City of London Livery Companies Commission. Report; Volume 4. Originally published by Eyre and Spottiswoode, London, 1884.
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In pursuance of a Minute of the Board of the 7th day of November 1862, I have inquired into the condition and circumstances of the following charities under the management of the Haberdashers' Company of the City of London, and I have stated in the Report under the head of each specific endowment, the result of my investigation.
The Haberdashers' Company, under the style of "The Master and four Wardens of the Fraternity of the Art or Mystery of Haberdashers in the City of London," consists of the master, four wardens, and court of assistants, and the livery and freemen of the Company.
The master and wardens are chosen by the court of assistants, the court electing each year a master and two senior wardens from the court, according to their standing, and they elect also, two junior wardens, from the livery, not on the court. The senior is the first warden, and the next the second warden, each serving as well as the master, for a year, and succeeding to each other's office in turn. Of the two junior wardens, one serves as third, and the other as fourth warden, and at the end of the year, these two junior wardens are elected on the court.
William Adams' Charities.
By indenture of the 27th November 1656, made by William Adams of the one part, and the Haberdashers' Company of the other part, after reciting that the said William Adams had conveyed to the Haberdashers' Company certain lands and tenements in Staffordshire, it was declared that the said Company should pay the several yearly sums following:—
The institution was further established and regulated by Acts of Parliament passed in the 12th and 13th years of King Charles the 2nd. The deeds and accounts are set forth in the Report of the Commissioners of Inquiry for the county of Salop. (Vol. 5, p. 416, et seq.)
The property of the charity in Staffordshire seems to have been demised for long terms of years to a person named Justice and his representatives, under the direction in the will of the testator, which appears to have given the lessee a right of renewal. The renewed lease granted under this direction expired in 1784, and no further claim to renewal seems to have been made on the part of the lessee. The estate was then let to several tenants at a great increase of the aggregate rent, and a suit was instituted in the Court of Chancery by the AttorneyGeneral at the relation of Richard Whitworth, Esq., against the Haberdashers' Company, and Randle Tonner, the heir-at-law of W. Adams, the founder of the charity, for the direction of the Court as to the application of the increased income. The surplus rents were claimed in this suit by the heir-at-law of W. Adams.
The Court, however, in this suit, determined that there was no resulting trust in favour of the heir-at-law of the founder, and the usual reference was then made to the master to approve of a scheme, which was settled in the year 1797.
The rents were further increased in or previous to the year 1808, when a further scheme was settled, having regard to the augmented income, and many of the foregoing payments were increased not only beyond the sums fixed by the original trust, but by further additions made to the augmentation of 1797.
By an order of the Court of Chancery of the 1st April 1856, it was ordered (inter alia) that the messuages and lands and the purchase money for the same be apportioned between the charities of William Adams at Newport, and the charities of William Jones at Monmouth, respectively, in manner following, such parts of the said messuages, &c., as with the timber thereon should be equal in value to the proportion which the produce of the 1,938l. 12s. 4d. Consols, thereinafter directed to be sold should bear to the entire purchase money of 7,460l., or as near thereto as circumstances would admit, and as were convenient to be held with other lands belonging to the said charity estate of William Adams; and the remaining parts of the said messuages, &c., be apportioned to the said charity of William Jones of Monmouth. Under this order the apportionment was made and separate conveyances were taken, to the Company as governors of the two several charities. By a deed of the 24th January 1856, settled by the Court, Palin and others the vendors, conveyed to the master and wardens, as governors of the possessions of the free grammar school of Newport, of the foundation of William Adams, all and singular the lands and hereditaments containing in the whole 31a. 3r. 26p. mentioned in the schedule thereunder written, all which said lands were then in the occupation of Maria Hodgkins, and were situated in Knighton, in the parish of Adbaston, Staffordshire, and were formerly known by the description following:—All those several closes of land situate in Knighton aforesaid, called or known as Holly Meadow, containing 1a. 3r. 18p.; Wards Yard or Garden in three parts, and called Near Wards Yard, Far Wards Yard, and Wards Yard Meadow containing by estimation 6a. 0r. 25p., part of the Cliff Field, the entirety of which contained 7a. 3r. 3p.; the upper and lower Millings, containing together 7a. 3r. 7p., or thereabouts; the Solomon, then laid to lower Millings aforesaid, containing by estimation 0a. 2r. 22p.; the Davipott, in two parts, containing together by estimation 10a. 0r. 24p.; the Yard, containing by estimation 1a. 0r. 10p.; and which lands and hereditaments were formerly the estate of Robert Pigott, afterwards of William Waller, afterwards of Thomas Lloyd, afterwards of Thomas Borrow, and since of Sarah Palin,—
In the arrangement for the apportionment of Palin's estate, belonging to the two charities, the freehold called the Cliff Field was divided between them. As a matter of convenience, it was subsequently found expedient to exchange 2a. 3r. 15p. of the land apportioned to Adams' Charity for the same quantity of land belonging to the Monmouth Charity. This was effected under an order of the Enclosure Commissioners of 22nd May 1862.
At the expiration of the last leases in 1861, the farms were let by tender, and in most cases the old tenants, who were not persons of much capital or enterprise, were removed, and new tenants introduced. The rents, it will be observed, were thus generally and considerably increased. The surveyor of the governors makes a half-yearly report of the state of the farm and buildings, and looks after the performance of the covenants of the lessees.
The sum of 12,426l. 0s. 5d., 3 per cent. consols, which at the time of the Report of the Commissioners of Inquiry, stood to the credit of the cause, on the account of this charity, has been for the most part expended in rebuilding, in a substantial manner, the farmhouses and buildings on the Staffordshire property. This application being approved in Court, was necessarily made under the orders of the Court, and was therefore sanctioned by its authority. The sum now in Court to the credit of the cause, The Attorney-General v. Haberdashers' Company, (—), is 3,993l. 2s. 9d., 3 per cent. consols.
The above sum includes the remainder of the 1,938l. 12s. 4d. 3 per cent. consols, the produce of an investment for land taken by the governors from the London and Birmingham Canal Company (see No. 5 above), which was not expended in the purchase of Palin's farm, and which was transferred to this account by order of the Court of the 24th November 1856. The following statement shows accurately the disposition of this fund:—
By an order of the Court of Chancery of the 13th February 1821, made upon the petition of the Company in the suit, the salary of the head master of the school was increased from 150l. a year to 175l. 10s., and the salary of the usher was increased from 75l. to 87l. 10s. These augmentations were ordered to commence from March 1819.
By an order of the 25th July 1835, upon a like application, the salary of the head master was increased to 190l. a year, and 10l. a year was granted to him for his remuneration in acting as secretary to the visitors; and the salary of the usher was increased from 87l 10s. to 100l.; the writing and arithmetic master's salary was raised from 45l. to 100l. a year, and he was at the same time appointed English master.
The suit having been terminated and the receiver discharged in 1853, the Haberdashers' Company thenceforward took upon themselves the duty of making such necessary alterations and arrangements as appeared to be necessary.
At Christmas, 1855, the salary of the clerk of the governors was raised from 6l. to 45l. After the receiver was discharged, the clerk received the rents of the estates, without commission. The former salary had been regarded as covering the minor duties, and all special services had been paid for as costs. The augmented salary the governors fixed to include all business except special law expenses.
At Midsummer, 1854, the governors raised the salary of the surveyor to 25l., and included in his duties the survey of the land and the making a half-yearly report of the state of the property. At Midsummer, 1856, this was raised to 42l., and the superintendence of the surveyor was extended to the new purchase of Palin's land. At a recent court of the Company, held in the past year, the salary of the surveyor was raised to 65l., having regard to the increased income of the property. The care of the woods is entrusted to him, and he is considered to have exercised a very beneficial superintendence over that part of the property.
At Midsummer, 1854, under the authority of the Charity Commissioners, a retiring pension of 50l. was allowed to the Rev. William Sandford, who has been usher of the school. Mr. Sandford is the incumbent of Newport.
The company have recently appointed an examiner of the school; the gentleman who has been appointed is one of the masters of the City of London School. His allowance is 10l. for each half-yearly examination, and travelling and other expenses for printing and otherwise.
The first examination under this appointment was at Midsummer, 1861, and at that time the number of boys in the school was only 38. Before the appointment of the examiner there had been only 32, subsequently the number of scholars on the foundation had been gradually increased, until in August last, as hereafter stated, they amounted to 63.
I am informed that the prospective surplus income is for some time expected to be absorbed by the improvements in the farm buildings and the erection of cattle sheds. The average expenditure of the past seven years for the improvements, erection of buildings, and draining, fences, &c., have been 135l. 14s. 10d.
The Company, by a deputation of its members, visit the school and premises once in every two years, or every alternate year. The deputation on these occasions inspect the farms as well as the institution itself, and require and receive information as to all local matters affecting the charity and its arrangements.
Among other things, they occasionally inquire whether the duties imposed by the founder on the minister of Newport have been performed. A letter from Newport of the 25th October last from the head master, states, that about 60 boys (of whom about five only belong to the school) attend at the national schoolroom on Sunday mornings, and are catechised. The catechising, I am told, is sometimes by the minister or curate, and sometimes by the teachers of the Sunday school. The churchwardens have occasionally been requested to certify that the catechising has been performed. The Rev. William Sandford, the present minister, was formally usher of the school, and in that character has a retiring pension of 50l., which was sanctioned by the Charity Commissioners (Order, 3rd June 1854) in consideration of his yielding up possession of the usher's house, which he had been allowed to occupy since his retirement from the school in 1852). I am told that he claims an addition to the foundation allowance in consequence of the great increase on the rents. It may be material to remark that the gift to him is, not only entirely for catechising, "but for his better encouragement in the works of the ministry," a declaration which may afford some ground for the claim of the minister to augmentation.
In the course of the enquiry, I was attended by Mr. Heane, who appeared on behalf of the incumbent and the parish, and urged the claims of the living to an augmentation of the minister's allowance, pro ratâ with the increase of the income of the charity.
He stated that at the time of the endowment the income of the minister was only about 15l. a year, and the Easter dues; but that since that time the tithes had been purchased by the Governors of Queen Ann's Bounty, and annexed to the living, which is now worth about 220l., with a parsonage house, let for about 5l. or 10l. a year to the parish clerk, and not suitable for the dwelling of the minister. He represented the parish as purely agricultural, with a population of about 3,000 and about 600 houses, rated to the poor's rates. I append to this report some communications I have received from Mr. Sandford, both on the subject of the claims of the incumbent and on the improvement of the school.
The school comprises three principal classes or divisions, the upper school, the middle school. and the lower school. Every boy generally enters into the lower school, which is under the superintendence of the English master. The master admits scholars as probationers, but the regular admission takes place at the quarterly meetings of the visitors, and under their order. At these meetings the boys are examined and promoted from the lower to the upper school. There is in the town an English school, having some endowments partly from the same founder, and there is also a national school. The visitors require that every boy should be able to read tolerably well before he is admissible to this school.
|1862, February||58 "|
|" August||63 "|
It is contemplated to appoint a French master specifically for the teaching of that language, which is not considered at present to be efficiently taught, in which case the 10l. allowance to the present master and usher will be discontinued.
The present head master is the Rev. Dr. Saxton, who was appointed in 1846. His emoluments consist of the 210l. a year, above stated, together with his house rent free. Each boy pays an admission fee of 2s. 6d., of which, 1s. 6d. goes to the head master, and 1s. to the usher, and no further payment whatever, either for books or otherwise. This payment by a recent order of the court of the Company has been increased to 10s. to be divided in the same proportion, subject to the sanction of the Charity Commissioners.
The schoolhouse consists of a large room for the school, which affords space for all the classes, and an adjoining room occupied by the library, which is for the most part composed of works bequeathed by the founder. The Company have lately added some modern books of a more popular kind to be lent to the school boys; about 30l. has been applied to this purpose.
Several suggestions have been made by the head and second masters, as well as by Mr. Sandford, for the improvement of the school. I append their letter to this report. It has also been proposed to enlarge the area from which the boys are to be admitted, and to comprise within it all the parishes in the Newport Union, which include a part of the county of Stafford.
This would seem to be a very desirable measure. It is impossible not to feel that the educational results of this charity are quite disproportioned to the amount of its income, and to the advantages which a better organization would afford. Any scheme for the extension of the benefits of the school should probably be considered in connexion with the other schools for the poor in Newport, and especially embracing also arrangements by which the other endowed school in Newport may be made ancillary to the educational wants of the parish and district.
They receive the 22l. 10s. per annum, and the allowance is tenable for four years. They are paid by the clerk of the Company on receipt of the certificate of residence. The present exhibitioners are Hartshorne, Lindop, and B. and L. Jones.
The school has also jointly with other schools in Shropshire the benefit of a share of the exhibition founded by Mr. Careswell in 1689, in Christ Church College, Oxford. The estate of this foundation has, I am informed, been increased in value, and is now administered under a decree of the Court of Chancery settling a scheme. I have not, however, been able to ascertain the title of the cause. In May 1861, the visitors report that Thos. C. Lindop, one of the scholars of the Newport school was elected to a Careswell exhibition. The name of the same young man is found in the list of the exhibitioners under this foundation. I have been furnished by the head master with a return of the Careswell exhibitions elected from the Newport school since 1821. This is contained in a letter containing also some suggestions for the improvement of the institution, to which I have before referred, and which I append.
The apprentices are chosen by the head master, minister, and churchwardens as provided by the statutes. A form of certificate is forwarded to the clerk of the Company, and the payment is made to the vestry clerk of the parish of Newport.
The almspeople receive 7s. 6d. a week each, under the scheme of 1808; they are all single persons. The two houses on one side are occupied by men, and the two on the other side by women, elected by the parish in vestry; the allowances are paid by an agent of the clerk of the Company who resides in the town.
The payments to the 20 poor of the Haberdashers' Company of 3l. 15s. each are made according to the scheme of 1808. The same recipients are not chosen two years in succession. The master, wardens, and fifteen oldest members of the court of assistants who may be present make the election, each of these gentlemen nominate one person in turn.
The accounts of the charity are made up by the Company to the 24th November (St. Katherine's Day) in every year. The balance of cash to the credit of the charity on the 24th November 1861, was 290l. 14s. 9d. The accounts are not finally made up until February. It has been usual to invest any balance, but this was not done last year, the Company having received the rents earlier than usual, are now in advance upwards of 200l., a balance which constantly fluctuates, and has been in the course of the year upwards of 400l.
The Company have recently received an application from the churchwardens, and guardians, and overseers, and other inhabitants of Adbaston, the parish in which the lands of the charity are situated, requesting some annual allowance for the vicar of that parish. The lands, I am informed, were tithe free under the Local Act of the 12th Car. 2, set out in the report of the Commissioners of Inquiry (Vol. 5, p. 422). I should doubt, however, whether this Act would extend to tithes. It provides that all the lands and hereditaments conveyed by Adams to the Company for the purposes of the charity should be at all times therein-after free, discharged and acquitted of and from the payment of all, every, or any manner of taxes, assessments, or charges civil or military whatsoever thereafter to be laid and imposed by authority of Parliament or otherwise; and that the said manor, messuages, and premises, and the owners and occupiers thereof or any of them should not at any time thereafter be rated, taxed, or assessed to pay any sum or sums of money or be otherwise charged in any way whatsoever for or in respect of the said manor, lands, and hereditaments, or any of them, for or towards any manner of public tax, assessment, or charge whatsoever." This most remarkable piece of legislation has thus exempted and been held by the Courts of Law to exempt the estates of the charity from every public burden. It may be observed, however that the exemption of tithes is of no importance to the incumbent as the tithes are in lay hands. The court of the Company have recently, in the present month (Nov. 1862) agreed to an allowance of 20l. per annum, if sanctioned by the Charity Commissioners. The tithes of the parish are in the hands of a lay impropriator. The vicar has only a stipend of 90l. a year.
I append documents which have been forwarded to me by the incumbent and the head master of the school. (fn. 1)
By letters patent of Queen Elizabeth of the 2nd January 1594 reciting the intention of Thomas Aldersey to establish a free grammar school in Bunbury, Cheshire, and for maintaining a preacher and curate, and for the relief of the poor of Bunbury. It was ordained that there should be for ever there a free grammar school to be called "The Free Grammar School of Thomas Aldersey in Bunbury," to consist of one schoolmaster, and one usher, and that there should be for ever a preacher, and a vicar or curate assisting the said preacher for the care of souls, the master and wardens and the preacher and schoolmaster to be governors by the name of "The governors of the possessions and revenues purchased and assigned by Thomas Aldersey for the maintenance of the free grammar school, and preacher of the Divine Word, and the relief of the poor in the parish of Bunbury."
By a lease of the 20th October 1593, Thos. Aldersey demised to John Aldersey for 500 years at 122l. a year, the rectory of Bunbury, the tithes within the parishes and hamlets of Bunbury, Alpeckham, Beston, Tarnton, Calvely, Wardell, Tirleston, Haughton, Spurstall, Petferton, and Bowesley in Cheshire.
By a subsequent lease of the 12th November, 1594, the said Thomas Aldersey demised to Ralph Egerton for 2,000 years at the yearly rental of 8l., all his tithes within the township of Ridley, in the parish of Bunbury.
And by deed poll of the 28th February 1594, Thomas Aldersey granted to the governors of the school, the said rectory of Bunbury and the tithes, etc., adding thereto Ridley. To hold to the use of the said governors for the purposes of the said letters patent.
And by a further lease of the 31st March 1595, Thomas Aldersey demised to the governors for 2,000 years at the rent of a red rose, all that messuage called the Chantry House, in Bunbury, and parcels of land containing 7 rods in length and 4 rods in breadth and all that tenement late of Thomas Bunbury and the orchard meadow and all that parcel of land called Barncroft and the fourth part of Gorston's Croft to be for the better maintenance of the preacher, schoolmaster, and usher of Bunbury school that they might be provided with competent dwelling-houses, and for the better applying themselves to their several offices. Under these instruments the governors take the two reserved rents of 122l. and 8l. yearly, making 130l. a year, both of which arise out of the rectory and tithes comprised in the gift, and which are now vested in the representatives and descendant of the lessees.
3.—The Chantry house, orchard, garden, and croft which was directed to be appropriated to the schoolmaster. The schoolmaster, Mr. Baily, appointed in 1861, has now a cottage and 3a. 0r. 20p. land. It does not appear whether this is the same house and land originally appropriated to the schoolmaster.
The master and wardens appointed the preacher or chief incumbent of Bunbury and also the perpetual curate. The present preacher is the Rev. W. B. Garnett; who was appointed or presented in 1853, and the present perpetual curate is the Rev. Wm. Lowe, who was appointed or presented November 1861. On the occasion of the last appointment an estimate was made by the order of the master and wardens of the income of the vicar and curate. This estimate I append, marked G, by which it appears that the total income is about 169l. a year, and that there is a new vicarage built in 1847, with contributions chiefly from the governors of Queen Anne's bounty. It appears that no residence or land was originally assigned for the vicar, the statutes as to him saying, "that being sole and unmarried he is to have one room in the preacher's house."
|Poor of Bunbury||10||0||0|
|Poor of Haberdashers' Company||3||6||8|
The Haberdashers' Company receive annually from Mr. Aldersey 3l. 6s. 8d., deducting 15s. 6d. for land tax, and leaving 2l. 11s. 2d., which is given by the master and wardens to the poor of the Company together with 4l. 8s. 10d. supposed to be the dividend on 148l. 1s. 1d., 3l. per cent. annuities represented as standing in their corporate name.
It appears to have been the habit of the Company to distribute 7l. a year, in sums of 20s. each, to seven poor persons of the Company, and this 7l. they ostensibly derive from the 3l. 6s. 8d., part of the Bunbury tithe rentcharge, and the dividends of a nominal sum of 148l. 1s. 1d., 3l. per cent. consols, being part of a larger sum of stock standing in the name of the Company. The sum of 7l. and 1l. to the clerk should, however, be the produce of a separate investment, and not mixed up with the 3l. 6s. 8d. It appeared primâ facie that the annual payments for the poor of the Company from this gift had in fact fallen short of the obligation of the Company by the amount of the 3l. 6s. 8d. a year brought in aid of the attributed dividends. The Commissioners of Inquiry do not seem to have been aware of the gift of 300l.; they allude to the 7l. a year being made up of the 3l. 6s. 8d., and other moneys. Upon an examination of the instruments, it appeared, however, that the 3l. 6s. 8d. is in fact given to the Company, and not to the poor of the Company, as is stated in the Report of the Commissioners of Inquiry (Vol. 10, p. 194). That Report, in describing the statutes made by the founder, concludes (line 9 from the bottom), "and 3l. 6s. 8d. among the poor of the Haberdashers' Company." On referring to the statutes, copies of which are preserved in the books of the Company, it appears that the same (It. 20), after providing for the application of the 122l., and 8l. for the preacher, curate, usher, schoolmaster, and poor people, concludes:—"The remainder thereof, being 3l. 6s. 8d. yearly, to be paid to the master and wardens of the Haberdashers' Company for the time being to the use of the said Company."
"Item:—It is ordained by the said T. Aldersey that the aforesaid 300l. given by him to the Company shall be either bestowed in lands to the use of the Company, or otherwise; the same 300l. to be from time to time employed for the benefit of the brethren of the Company and at their discretion. And of the profit thereby arising, or by the revenues of such lands as shall be purchased, that the said master and wardens in the month of November shall give and dispose as follows:—Unto seven poor men of the Company, or unto poor widows of deceased brethren, 20s. a piece, and the other 20s. to the clerk of the Company for his pains."
The question upon this is, whether the Company ought not actually to invest 300l. and apply the interest or dividends, so far as it will go, in payment of 20s. a year to as many poor men of the Company as it will extend to pay, or divide the income equally amongst seven; or whether, as the Company insist, it is sufficient for them to pay 20s. each to seven poor men; such being the limit of their liability. The question is one of little importance. In the future accounts the supposititious sum of 148l. 1s. 1d., 3l. per cent. consols, will be expunged, and the Company propose to insert in its place a nominal investment of enough to produce 7l. a year.
The master and wardens have recently abolished or suspended the office of usher, and appointed Mr. Baily, the master of the school, with the joint salary of master and usher, he providing, at his own expense, a proper qualified teacher. It would appear that a portion of the land apportioned to the master and usher is now let, and the income carried into the school accounts, and forms a portion of the school income. These changes have been gradual since 1855. It had been recommended to them in October 1855 to apply for a grant from the Committee of Council, and submit the school to the Government inspector, a course, however, of which they did not then approve. Later, in December 1855, the master and wardens accepted the recommendation of Mr. Garnett to appoint an usher, who was a certificated master, and at the same time sanctioned a rule that weekly and quarterly payments should be taken from boys of a better class, the amount to be left to the preacher. In July 1856, Mr. Garnett, the preacher, as visitor of the school, reported that the school, which in February 1856 contained only 36 pupils, had increased in June of the same year to 95, of whom about 12 were sons of farmers, tradesmen, and a professional man paying the full quarterly charge of 10s., the rest being of the labouring class paying 2d. a week, and a few free boys. In September 1856 the court overcame its reluctance to admit the interference of the Council and to apply for a grant, which, to the amount of 50l., together with a small capitation grant, was subsequently obtained. The school is an example of the advantage of introducing reasonable capitation charges into a free school.
I beg respectfully to present my report upon this school up to the present time, and the accounts of the school up to 1st January 1861. I could not finish the latter sooner, as I waited for the payments of the late Rev. J. Martin, which I did not receive, as he was in difficulties, so that the amount due from him is not entered.
The school is in a most flourishing condition, and I am sure the court will read with pleasure the statement of its finances, and the tables numbered I. and II. sent herewith, showing the grades of the parents who send boys to the school, and also the attendance and age of the boys.
I may also call the attention of the court to the reports of H.M.'s inspectors for five years, commencing with 1856, where it is called a "degenerate grammar school," and ending with that for 1860, our last inspection, where it is styled this "excellent school." I should feel gratified if the court will permit these reports to be read before them, and I feel sure they will then take into favourable consideration my suggestion that the present master, who now only holds the appointment of usher (though he has had the entire work of the school, the late head master giving up his money stipend and retaining a house and land in accordance with a permission from the court when the school came under my management), that the present usher, Mr. Wm. Bailey, be appointed head master, and that the office of usher be not filled up, that office being now most efficiently filled by two pupil teachers paid by Government, and two monitors paid out of the school funds. The school was intended by the founder to be a free school, but the original endowment being quite inadequate, your Worshipful Company sanctioned my making a scale of payments from the boys. The highest sum is 10s. a quarter, the lowest 2d. a week. Every boy is admitted by myself, and I always tell the poorer people that if they really cannot afford to pay, that their children shall be taught free, and I am proud to say that I have not a single boy who avails himself of the privilege. All books, except copy books, are provided by the school, though I encourage as much as possible the pupils to purchase books, which, being their own, they take care of and have for study when they leave school. By the means that I have adopted, added to voluntary subscriptions from three of the principal landowners, I am enabled to give the master a salary of 110l., to provide pupil teachers, defray all expenses, and have a balance in the bank of 71l. 15s. 7¾d. I may also mention that we have a drawing master from the Chester School of Art, who gives a lesson each week of one hour's duration; he is paid by voluntary contribution from some of the boys themselves, but the whole school gets the advantage; and I may mention, as a striking instance of the attention the lads pay to their work, that out of 26 boys who competed for prizes last year, given by the Government School of Science and Art, 24 were successful.
If the new minute of the Privy Council comes into operation, the master, Mr. Bailey, will lose 33l. per annum, his guaranteed augmentation by the Government. I shall then have to consider whether I can make this sum up to him out of the funds of the school, and I trust that I may be able to retain him, for his conduct of the school has been worthy of the highest praise.
|Professional men.||Farmers.||Small tradesmen.||Labourers.||Total.|
|Rates.||10s. a Quarter.||6s. a Quarter.||5s. a Quarter.||3s. a Quarter.||2d. a Week.||1d. a Week.|
|Preacher, Rev. W. B. Garnett, M.A.||66||13||4|
|Vicar or curate, Rev. W. Lowe||20||0||0|
|Master||Mr. W. Bailey||30||0||0|
|A sum of ten pounds to poor of the parish, at discretion of preacher, schoolmaster, and wardens||10||0||0|
The full value of the tithes was at that time 127l., which the founder distributed amongst the officers as stated above. The balance of 1l., or thereabouts, he gave to the poor of the Haberdashers' Company.
However, the payments are all duly made. The ten pounds to the poor of the parish has been, I believe, added to other parish monies, and distributed on St. Thomas' Day; but I have written to the agent to pay it to me and the master, so that we may be able to give an accurate account of its distribution according to the founder's direction "that it be distributed by the preacher, schoolmaster, &c."
I come now more especially to the grammar school, which when I came to Bunbury I found in a useless condition, see Note B., a. b., where it is described by Her Majesty's Inspector, Rev. J. P. Norris, as "a degenerate grammar school of very little use indeed." I obtained permission from the Haberdashers' Company to re-organise the school, I being, by virtue of my office of preacher, the visitor of the school.
The school was intended by the founder to be free, but owing to the poverty of the endowment it was quite impossible to obtain masters for the stipends allotted. It became necessary then to organise a scale of payments which was proposed to and approved by a parish. Indeed for years, when the Rev. Mr. Martin was head master 1l. 1s. a year was charged.
I, accordingly, taking into consideration the amount of the endowments, endeavoured so to arrange the scale of payments, that all in the parish might receive a share of the benefit. In this, I think I have been most successful; though had I again to make the arrangement, I should raise the payments of the better classes of the people to one guinea.
At this rate the school would be actually self supporting. At present, we receive 30l. per annum from voluntary contributions, and the voluntary payments are requisite in order that we may obtain Government grants.
As to the efficiency of the school, I will merely refer you to the seven reports, Note B., of Her Majesty's Inspectors for the seven years during which the school has existed in its improved form. But when I say that it furnishes an excellent education to the children of the farmers and professional men, including my own (for I have three sons there), and at the same time affords the same advantages to the boys of the poorest person in the parish, I think that its present state will be appreciated.
I would observe further, in reference to the payments of the pupils, that I myself admit each applicant, and in doing so I ask every poor person whether they can afford to pay the sum charged (2d. a week), at the same time telling them that if they can honestly state that they cannot really pay that sum we will take their children free. I am pleased to say that we have not, at present, one free boy on the books.
I may also state, in confirmation of the reports of Her Majesty's Inspectors, and of myself, that we this week received an application from a Commission under the French Government to afford them statistics of the working of this school.
You make inquiry as to a sum of 18l. 14s. 2d. under the head of endowment. When I re-organised the school, I found that the then head master, the Reverend John Martin, late vicar, held his office of master as a sinecure, paying to the usher his share of the endowment paid by Mr. Aldersey, and retaining in his own hands the house and land attached to the head master's post.
At his death, in September 1861, I recommended the Haberdashers' Company to unite the two offices of head master and usher, which they decided to do during their pleasure. But that the school may not suffer from want of an usher, we have two pupil teachers and two paid monitors, so more than supplying his place.
Out of the endowment and general funds, I pay Mr. Bailey, the head master, salary 100l., in lieu of house 10l., head master's stipend 20l. = 130l. The remainder is spent on the general expenses of the school, and the balance reserved for a fund for rebuilding it when it shall have arrived at a sum sufficient to warrant our making the attempt.
I also send a list from which you will at once see the numbers out of each rank attending the school, and their respective payments; also the average attendance of those who pay the highest fees, and also of those paying the lowest.
I trust that this statement may be satisfactory; if it is not sufficiently complete I shall be happy to supply any omissions. If the Charity Commissioners come to any decision upon the matter, I would suggest that there should be a provision by which the scale of fees might be raised as circumstances required.
Before I conclude, I will draw your attention to the fact that in the statutes allusion is made to the education of "women children" in the school. For this purpose we have a separate national school for girls and young boys, at which about 100 children are taught.
Schoolroom, a spacious room; floor, tiled. Playground unenclosed. Residence, two cottages belonging to trust. Desks loose, of a clumsy heavy form, placed against the wall. The clergyman is the master, the school being conducted by his usher. It is about to be re-organised as soon as the consent of the Haberdashers' Company shall have been obtained. It is proposed to make it a model school for farmers' and labourers' children combined.
Last year I visited this school under the old regime, a degenerate grammar school of very little use indeed. This year I find it re-organised, under a most promising certificated master, trained at Welshpool and Battersea (Mr. Bailey), who is carrying it on after the most approved methods as a model school for farmers' children, combined with those of labourers. He is prepared to teach Latin to any whose parents may desire it. The school appears to be already very popular, and the results are strikingly good, considering the short time the master has been here.
My examination of this school was most satisfactory. Instead of the decrepit grammar school of former years, the parish has now a prosperous and efficient school of elementary education, in the higher classes of which the farmers' sons are receiving an excellent commercial training. The first class not having been grounded by Mr. Bailey, are unequally advanced in some respects, but they have caught the hearty spirit with which their master does his work, and are making good progress. The singing and drill are excellent. I wish the building was more worthy of the school.
This school has passed an excellent examination. It is rapidly winning for itself a place among the best schools of my district. Twenty of the boys are farmers' sons, paying 10s. a quarter, and twenty of them were over 14 years of age. The sum arising from pence last year was 80l. Thus it may be instanced as a very successful as the King's Somborne type of school. It is highly to be desired that the girls' school in the same village would be similarly re-organised.
The admirable order of this school is highly creditable to Mr. Bailey's skill and power of command. The children render a cheerful and willing obedience, and show great interest in the subjects of instruction. Mr. Bailey has succeeded in obtaining a high level of attainments, and in inducing habits of thoughtfulness and industry. I was well pleased with the results of my examination, especially with the command of thought and expression shown by the first class.
This excellent school is going on most satisfactorily. I only wish the building were more worthy of the teacher and his work. The first class consists chiefly of farmers' and tradesmen's sons. They learn Latin or algebra and book-keeping, besides the usual subjects. Both this class and the second passed a very good examination in religious knowledge, English grammar, and arithmetic. The order and discipline are excellent. Mr. Bailey conducts the school with energy and ability. That the parents appreciate his work is shown by the fact that the school fees last year reached the sum of 97l.
This school is still as cleverly conducted as ever, and the results are most satisfactory. The attainments are of a high average, and the boys use their knowledge with considerable facility and intelligence. The order is very good. The average attendance is 88 per cent. of the number who have attended, and the number of boys who have attended at least 176 days is 68. These good results are very creditable to the school.
N.B.—A schoolmaster on leaving the training college is classed, but does not receive his parchment certificate until he has been two years in charge of a school. Mr. Bailey, at the end of two years, received the highest certificate which is granted to any teacher until he has been seven years principal teacher of a school, viz., First Division of Class II. The following was the report on Mr. Bailey by the Rev. J. P. Norris, Her Majesty's Inspector of Schools: —"Mr. Bailey has shown already that the possesses more than ordinary qualifications for the work of a teacher."
|Professional Gentlemen.||Farmers.||Tradesmen.||Small Tradesmen, Artizans, or Labourers.|
|10s. per Quarter.||6s. per Quarter.||5s. per Quarter.||3s. per Quarter.||2d. per Week.||1d. per Week.|
Average attendance for year ending 31st October 1861 = 88.1 per cent. (fn. 2)
Average attendance for year ending 31st October 1862 = 87.5 per cent. (fn. 2)
The school was intended by the founder to afford a free education for the children of the parish and neighbourhood, but the salary arising from the old endowment being insufficient to secure the services of a competent master, it was agreed at a public meeting of the parishioners that payments should be received from the children attending the school.
The visitor, the Rev. W. B. Garnett, has received permission from the governors, the Haberdashers' Company, to re-organise the school in such a manner as to meet the requirements of the present time, provided the master selected bears a Certificate of Merit. It has, therefore, been his object to place the school in such a position as to afford the best possible education at a reasonable charge.
The course of instruction will embrace the following subjects:—Scripture, reading, writing, grammar, history, geography, Latin, music, agricultural chemistry, bookkeeping, arithmetic, mensuration, land-surveying, algebra, mechanics, and geometry.
The visitor confidently hopes from the position held by Mr. Bailey on the list of Queen's Scholars, from his Certificate of Merit (1st Class) in his first year, and from the high testimonials he has received of him, that he will be able to impart instruction in the foregoing subjects, so as to give satisfaction to the parishioners.
School hours will be from 9 o'clock till 12 in the morning, and from. 2 o'clock till 5 in the afternoon. In the winter months the school in the afternoon will open at half-past 1 o'clock, the time of leaving being at the discretion of the master.
1. A few boys, the children of poor widows, or of parents whose circumstances render them quite unable to pay the the lowest fee, will be admitted free at the discretion of the visitor; and it is earnestly requested that none who can afford to pay will apply for a free admission.
It is hoped that these charges will meet the approbation of the parishioners; but should any cases present themselves to which the foregoing rates do not strictly apply, the visitor will be happy to make a special arrangement.
1. All scholars must be kept clean and tidy, and attend school with regularity. It is particularly requested, should any child through sickness or any urgent cause be unable to attend the school, that notice to that effect be given to the master, either by a note from the parent, or a message by a grown-up person. Absence without leave from the master, cannot on any account be permitted.
|T. Aldersey, Esq.||10||0||0|
|Dowager Mrs. Aldersey||10||0||0|
|A. H. Davenport, Esq.||10||0||0|
|Number of boys admitted during the past year||124|
|" " left " "||13|
|" " on Register, December 31st, 1856||111|
The vicar or curate of the parish of Bunbury is appointed by the Worshipful Company of Haberdashers, under a charter granted by Queen Elizabeth on the request of Thomas Aldersey, Esq., by which it is ordained that there shall be for ever appointed "a preacher of the Divine word, and also a vicar or curate to the same preacher, assistant, for the observation of the cure of souls and divine ministration within the parish."
|Rentcharge on land||14||0||0||(fn. 3)|
|Land, now let for||24||0||0|
|Dividends on 942l. 10s. 1d., Reduced 3l. per Cent. Annuities, from Queen Anne's Bounty||28||5||6|
|Estimated value of house, garden, and paddock||60||0||0|
|Total estimated gross income||£169||5||6|
There is a district church and a chapel within the parish, and the care of other portions of the parish is also provided for, whereby the population under the charge of the vicar or curate numbers about 1,800 only, but it is widely scattered.
Thomas Arnold, prior to 1669, gave to the Company a rentcharge of 26l. out of lands at Islington for them to distribute to 20 poor men at St. Katherine's tide, for ever, as Sir Nicholas Rainton directed by his will. The charge is payable out of the lands mentioned in the decree of the court referred to by the Commissioners of Inquiry, comprising the "Angel" Inn at Islington. It is paid by Messrs. Child, the bankers, on account of Mr. George Thornhill, or his representatives. The whole sum of 26l. is now paid without deduction of land tax, and is distributed in donations of 1l. 6s. to 20 poor persons of the Company, in the month of October of every year. (fn. 4)
Robert Aske, by will of the 18th January 1688, gave to the Haberdashers' Company 20,000l. to be laid out in the purchase of land within one mile of London, to build an almshouse for 20 poor single men free of the Company, and to buy so much land as thereout might be paid to each poor man 20l. per annum; and the remainder of the money which should not be disbursed at the finishing of the houses and the purchase of the said land, was to be laid out in land for the maintenance of so many poor boys as the remainder of the said money would produce at 20l. each for meat, drink, clothing, and schooling. And the testator gave the residue of his estate to the Company for the maintenance of the said charity.
And by a codicil of the 20th January 1688, the testator appointed the master wardens and assistants of the Company to be governors of the said hospital, and directed that the 20 poor boys should be freemen's sons of the Company, and if it happened thereafter that any of the revenues should fall short the same should be deducted out of the income for the poor boys.
By an Act of Parliament passed the 20th December 1690, the master and wardens of the Company were made a corporate body by the style of "Governors of the possessions and revenues of the hospital at Hoxton, of the foundation of Robert Aske."
By the evidence taken before the Commissioners of Inquiry (Vol. 2, p. 127, and Appendix, p. 286), it was represented that the governors under the will and under certain ancillary bequests, became possessed of the sum of 31,905l. 1s., of which nearly 4,000l. was absorbed by legacies, debts, and charges, and that out of the residue there was laid out—
|In the erection and furnishing of the hospital||11,787||6||7|
|In the purchase of land at Hoxton, in the parish of St. Leonard, Shoreditch||2,000||0||0|
|In the purchase of the Kent estates||13,211||6||0|
With reference to the hospital and the estates, and their present condition, it may be stated, broadly, that the hospital including the chapel, school, officers' residences, and almshouses have been rebuilt, since the report of the Commissioners of Inquiry, at an expense which would seem not to fall greatly short of 18,000l. that the Hoxton estate has been entirely let on building leases (except the portion occupied by the hospital), and that the property is now covered with upwards of 500 houses, the leases of many of which are about to expire, and all of which will have fallen into hand in little more than 20 years from this time, that the Kentish estates consist of somewhat less than 2,000 acres of which nearly one-fourth is leasehold of the Dean and Chapter of Canterbury, and the lease will expire in about 13 years, the Chapter having declined to accept a fine for renewal as heretofore, and the governors of the charity having resolved not to adopt the alternative of enfranchisement, but to let the lease run out.
The total acreage of the Kent estate, according to the latest leases and reports is, freehold land, including the woods, 1,542a. 0r. 11p., and of the leasehold, including the woods, 441a. 0r. 12p., making together 1,983a. 0r. 23p. The property includes the manor of King's North, but there are no manorial rights or receipts.
Taking, therefore, the gross produce of the Kent estate to be 2,149l., and outgoings specially chargeable on that estate to be 535l. the net income of the Kentish property under the management of the Company would be 1,614l.
The Hoxton estate is described in the report of the Commissioners of Inquiry, Appendix (p. 287), as about 21 acres of land. It is situated within the parish of St. Leonard's, Shoreditch, and it is now entirely covered with buildings. The property is bounded on the north by Bevenden Street, and Aske Terrace, and Pimlico Walk; on the west by a road called East Road, which leads to the City Road; on the south by property behind or lying south of Park Street, belonging to, by a section of Great Chart Street and property abutting at the back of Great Chart Street and the (closed) burial ground of the Company, thence eastward by a line drawn towards the north along Pittfield Street and Haberdashers' Walk, and again on the south by property behind and abutting at the back of Ashford Street, and thence again eastward by Fontain's Soap Manufactory, and again southward by property abutting at the back of East Street, and again eastward to a line drawn irregularly from a point about 20 ft. from High Street, Hoxton, to a place called Pound's Buildings, and thence joining the northern boundary in Pimlico Walk near the Britannia Theatre.
The chapel, schoolhouse, and houses for the chaplain, schoolmaster, and matron, with the open ground in the front and the rear occupying a space of about 230ft. frontage in Haberdashers' Walk, and about 283ft. in depth. The present buildings do not stand exactly on the site of the former buildings. The almshouse and other buildings originally formed one long line covering a space which now forms the east end of Buttesland Street, and a part of the north-east corner of the buildings from that Street. The old buildings were pulled down in 1822, and the new buildings were completed in 1827. The old materials were sold for 3,185l.
The entire cost of the new buildings including sewers, extra walls, architect, etc., is stated to have been 15,699l. —thus considerably exceeding the estimate. The expense was met by a sale of the accumulated consols then belonging to the charity which had increased to—
|making||7,188||3 per cent. consols.|
The governors borrowed of the Company at various times sums of stock, on account of the charity, making together 12,669l. 15s. 5d. 3 per cent. consols, which is stated to have produced 10,482l. 6s. 3d. cash, and adding that sum to the 6,454l. 14s. 6d. cash, and the fund arising from the sale of the materials, the total expenditure would seem to be about 20,000l., the accuracy of which at this distance of time it is not easy to test.
It must be stated that the governors undertook the rebuilding and laying out of the land and charging the charity estate, upon their own authority, without any application to the Court of Chancery or other sanction.
|North Wing (Stanbridge)||1|
|Aske's Terrace (South Side)||19|
|Haberdashers Place (West)||12|
|East Street (No. 2, Rack-rent)||15|
|Aske Street (44 houses, 17 expire in 1883)||26|
|Haberdashers Place (East)||15|
|Great Chart Street||76|
This is somewhat more than the reserved rental, owing to the Company having entered upon one of the tenements, in default of performance of the covenants by the lessee, and the same is now let at the rack-rent.
The outgoings on the Hoxton estate are scarcely separable from the general expenses of the hospital, except perhaps the salary of Mr. W. Snooke, the surveyor, whose business is to superintend the Hoxton estate, 50l.
As the times of the expiration of the leases approach, the surveyor makes a special survey of the premises with a view to dilapidation. A survey of the property now about to be re-let was made in 1849 when a charge of 21l. was allowed.
|Kent estate (as above stated)||1,614|
|Hoxton estate (as above stated)||1,400|
But this is subject to an incumbrance in respect of the stock borrowed from the Company by the governors for the rebuilding the hospital. Of this there was repaid at different times previously to 1844, 2,753l. 3s. 3d., 3 per cent. stock, leaving in that year 9,916l. 12s. 2d., 3 per cent. stock, due to the Company.
The interest payable upon this remaining debt is, therefore, 262l. a year, or thereabouts, which being deducted from the clear income of 3,014l., leaves 2,752l. applicable to the purposes of the endowment.
This sum which would appear to be the clear income of the charity, after full allowance for every charge on the property is, however, subject to further deduction before it becomes applicable to charitable purposes, in respect of what are called the general expenses.
|Mr. Curtis (clerk)||105|
|Mr. Fisk, accountant||55|
|Mr. Hooper, beadle||30|
An average of the total income of the estate for 14 years, from 1848 to 1861 inclusive, is stated to be 3,512l., and the total expenditure on all accounts, including interest for the same period was 3,427l.
A detailed account of the present disbursements on the existing charitable establishments will afford a more accurate representation of the proportion of the general income actually applied to charitable purposes.
Up to 1853, the chaplain the Rev. John L. Turner, received 800l. a year for the board and education of 20 boys, with an additional allowance of 54l. 5s. 6d. for nurses, &c. In the year 1852, Mr. Turner was not re-elected, and the Company gave him a retiring pension 50l. a year, an application was made to the Commissioners for their sanction, but no decision was come to, and the Company has still continued to pay the pension.
|Insurance (on 12,000)||38||6||9|
|Rates and taxes (1861)||85||3||8|
|Repairs and painting, average of 8 years ending 1861||180||15||0|
The future variations in this surplus, supposing the establishments to continue as they are, will be principally caused, first, by the increase of the Middlesex rental, by the proximate falling in of the leases, and secondly, by the diminution of the Kentish rental, about 13 years hence by the termination of the Chapter leases; to which may be added the payment of the mortgage debt by the application of the existing surplus.
The hospital consists of 20 houses, each containing a sitting-room and wash-house on the ground floor, and a bed-room over, all of which have a separate outer-door; covered portico extending the length of the building on each side. The almsmen are limited to single men or widowers, and above 50 years of age, freemen of the Company. At the present time, only 13 houses are occupied, a sufficient number of qualified applicants not being found. The chapel forms the centre building at the bottom of the quadrangle, and the chaplain's house and the schoolmaster's are on each side of the chapel. The matron's house is between the chaplain's and the school, and over the committee room. The schoolroom consists of a single room, under the boys' dormitory, having access from the master's house, one part of the lower floor of which latter house forms the boys' dining-room.
The boys are appointed by the court of assistants as a body. The applications are referred to the Charities Committee, who return to the court three names for one vacancy, four names to two vacancies, and so on, selecting always two names beyond the number of vacancies. I do not find any rule adopted as a principle of selection, but generally speaking, preference is given to liverymen's sons over those of freemen. The court are generally, but not universally, bound themselves by the decision of the Committee having before it the number of votes for each candidate. The Committee of Charities consists of master and wardens (5), and about 12 more. They are elected by the court of assistants for two years, half going out every year, but the election generally proceeds by rotation. The boys are admitted between 8 and 10, and they leave the school at the age of 15. No record is taken of the subsequent career of the boys, but I am informed that the present master and two members of the court were brought up in the school.
Joseph King, by will of the 20th May 1717, gave to the hospital 500l. as an encouragement to taking boys into the hospital. It is probable that this sum forms part of the stock mentioned in the Report of the Commissioners of Inquiry (see p. 225), and before referred to.
Peter Pope, by will of the 28th of November 1807, gave to the hospital 500l. consols, for the use of that institution. This formed part, it is assumed, of the stock of the Company, sold out under the circumstances before stated. (fn. 5)
John Banks, by will of the 21st March 1716, gave to the Company his leasehold estate in St. James's, West minster, to pay thereout 220l. a year, as he should by deed appoint; and further, out of the residue, to discharge a mortgage debt of 10,000l., and to make some other payments.
It appears by the recitals in an Order of the Master of the Rolls of the 6th May 1824, made on the petition of the Haberdashers' Company in a cause of Elizabeth Mitchell and others against Sarah Holloway and others, that for several years prior to the determination of the lease, which expired on the 26th February 1822, the trustees, in pur suance of John Bank's directions, applied for a further grant of the said trust estates, but the terms proposed by His Majesty's Commissioners for a further grant of the said premises were, in the opinion of the trustees and surveyors with whom they advised, so high, both with respect to the fine and rent required, that the trustees did not feel themselves justified in acceding to them, conceiving that it would have been prejudicial to the interests of the said charities to have accepted such terms; and His Majesty's Commissioners having refused the terms proposed by the trustees, the said trust estate was delivered up to them on the 26th February 1822, when all the rents of the said leasehold estate ceased, and a sum of 1,152l. 10s. was on the 9th May 1822 paid by the said clerk to the said Commissioners of the balance then remaining in his hands, and was accepted in full satisfaction of all claims and demands on the trustees in respect of dilapidations or otherwise. That the trustees, on examining and auditing the account of receipts and payments by their said clerk up to Midsummer 1823, found a balance of 564l. 4s. 11d. in his hands, which it was necessary for him to retain for the purpose of making the annual payments directed by the said John Banks up to Midsummer 1820. That there was then standing in the name of the Accountant-General, in trust in the cause at the bank, the sum of 58,580l. 12s. 10d. consols, which had arisen from the investment of the said receiver's and clerk's balances and of the dividends of stock purchased therewith. That great part of the dividends which would in future become due on the same stock would be applicable to the payment of the several annuities and charges directed to be paid by the said John Banks, inasmuch as there was no other source from which the same could be defrayed, except the rents of two freehold houses in St. John Street, Middlesex, the annual rents whereof do not exceed 45l. 13s. 6d.
And by the said ordre it was ordered that the dividends which should become due and payable the 58,580l. 12s. 10d. consols, standing in the name of the Accountant-General in trust in the ause, be from time to time paid to Thomas George Knapp, clerk and receiver, or to any future clerk and receiver to be approved by the said Company, the Company undertaking thereout to pay the various charities and annuities directed by the will and deed of appointment of the said John Banks, and the order of the court of the 22nd May 1792 from time to time as the same should become due, and for the purposes aforesaid the said Accountant-General was to draw on the bank, &c., &c. And it was ordered that the petitioners should be at liberty to retain the surplus of such dividends for the use of the said Company as directed by the said will and deed of appointment of the said John Banks.
The testator, by his will, gave certain annuities of 10l. and 20l. per annum to his sisters and nephews and nieces, named in his will, amounting in the whole to 130l. a year, and to their respective children, and if any failure of issue in one branch the annuity to be added to the other branch, and the issue of the other families at the discretion of his trustees, or the major part of them, and upon the discharge of the debt and interest and charges on his estate in Westminster, the said annuity should be doubled and made 260l. a year.
The Commissioners of Inquiry (Vol. 10, p. 229) reported that 157l. 10s. per annum of these annuities had been purchased by the Company. I have not entered into the question of this purchase, but it would appear that there were difficulties in the way. If the estate was construed as a charity, no person would take more than a life interest, and it would, perhaps, be difficult to construe it as an estate tail. As a gift in perpetuity it would be void. The general gift over being to the use of the Company, the matter is probably not important, as in that case the Company would be alone benefited by the failure of the preceding objects.
Sir George Barnes' Charity.
Sir George Barnes, by his will of the 15th February 1557, gave to the Company his interest in the lease of a windmill in Finsbury for the poor of the Company in the almshouses in Staining Lane. The property devised by this will seems by the Report of the Commissioners of Inquiry (Vol. 10, p. 190), to have been alienated so far back as 1678. It was sold for a sum of 100l. and the Company in respect of this sum pay annually 4l. to four poor freemen of the Company. The Company hold more than sufficient stock in their corporate name to pay this and the other charges on their funds in respect of interest.
In July at the quarterly court of the Company the following charities, including this of Sir George Barnes, are distributed:—Raynton's, White, French, Barnes, Thos. Barnes, Aldersey, Monox, Gourney, Trotman, Bowcher, Johnson, Hall, and Cleave. Four persons received 1l. each on account of Barnes' Gift, in 1861. Occasionally the gift is larger, but the rule is that no person receive more than 2l. 6s. at any quarterly distribution.
|To four poor old freemen||32|
|To four poor old freemen's widows||10|
|To 12 poor old men or widows||12|
The Company pay pensions to four freemen f the Company of 8l. a year each, and 2l. 10s. each to four poor freemen's widows. The sum of 1l. is also given to each of 12 poor freemen or freemen's widows at the July distribution (see Sir George Barnes' Charity).
Martha Barrett, by her will dated between 1580 and 1590, gave to the Company 200l., to be lent to four young men for four years, two of them to pay 3l. 6s. 8d. for the poor of Isleworth and Totteridge, and the other two to pay 5l. for a scholar at Magdalen College, Cambridge.
Of the capital fund there is no present trace; but the Company charge themselves with 3l. 6s. 8d. a year, nominally attributing 111l. 2s. 3d., 3l. per cent. consols, part of the stock belonging to them, as representing the capital of one sum of 100l. Two sums of 1l. 13s. 4d. yearly are paid, one to the churchwardens of Isleworth, and the other to the churchwardens of Totteridge. The exhibition to Magdalen College has not been paid for a century and a half.
Ralph Benskyn, by will of the 14th September 1603 gave 50l. to the Company to be lent to a young man paying yearly 20s. to St. Martin Orgar parish. The 20l. which formed the whole sum received by the Company in respect of this legacy, is stated to have been lent out and lost in 1662; but the Company pay 8s. to the churchwardens of the parish of St. Martin Orgar, and attribute of their 3l. per cent. consols a sum of 13l. 6s. 8d. stock as the capital.
Peter Blundell, by will of the 9th June 1599, gave to the Company 150l. to purchase lands, and thereout pay 40s. for poor prisoners in Newgate. The fund was invested in the purchase of a house, now No. 8, Poultry, which is let to Robert Burchall for 21 years from Christmas 1851 at the rent of 110l. The Company pay 2l. a year to Mr. Temple, at the Guildhall, for the prisoners. The residue is given to the Company.
Boddington and Boulter's Charity.
Edmund Boulter, in 1702, gave 100l., to be laid out with the said 400l. The Company laid out, it appears, a sum of 480l. 3s. 6d. of these bequests in the purchase of the ground rent of 20l. a year, upon the reversion of an estate now Nos. 92, 93, 94, 95, and 96, Bishopsgate Street, and four houses in Montague Court (which is entered by a passage between Nos. 94 and 95), three of which, Nos. 9, 10, and 11, are at the east end, and one at the north side of the court. The ground rent is payable during the continuance of a lease which was for 200 years, and expires in 1897.
The Company have since 1831 ceased to allow the land tax on the rent, and have received the clear sum of 20l., which after allowing 2l. 2s. as a salary to the surveyor is distributed in April, yearly, in sums of 17s. 6d. each to 20 poor of the Company, men and women. The April gifts include these and Adams', Carpenter's, and Offley's Charities. The surveyor in his report on this estate made in June 1862, states, "that the boundary marks in Bishopsgate Street are so placed as to define the extent of the property in the simplest manner possible." In the Report of 1861 the surveyor says, "that No. 95 requires some internal painting in consequence of the re-erection of the house in the rear, and the tenement on the left-hand side of Montague Court, and Nos. 10 and 11 in the south-east corner, require repair and painting. Marks were ordered to be placed on the back walls of Nos. 92, 93, and 94, Bishopsgate Street."
William Bond, by will of the 3rd August 1671, gave to the Company a rentcharge of 50l. a year, payable out of messuages in Allhallows, Bread Street, viz., 24l. to six poor single aged freemen, and 26l. for the relief of the poor of the Company in general.
An ex officio information was filed by the AttorneyGeneral against the Company to obtain a declaration that the surplus rents of a house in Bread Street in possession of the Company might be declared to belong to William Bond's Charity; it appearing, as stated in the Reports of the Commissioners of Inquiry (Vol. 10, p. 223), that the Company had assumed possession of the premises in virtue of their title to the rentcharge. The Court declared that the surplus rents belonged to the Charity and the amount was settled by the master, and a sum of 2,185l. 19s. 9d., 3l. per cent. consols, was transferred by the Company to the credit of the cause, Attorney-General v. Haberdashers' Company, where the same now remains, the dividends being payable to the clerk of the Company for the time being under the order of the Court of 29th July 1829.
|House, No. 52, Bread Street, let to Peter Poland for 21 years from Midsummer 1851, at||200||0||0|
|Dividends on 2,185l. 19s. 9d., 3l. per cent. consols, in Court||65||11||8|
That instead of the six poor single aged men free of the said Company receiving the 4l. yearly apiece, as directed by William Bond, they should yearly receive 10l. apiece, at such times and by such proportions as the master, wardens, and assistants should think fit, and that the residue of the dividends of the said bank annuities, and the rents and profits of the said estate after payment for the insurance of the premises from fire, the surveyor's annual charge, and any other incidental expenses regarding the management of the Charity or Charity property, should be yearly laid out in purchasing good warm woollen coats and cloaks and other articles of wearing apparel or bedding, or fuel to be distributed by the said master, wardens, and assistants among the poor in general of the said Company, at such times and by such proportions as to the said Company should seem expedient. But, nevertheless, the said master, wardens, and assistants were to be at liberty in cases of emergency, and where it should appear that a small pecuniary assistance would be usefully bestowed by any written order or orders to make donations in money at their discretion, such donation not at any one time to exceed 20s.
That in the distribution of the charities thereby directed preference should in all cases be given to the most deserving of such persons as had never received parochial relief, or had been the longest without having received such relief, and in no case was any part of the said Charity to be given to any that at the time should be in the receipt of parochial relief or who should have been in such receipt, and should for the purpose of enabling themselves to receive the benefit of the said charities colourably or for a short time only have ceased to receive such parochial relief.
That distinct accounts should be kept of the receipt and expenditure on account of the said Charity, and such accounts should be audited once a year, and when so audited signed by the master and wardens.
That the estate and premises belonging to the said Charity should be duly and properly managed, and let to the best advantage at an annual rent under the superintendence of the said Company and their officers.
|The annual charge of the surveyor is||2||2||0|
|Charges of management (calculated at 5l. per cent.) on the income (1861)||13||5||10|
The Company have always confined the distribution of the clothing to eight poor freemen and eight poor freemen's widows, although their discretion as to the increase of this distribution was unlimited, whilst they have disposed of the whole of the residue in gifts of 20s. each to the poor of the Company although their power as to this distribution in money appears to be intended by the Court to be restricted. In the clothing gifts every man has a complete suit of blue cloth, with underclothing and shoes. Each woman has also a complete outfit of clothing. The sum allowed for the men's clothing is about 5l., and about 3l. for the women. The men's clothing is obtained from the tradesmen of the Company, and the materials of the women's clothing are purchased and given to them with 25s. for making it up.
After paying the pensions and the expenses of the clothing, the balance has of late years considerably exceeded 100l. a year. The whole of this, except a small balance kept in hand (in 1861 a balance of 21l. 13s. 3d.) is given away in sums of 1l. each to poor freemen or widows of freemen of the Company, the numbers of the recipients ranging from 110 and upwards. This distribution is made at the December court with Buckland's and Paradine's Gifts. In 1855 the number of recipients were increased from 90 to 110. In 1857, in addition to the 110, a further number of 110 gifts of 1l. was made, to dispose of the balance. In 1859 the extra distribution beyond the 110 was 55. In 1860 the extra distribution was 10, and in 1861, 25 additional gifts were made. (fn. 6)
A loan charity created by the gift of 100l. by Thomas Bowcher. This capital is in the same situation as Gournay's, and the other loan fund to be lent at interest. Notwithstanding the scheme, no sums are lent at interest, and 66l. 13s. 4d., 3 per cent. stock, is nominally appropriated to meet the 40s. a year. That sum is given to the poor of the Company in two sums of 20s. each, at the July distribution.
And he directed that the wardens should deduct 20l. a year out of the rents to be lent out to young men of the Company. The premises conveyed by this deed were burnt at the Great Fire, and the Company having, it is stated, no funds to rebuild, surrendered the site to the Clothworkers' Company (the lessors of the premises) for 150l., for which sum they charge themselves with interest at 3l. 6s. 8d. per cent., making 5l. annually, appropriating 166l. 13s. 4d. consols, which dividend is equally divided between the two parishes of St. Margaret, Lothbury and St. Bartholomew, Royal Exchange, and paid on the receipt of the respective churchwardens.
|To four poor householders of the Company||4|
|To the poor of St. Michael le Quern||1|
|To the poor of Shepperton||1|
The Company appropriate 200l., 3 per cent. consols, as representing the fund produced by the sale of these messuages not long after the Great Fire. The sum of 6l. a year is disposed of—as to 4l.—in sums of 20s. each to four poor freemen of the Company, at the December distribution, and 1l. to each of the parishes of St. Michael le Quern (on the receipt of the churchwardens) and the parish of Shepperton on the receipt of the rector.
Lady Burghley's Charity.
Lady Mildred Burghley on the 11th September 1583, gave to the Company 200l., in consideration of which they granted to the dean of St. Paul's and the dean of Westminster 10l. a year, to be distributed as follows:—
|To four sermons, yearly, at Cheshunt, each 13s. 4d.||2||13||4|
|For 20 poor householders or widows||4||6||8|
|To setting the poor at work||3||0||0|
The Company charge themselves only with the sum of 10l. a year, under the circumstances mentioned in the Report of the Commissioners of Inquiry (Vol. 10, p. 192), and in respect of which they nominally appropriate 333l. 6s. 8d., 3 per cents.
The sum of 100l. for loans to poor tradesmen of Romford, without interest, is still occasionally lent on these terms. It appears by memorandum in the books of the Company, and the letter of the vestry clerk of Romford of the 27th December 1831, that a sum of 20l., lent to Wm. Sarell on the 24th February 1825, was lost by the failure of the principal and the sureties. The vestry clerk of Romford prepares the bonds, which are sometimes deposited with the Company. There is at present one bond of 20l. in the strong box of the Company, and the remaining sum is supposed not to be lent, but to be in the hands of the vestry clerk.
|To St. Martin, Ludgate, for bread||2||12|
|To the parish of Rollestone, Staffordshire||7||0|
|For gowns, &c. for six poor men of the Company||6||6|
This Charity appears to have been one which suffered at the Great Fire. The ground on which it stood was sold to the City for widening Ludgate Hill, in 1667, for a sum of 92l. 10s. In respect of this the Company appropriate 99l. 8s. 11d., 3 per cent. consols, sufficient to produce 2l. 19s. 8d. a year, of which the Company pay 16s. 4d. a year to the parish of St. Martin, Ludgate, and 2l. 3s. 4d. a year to the parish of Rollestone, Staffordshire.
The Company appropriate 400l., 3 per cents. consols, as representing this Gift. The dividends on that sum amounting to 12l. a year, are distributed to 20 poor freemen of the Company at the April court in sums of 12s. each.
Frances Clarke's Charity.
Mrs. Frances Clarke, by indenture of the 20th January 1608, gave 200l. to the Company, they covenanting to pay yearly to two poor scholars 5l. each. The Company doubled the amount of these exhibitions under the circumstances mentioned in the report of the Commissioners of Inquiry (Vol. 10, p. 198), and they appropriate nominally a sum of 666l. 13s. 4d., 3 per cent. consols, as the capital fund. The dividends or interest of 20l. a year are paid to two exhibitioners, one at Christ Church, Oxford, and one at any college at Cambridge. The present exhibitioners are George Plumtree Howse, of Pembroke College, and Sidney Richard Maynard Walker, of Christ Church, Oxford.
Thomas Cleave, by his will (date unknown), gave to the Company 54l., on consideration to pay 10 poor widows 40s. a year. The Company appropriate nominally 66l. 13s. 4d., 3 per cent. consols, as the capital of this Gift, and they distribute 2l. a year, in sums of 20s. each, to two widows of freemen, as part of their July distribution, amongst the poor of the Company.
Wm. Cleaves's Charity.
And by a codicil of the 16th April, 1667, he gave to the Company 300l.,—200l. for the relief of the poor of the Company, and 100l. towards rebuilding the Company's hall The premises devised by this testator are:—
|The salary of clerk||5||0||0|
|" " surveyor||1||16||0|
There is at present a balance of cash to the credit of this Charity amounting to 83l. 2s. 7d. (fn. 7)
Nicholas Culverwell, by will of the 22nd October 1569, gave 300l. to the Company, whereof 100l. to be lent to five of the poorest young men of the Company, and for the remaining 200l. the Company to pay 10l. a year to two of the poorest preachers, one at Christ's College, Cambridge, and one at Magdalen College, Oxford.
The Company appropriate 333l. 6s. 8d., 3 per cent. consols, the interest or dividends on which, amounting to 10l. a year, is paid to two preachers at the universities, nominated by the Bishop of London. The present preachers are the Rev. W. D. Macray, at Magdalen College, Oxford, and the Rev. I. P. Sandberg, of Christ's College, Cambridge.
Mrs. Elizabeth Freeman's Charity.
The Company appropriate 166l. 13s. 4d., 3 per cent. consols as representing this gift, and they pay the dividends or interest, amounting to 5l. a year, to Sir Henry Lushington, the present lord of the manor of Aspeden, to whom the selection of the objects is entrusted.
The Company having received 40l. in respect of this bequest, appropriate 83l. 6s. 8d., 3 per cent. consols as nominally the capital fund, and pay 25s. each to two of the poor of the Company at the July distribution.
|To the clerk and beadle of the Company||2||0|
|To six poor housekeepers of the parish||4||0|
|To six poor haberdashers||4||0|
|And for an obit||16||8|
Under a Covenant of the 1st September 1589 this gift was settled at an annual sum of 20s., to be paid to the parson and churchwardens, which the latter were to distribute in certain portions amongst the poor of that parish, and the parson and churchwardens, the poor householders of the Company, and the clerk and beadle; but the practice at the last inquiry was, and still is, to pay the 20s. a year to the churchwardens, leaving the entire distribution to them; nothing is paid to the clerk or beadle of the Company, nor is there any evening service in the church at which the recipients could attend.
Garrett or Gerrard's Charity.
The will of Henry Garrett, alias Gerrard, purported to devise to the Company, a house in Holborn, but it is stated that the devise was declared void, but that the Company purchased and again sold the house, reserving a quitrent of 1l. 1s. 8d. It is still paid to the Company as charged on two houses lately occupied by—Tregham, a confectioner, on the north side of Holborn, west of Hatton Garden. The Company pay 15s. a year to the Churchwardens of St. Sepulchre, and 6s. 8d. a year to the Churchwardens of St. James Clerkenwell.
|To the poor of the Company||5||0||0|
|To Christ's Hospital||5||0||0|
|To a poor scholar studying Divinity at Oxford or Cambridge||5||0||0|
There is no fund lent by the Company at interest, and therefore, notwithstanding the scheme, the sum is not appropriated as a loan charity. The Company charge themselves with a nominal sum of 500l., 3 per cent. consols to produce 15l. a year, out of which they pay to an exhibitioner at the University 5l. (the present exhibitioner is Mr. N. G. Wilkins, of St. John's College, Cambridge); a further sum of 5l. to Christ's Hospital, and the remaining 5l. to the poor of the Company, in sums of 20s. each at the July distribution.
Catharine Hall's Charity.
A loan charity, founded by the gift of 50l. by Catharine Hall, for which she directed that the young man of the Company receiving it should distribute a load of coals yearly to the poor. Like the other funds for which interest was to be paid (see Bowcher's, Gournay's, &c.), it is not lent, and the Company appropriate 66l. 13s. 4d., 3 per cent. consols to meet an annual charge of 40s. settled as equivalent to a load of coals, which is given to two poor persons of the Company at the January court.