrils, pediments, &c., and other similar applications of art to industry; (b) practice in modelling from casts of ornament in various defined historic styles, such as Greek, Roman, Byzantine, Romanesque, French and English Gothic, in their various styles and periods; Italian, French, and English Renaissance, and the later styles of the last two centuries.
The first Tuesday evening in each month will be given to drawing on the wood, when each student will be required to bring some work, which may at first be a copy from some good woodcut, but must ultimately be original design.
A free studentship will be annually awarded, on competition, to the candidate who shows greatest proficiency in drawing, and may be renewed in the following year on proof of industry and progress, and on the recommendation of Mr. Roberts.
Pending the completion of the new buildings of the City and Guilds of London Technical Art School, this class will be held at the Lambeth School of Art, Miller's Lane, Upper Kennington Lane, S.E. It meets on each Tuesday and Friday from 11 to 4.
The course consists of instruction in the manipulation of simple colours, and afterwards of those that require greater skill for their successful use. Landscape, figure, and decoration by natural flowers ornamentally arranged are the subjects principally taught, and all the practice at present is confined to working "over the glaze."
The study of the life is carried on to the highest point, and is arranged to give adequate instruction to students engaged in painting figures for pottery decoration, wood drawing, and all other applications of figure work to industrial art.
For further particulars and forms of admission, apply at the South London Technical Art School, 122, Kennington Park Road; or at 22, Berners Street, Oxford Street (Society for Promoting the Employment of Women); or at the Central Office of the City and Guilds of London Institute, Gresham College, London, E.C.